# Preliminary chapter: Review of previous coursework. Objectives

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1 Preliminary chapter: Review of previous coursework Objectives By the end of this chapter the student should be able to recall, from Books 1 and 2 of New General Mathematics, the facts and methods that relate to the following themes: Number and numeration Basic operations Algebraic processes Mensuration and geometry Everyday statistics. Teaching and learning materials Teacher: Addition and multiplication wall charts; number square; metre rule, measuring tape, Students: Mathematics set To make the best use of Book 3 of New General Mathematics, readers should be familiar with the contents of Books 1 and 2. This chapter contains those themes and topics from Books 1 and 2 that are necessary to understand Book 3. Number and numeration For most purposes, we write numbers using the decimal place value system (Fig. P1). The symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are called digits. hundreds tens units decimal point tenths hundredths thousandths Fig. P1 We use the words thousand, million, billion, trillion for large numbers: 1 thousand million billion trillion Similarly we use thousandth, millionth and billionth, for decimal fractions: 1 thousandth millionth billionth When writing large and small numbers, group the digits in threes from the decimal point, for example: and is a whole number that divides exactly into another whole number, is a factor of is a multiple of 7. A prime number has only two factors, itself and 1. 1 is not a prime number. 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17 are prime numbers. They continue without end. The prime factors of a number are those factors which are prime. For example, 2 and 5 are the prime factors of can be written as a product of prime factors: either = 40 or, in index form, = 40. The numbers 18, 24 and 30 all have 3 as a factor. 3 is a common factor of the numbers. The highest common factor (HCF) is the largest of the common factors of a given set of numbers. For example, 2, 3 and 6 are the common factors of 18, 24 and 30; 6 is the HCF. The number 48 is a multiple of 4 and a multiple of is a common multiple of 4and 6. The lowest common multiple (LCM) is the smallest of the common multiples of a given set of numbers. For example, 12 is the LCM of 4 and 6. In a fraction, one number (the numerator) is divided by another number (the denominator). 2 Section 1: Additional material

2 The fraction 5 means 5 8 (Fig. P2) numerator dividing line denominator Fig. P2 Fractions are used to describe parts of quantities (Fig. P3). Fig. P3 The fractions 5 8, 10 16, and 15 represent the same 24 amount; they are equivalent fractions. 5_ is the 8 simplest form of 10 16, and Basic operations To add or subtract fractions, change them to equivalent fractions with a common denominator. For example: = = = = 8 16 = 1 2 To multiply fractions, multiply numerator by numerator and denominator by denominator. Then write your answer in the simplest form. For example: = 6 20 = 3 10 To divide by a fraction, multiply by the reciprocal of the fraction. For example: = = = = x% is short for x % means To change a fraction to an equivalent percentage, multiply the fraction by 100. For example, = = 30%. To change a fraction to a decimal, divide the numerator by the denominator. Then multiply the quotient by 100. For example: = 62.5 When adding or subtracting decimals, write the numbers in a column with the decimal points exactly under one another. For example, add 2.29, and 4.3, then subtract the result from To multiply decimals, first ignore the decimal points and multiply the numbers as if they were whole numbers. Then re-insert the decimal point so that the answer has as many digits after the point as there are in the question. For example: There are four digits after the decimal points in the question, so, replace the decimal point: To divide by decimals, change the division so that the divisor becomes a whole number. For example: = = = 80 Numbers may be positive or negative. Positive and negative numbers are called directed numbers. Directed numbers can be shown on a number line (Fig. P4). An integer is any positive or negative whole number as shown in Fig. P Fig. P4 The following examples show how to add, subtract, multiply and divide directed numbers. Section 1: Additional material 3

