Chapter 22 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe

2 22.1 The Big Bang Theory What were conditions like in the early universe? How did the early universe change with time?

3 What is the difference between an electron and an anti-electron? a) its charge b) its mass c) its spin d) A and B e) A and C

4 What is the difference between an electron and an anti-electron? a) its charge b) its mass c) its spin d) A and B e) A and C

5 How many photons are created when a particle and its anti-particle annihilate each other? a) 1 b) 2 c) more than 2 d) It can be any number, depending on the energy of the photons and of the particles.

6 How many photons are created when a particle and its anti-particle annihilate each other? a) 1 b) 2 c) more than 2 d) It can be any number, depending on the energy of the photons and of the particles.

7 What is a grand unified theory (GUT)? a) a theory that combines quantum mechanics with electrodynamics b) a theory that combines gravity with electrodynamics c) a theory that combines all four forces of nature d) a theory that combines the electroweak and strong forces

8 What is a grand unified theory (GUT)? a) a theory that combines quantum mechanics with electrodynamics b) a theory that combines gravity with electrodynamics c) a theory that combines all four forces of nature d) a theory that combines the electroweak and strong forces

9 During what time period do scientists suspect that all four forces of nature were unified? a) within the first 10-billionth of a second b) within the first millionth of a second c) within the first second d) within the first 10 hours e) within the first 10 years

10 During what time period do scientists suspect that all four forces of nature were unified? a) within the first 10-billionth of a second b) within the first millionth of a second c) within the first second d) within the first 10 hours e) within the first 10 years

11 What marked the end of the Planck era? a) when most of the energy of the universe was in particles rather than photons b) when gravity separated from the GUT force c) when the strong and weak nuclear forces separated d) when the electromagnetic and weak forces separated

12 What marked the end of the Planck era? a) when most of the energy of the universe was in particles rather than photons b) when gravity separated from the GUT force c) when the strong and weak nuclear forces separated d) when the electromagnetic and weak forces separated

13 What marked the end of the particle era? a) when most of the energy of the universe was in particles rather than photons b) when the electromagnetic and weak forces separated c) We are still in the particle era. d) when spontaneous particle production (formation of particles from photons) ceased e) when fusion of protons and neutrons ceased

14 What marked the end of the particle era? a) when most of the energy of the universe was in particles rather than photons b) when the electromagnetic and weak forces separated c) We are still in the particle era. d) when spontaneous particle production (formation of particles from photons) ceased e) when fusion of protons and neutrons ceased

15 22.2 Evidence for the Big Bang How do observations of the cosmic microwave background support the Big Bang theory? How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang theory?

16 At what time did the universe become transparent and allow photons to stream freely across it? a) at the end of the Planck era (10-43 seconds) b) at the end of the electroweak era (10-10 seconds) c) at the end of the era of nucleosynthesis (5 minutes) d) at the end of the era of nuclei (380,000 years) e) at the beginning of the era of galaxies (1 billion years)

17 At what time did the universe become transparent and allow photons to stream freely across it? a) at the end of the Planck era (10-43 seconds) b) at the end of the electroweak era (10-10 seconds) c) at the end of the era of nucleosynthesis (5 minutes) d) at the end of the era of nuclei (380,000 years) e) at the beginning of the era of galaxies (1 billion years)

18 What was the temperature of the universe at the time of the creation of the cosmic microwave background? a) 3 K b) 100 K c) 3000 K d) 100,000 K e) 3 million K

19 What was the temperature of the universe at the time of the creation of the cosmic microwave background? a) 3 K b) 100 K c) 3000 K d) 100,000 K e) 3 million K

20 How much larger is the universe today than at the time of the creation of the cosmic microwave background radiation? a) 100 times b) 1000 times c) 100,000 times d) 5 million times e) 5 billion times

21 How much larger is the universe today than at the time of the creation of the cosmic microwave background radiation? a) 100 times b) 1000 times c) 100,000 times d) 5 million times e) 5 billion times

22 Which of the following is not observational evidence in support of the Big Bang theory? a) the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the universe b) the temperature of the cosmic microwave background c) the uniformity, with small fluctuations, of the cosmic microwave background d) the abundance of lithium in the universe e) the density of the universe relative to the critical density