3 Addition (-8) + (-3) = -11 (-8) + (+3) = -5 Subtraction (-9) - (+4) = -13 (-9) - (-4) = -5 Multiplication (-2) (-7) = +14 (-2) (+7) = -14 Division (+6) (+3) = +2 (+6) (-3) = -2 (+8) + (-3) = +5 (+8) + (+3) = +11 (+9) - (+4) = +5 (+9) - (-4) = +13 (+2) (-7) = -14 (+2) (+7) = +14 (-6) (+3) = -2 (-6) (-3) = +2 An integer is any positive or negative whole number as shown in Fig. P4. The number is is in standard form. The first part of the product is a number between 1 and 10. The second part is a power of 10. When rounding off numbers, the digits 1, 2, 3, 4 are round down and the digits 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are round up. You must also pay attention to what you are being asked to round off to. For example: Round off 425 to the nearest is the significant figure, so round the tens column up: 430 Round off 425 to the nearest is the significant figure, so round the hundreds column down: 400 When rounding off decimals, the same rules apply. For example: Round off to 2 decimal places. 3 is the significant figure, so round the hundredths column down: 7.28 Round off to 1 decimal place. 8 is the significant figure, so round the tenths column up: 7.3 Round off to the nearest whole figure. 2 is the significant figure, so round down to the nearest unit: 7 The everyday system of numeration uses ten digits and is called a base ten, or denary, system. The base two, or binary, system of numeration uses only two digits, 0 and 1. To convert between bases ten and two, express the given numbers in powers of two: 43 ten = = = = two two = = = 22 ten Use the following identities when adding, subtracting and multiplying binary numbers: Addition: = = = = 10 Multiplication: 0 0 = = = = 1 Detailed coverage of number and numeration is given in NGM SB 1, Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 12, 23, 24; and NGM SB 2, Chapters 1, 2, 4, 5, 8, 9, 15. Review Test 1: Number and numeration, and Basic operations teacher. 1 Express each of the following as a product of factors. Hence find their square roots. a c b d Express the following in standard form. a c 5 b d Round off the following to i 1 s.f., ii 2 s.f., iii 3 s.f. a b c d Round off the following to i 1 d.p., ii 2 d.p., iii 3 d.p. a c b d Section 1: Additional material

4 5 Simplify the following. a (-6) (+3) b 22 (-2) c d (-15) 4(-3) 6 A college has 778 students. The average mass of a student is approximately 52 kg. Estimate, to 1 significant figure, the total mass in tonnes of all the students in the college. 7 Divide the following quantities in the given ratios. a N=1 500 in the ratio 1 : 2 b 400 mm in the ratio 4 : 1 c 44 oranges in the ratio 7 : 4 8 Find the discount price if: a 10% is given on a cost price of N=500 b 25% is given on a cost price of N= Use tables to find: a b c d Round off the following to the nearest i whole number, ii tenth, iii hundredth. a b Review Test 2: Number and numeration, and Basic operations work. If they do not understand why some of their answers are incorrect, they may ask a friend or teacher. 1 Express each of the following as a product of factors. Hence find their square roots. a c b d Express the following in standard form. a c 04 b d Round off the following to i 1 s.f., ii 2 s.f., iii 3 s.f. a c b d Round off the following to i 1 d.p., ii 2 d.p., iii 3 d.p. a c b d Simplify the following. a (-72) (-9) c 65-5 b d (-80) (-8) 6 A typist can type about 33 words per minute. Estimate, to 1 significant figure, how long it will take her to type a letter that is 682 words long. 7 Divide the following quantities in the given ratios. a N=300 in the ratio 5 : 1 b 90 ml in the ratio 2 : 3 c 60 eggs in the ratio 5 : 7 8 Find the discount price if: a 5% is given on a cost price of N=2 000 b 20% is given on a cost price of N= Use tables to find: a 572 b c 8005 d Round off the following to the nearest i whole number, ii tenth, iii hundredth. a b Algebraic processes 3y 2-2x + 7x is an example of an algebraic expression. The letters x and y stand for numbers. 3y 2, 2x and 7x are the terms of the expression. 3y 2 is short for 3 y y. 3 is the coefficient of y 2. Algebraic terms may be simplified by combining like terms. Thus 3y 2-2x + 7x = 3y 2 + 5x since 2x and 7x are like terms (i.e. both terms in x). 3(5x + 2) = 11x is an algebraic sentence containing an equals sign; it is an equation in x. x is the unknown of the equation. To solve an equation means to find the value of the unknown that makes the equation true. Use the balance method to solve equations. Section 1: Additional material 5

5 For example, 3(5x + 2) = 11x Clear brackets. 15x + 6 = 11x Subtract 11 from both sides. 15x - 11x + 6 = 11x - 11x Minus 6 from both sides. 4x = -6 Divide both sides by 4. 4x = -6 Simplify. x = = = In general, when solving equations, clear brackets and fractions, use equal additions and/ or subtractions to collect unknown terms on one side of the equals sign and known terms on the other, where necessary divide or multiply both sides of the equation by the same number to find the unknown. An inequality is an algebraic sentence which contains an inequality sign: < less than is less than or equal to > is greater than is greater than or equal to Inequalities are solved in much the same way as equations. However, when both sides of an inequality are multiplied or divided by a negative number, the inequality sign is reversed. For example -3a < 12 Divide both sides by -3 and reverse the inequality. a > -2 A graph of an algebraic sentence is a picture representing the meaning of the sentence. Graphs of equations and inequalities in one variable can be shown on the number line (Fig. P5). Fig. P x = x > 1 For graphs connecting two variables, draw two axes at right angles to each other to give a Cartesian plane. The horizontal x-axis and the vertical y-axis cross at their zero-point, the origin of the plane. Fig. P6 is the graph of the equation y = 2x y x A y = 2x 3 Fig. P6 To draw a straight-line graph, plot at least three points which satisfy the given equation. See the table of values in Fig. P6. At point A in Fig. P6, x = 2 and y = 1. The coordinates of A are (2, 1). The order of the coordinates is important: give the x-coordinate first, and the y-coordinate second. We can use straight-line graphs to represent any two connected variables: for example, cost and quantity, distance and time, temperature and time. Straight-line graphs can also show conversions between currencies or between marks and percentages. Factorise or expand algebraic expressions using the basic rules of arithmetic. See the following examples: Expansion 3(a + 2) = 3a + 6b (5-8x)x = 5x - 8x 2 (a + b)(c + d) = c(a + b) + d(a + b) = ac + bc + ad + bd (3x + 2)(x - 4) = 3x 2 + 2x - 12x - 8 = 3x 2-10x - 8 (a - 5b) 2 = a 2-10ab + 25b 2 Factorisation 5y + 10y 2 = 5y(1 + 2y) 4x bx - 6b = 4(x - 2) + 3b(x - 2) = (x - 2)(4 + 3b) 6 Section 1: Additional material

6 The following laws of indices are true for all values of a, b and x. x a x b = x a+b x a x b = x a-b x 0 = 1 x-a = 1 Detailed coverage of algebraic processes is given in NGM Book 1, Chapters 5, 7, 10, 15, 19; and NGM Book 2, Chapters 5, 7, 11, 12, 13, 14, 22, 23. Review Test 3: Algebraic processes teacher. Then try Test 4. 1 State the additive inverse of: a -5 b +14 c -514 d State the multiplicative inverse of: a +7 c +34 b d Remove brackets and simplify. a 7(a - b) - 8(a - 2b) b y(y - 3) - 6(y - 3) 4 Expand the following. a (6 - x)(3 + y) b (5x - y)(x + 3y) 5 State the HCF of the following. a 10x 2 and 15x 2 b 24ax 2 and 3a 2 x 6 State the LCM of the following. a pq and qr b 3a 2 and 8ab 7 Factorise the following. a 2a 2-9ab b -18pq - 12p 8 Solve the following. a 51 = 3 + 8x b 6x + 1 = 26-2x 9 Which symbol, < or >, goes in the box to make the statement true? a b Solve the following. a 2x = 10 b 27 = 4x c x x - 23 Review Test 4: Algebraic processes teacher. 1 State the additive inverse of: a +3 b -7 c +118 d State the multiplicative inverse of: a 4 b Remove brackets and simplify. a x(x + 4) - 5(x - 2) b a(a + b) - b(a + b) c -9 d Expand the following. a (x + 6) (y - 9) b (x - 2)(3x + 7) 5 State the HCF of the following. a 18xy and 6xy b 12xy 2 and 3xy 6 State the LCM of the following. a 3a and 4b b 18xy and 6xy 7 Factorise the following. a 3ab + 6ac b -5xy + 15y 8 Solve the following. a 10g - 7 = 47 b 4x - 6 = 5x Which symbol, < or >, goes in the box to make the statement true? a b Solve the following. a 2x < 10 b -7 = 4x c x + 4 = 10x - 23 Geometry and mensuration Fig. P7 gives sketches and names of some common solids. Section 1: Additional material 7