23 Which of the following is not observational evidence in support of the Big Bang theory? a) the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the universe b) the temperature of the cosmic microwave background c) the uniformity, with small fluctuations, of the cosmic microwave background d) the abundance of lithium in the universe e) the density of the universe relative to the critical density

24 How do we know that the density of ordinary matter in the universe is 4% of the critical density? a) from the relative abundance of deuterium nuclei to regular hydrogen nuclei b) from observations of the gravitational redshift of distant white dwarf supernovae c) from the 3 to 1 ratio of hydrogen to helium in the universe d) from the abundance of lithium in the universe e) from observations of galactic light curves showing dark matter

25 How do we know that the density of ordinary matter in the universe is 4% of the critical density? a) from the relative abundance of deuterium nuclei to regular hydrogen nuclei b) from observations of the gravitational redshift of distant white dwarf supernovae c) from the 3 to 1 ratio of hydrogen to helium in the universe d) from the abundance of lithium in the universe e) from observations of galactic light curves showing dark matter

26 22.3 The Big Bang and Inflation What key features of the universe are explained by inflation? Did inflation really occur?

27 How large was the variation in the density of the universe from place to place at the end of the era of nuclei (380,000 years old)? a) 0.01% b) 1% c) 10% d) 30%

28 How large was the variation in the density of the universe from place to place at the end of the era of nuclei (380,000 years old)? a) 0.01% b) 1% c) 10% d) 30%

29 Which of the following is not an aspect of the universe explained by inflation? a) the origin of structure b) the near perfect uniformity of temperature and density c) the density of the universe nearly equaling the critical density d) the relative abundance of hydrogen and helium

30 Which of the following is not an aspect of the universe explained by inflation? a) the origin of structure b) the near perfect uniformity of temperature and density c) the density of the universe nearly equaling the critical density d) the relative abundance of hydrogen and helium

31 How does inflation explain the early density enhancements in the universe that led to the formation of galaxies? a) Inflation stretched space so rapidly that it created regions of lower density as some matter and energy were left behind. b) Inflation amplified quantum fluctuations in density into large-scale density enhancements. c) Inflation produced pressure waves in space that compressed energy into regions of higher and lower density. d) Inflation was so fast that it was not possible for neighboring regions to equalize their temperatures, leading to energy density enhancements.

32 How does inflation explain the early density enhancements in the universe that led to the formation of galaxies? a) Inflation stretched space so rapidly that it created regions of lower density as some matter and energy were left behind. b) Inflation amplified quantum fluctuations in density into large-scale density enhancements. c) Inflation produced pressure waves in space that compressed energy into regions of higher and lower density. d) Inflation was so fast that it was not possible for neighboring regions to equalize their temperatures, leading to energy density enhancements.

33 When dark matter and dark energy are included, the geometrical shape of the universe appears to be a) flat b) spherical c) saddle-shaped d) parabolic e) conic

34 When dark matter and dark energy are included, the geometrical shape of the universe appears to be a) flat b) spherical c) saddle-shaped d) parabolic e) conic

35 Over what angular scale in the universe are there the greatest differences in temperature in the cosmic microwave background? a) 0.01 b) 1 c) 5 d) 15 e) 35

36 Over what angular scale in the universe are there the greatest differences in temperature in the cosmic microwave background? a) 0.01 b) 1 c) 5 d) 15 e) 35

37 Which of the following types of mass or energy is predicted to be most abundant by inflation and the Big Bang theory? a) ordinary (baryonic) matter b) extraordinary (non-baryonic) matter c) dark energy d) radiant energy (light)

38 Which of the following types of mass or energy is predicted to be most abundant by inflation and the Big Bang theory? a) ordinary (baryonic) matter b) extraordinary (non-baryonic) matter c) dark energy d) radiant energy (light)

39 22.4 Observing the Big Bang for Yourself Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang?

40 What is the resolution to Olbers' paradox, which states that the sky should be uniformly bright? a) The observable universe is finite in size. b) The universe is flat. c) Dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the universe. d) Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the universe. e) Inflation introduced inconsistencies in the distribution of matter.

41 What is the resolution to Olbers' paradox, which states that the sky should be uniformly bright? a) The observable universe is finite in size. b) The universe is flat. c) Dark energy is accelerating the expansion of the universe. d) Dark matter is the dominant form of matter in the universe. e) Inflation introduced inconsistencies in the distribution of matter.

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