7 Fig. P9 lists the angles and their names. acute angle (between 0 and 90 ) right angle (90 ) straight angle (180 ) obtuse angle (between 90 and 180 ) Fig. P7 All solids have faces; most solids have edges and vertices (Fig. P8). Fig. P9 reflex angles (between 180 and 360 ) Use a protractor to measure and construct angles. Figure P10 shows some properties of angles formed when straight lines meet. Fig. P8 Table P1 gives the formulae for the surface area and volume of common solids. The net of a solid is the plane shape that can be folded to make the solid. Cube edge s Cuboid Length l, breadth b, width w 8 Section 1: Additional material Surface area Volume Prism Height h, base area A Sphere Radius r Cylinder Base radius r, height h Cone Base radius r, height h, slant height l An angle is a measure of rotation or turning. 1 revolution = 360 degrees (1 rev = 360 ) The names of angles change with their size. m p a e y x s d r b a n Alternate angles are equal. x = y and m = n Fig. P10 c b q c The sum of the angles on a straight line is 180. a + b + c = 180 Vertically opposite angles are equal. p = q and r = s The sum of the angles at a point is 360. a + b + c + d = 360 a Corresponding angles are equal. a = b and p = q p b q

8 In Fig. P11, α is the angle of elevation of the top of the flagpole from the girl and β is the angle of depression of the girl from the boy. Fig. P15 shows the names and properties of some common quadrilaterals. square rectangle Fig. P11 Directions are taken from the points of the compass as indicated in Fig. P12. N W SW NW Fig. P12 S NE SE E A 3-figure bearing is a direction given as the number of degrees from north measured in a clockwise direction. See Fig. P13. N A 53 Fig. P13 B The bearing of B from A is 053. X Y N 205 The bearing of X from Y is 205. Fig. P14 shows the names and properties of some common triangles. Fig. P15 parallelogram trapezium rhombus kite Fig. P16 gives the names of lines and regions in a circle. chord centre Fig. P16 radius diameter arc circumference segment semi-circle sector A polygon is a plane shape with three or more straight sides. A regular polygon has all its sides of equal length and all its angles of equal size. Fig. P17 gives the names of some common regular polygons. equilateral triangle square regular pentagon scalene right-angled obtuse-angled 60 Fig. P14 isosceles equilateral Fig. P17 regular hexagon regular octagon Section 1: Additional material 9

9 The sum of the angles of an n-sided polygon is (n - 2) 180. In particular, the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 and the sum of the angles of a quadrilateral is 360. To solve a triangle means to calculate the sizes of its sides and angles. Use Pythagoras rule to solve right-angled triangles. A c B Fig. P18 a b C In Fig. P18, triangle ABC is right-angled at B. Side AC is the hypotenuse. Pythagoras' rule: b 2 = a 2 + c 2 Table P2 contains formulae for the perimeter and area of plane shapes. Square Side s Rectangle Length l, breadth b Triangle Base b, height h Parallelogram Base b, height h perimeter area Fig. P19 parallel lines (ruler and set square) Detailed coverage of geometry and mensuration is given in NGM Book 1, Chapters 6, 8, 11, 13, 14, 16, 20, 21; and NGM Book 2, Chapters 3, 6, 16, 17, 19, 20, 24. Review Test 5 Mensuration and geometry teacher. Then try Test 6. 1 One of the angles of a parallelogram is 119. What are the sizes of its other three angles? 2 How many lines of symmetry does a kite have? 3 Find the values of m, n, p, q, s, in Figure P m 100 n Trapezium Height h, parallels of length a and b Circle Radius r s s q p The SI system of units is given in the tables in the students book. Use a ruler and set square to construct parallel lines (Fig. P19). s Fig. P Section 1: Additional material

10 4 Which one of the following is a Pythagorean triple? a 3, 8, 9 b 4, 10, 11 c 5, 12, 13 5 Calculate to 2 s.f. the length of a diagonal of a 30 mm by 20 mm rectangle. 6 Copy and complete the following table of cylinders. Use the value 3 for π. Cylinder Radius Height Curved surface area A 8 cm 6 cm B 5.5 cm 16 cm C 11 cm 196 cm 2 Volume D 4 cm 336 cm 3 7 In Fig. P21, BC is horizontal. A Cone Slant height Angle of sector A 10 cm 150 B 4 cm 240 Curved surface area Base radius Height C 5 cm 18 cm D 4 cm 10 cm Volume Review Test 6 Mensuration and geometry teacher. 1 One of the angles of a rhombus is 42. What are the sizes of its other three angles? 2 How many lines of bilateral symmetry does a square have? 3 Find the values of p, q, r, s, t, x in Fig. P23. r B C 44 Fig. P21 Measure: a the angle of elevation of A from B b the angle of depression of C from A. 64 p q s In Fig. P22, state the bearings of A, B, C and D from the centre. North D x 80 A Fig. P23 2x 2x x 71 t C Fig. P22 B 9 Copy and complete the following table of cones. Complete only the unshaded spaces. Use the value 3 for π. 4 Which one of the following is a Pythagorean triple? a 2, 3, 4 b 3, 4, 5 c 5, 12, 13 5 Calculate to 2 s.f. the length of the longest straight line that can be drawn on a rectangular chalkboard that measures 1.2 m by 3.0 m. Section 1: Additional material 11

11 6 Copy and complete the following table of cylinders. Use the value 3 for π. Cylinder Radius Height Curved Volume surface area A 4 cm 10 cm B 4.5 cm 12 cm C 7 cm 126 cm 2 D 5 cm 300 cm 3 7 In Fig. P24, QR is horizontal. Measure: P Everyday statistics Information in numerical form is called statistics. Statistical data may be given in rank order (i.e. in order of size) like these marks out of 5: 0, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 5 Data may also be given in a frequency table (Table P3). Mark Frequency The frequency is the number of times each piece of data occurs. We also use graphs to show statistics. Figure P26 shows the above data in a pictogram, a bar chart and a pie chart. Fig. P24 Q R a the angle of elevation of P from Q b the angle of depression of R from P. barchart 8 In Fig. P25, state the bearings of the following from O. Y North 25 O V 0 marks 1 mark 2 marks 3 marks 4 marks 5marks pictogram 0 5 pie chart X Fig. P25 W a V b W c X d Y 9 Copy and complete the following table of cones. Complete only the unshaded spaces. Use the value 3 for π. Cone Slant height Angle of sector A 8 cm 210 B 5 cm 135 Curved surface area Base radius Height C 7 cm 20 cm D 3.5 cm 12 cm Volume Probability is a measure of the likelihood of a required event happening. Probability = number of required events number of possible events If an event must happen, probability = 1. If an event cannot happen, probability = 0. The probability of something happening is a fraction whose value lies between 0 and 1. If the probability of something happening is x, then the probability of it not happening is 1 - x. Detailed coverage of statistics is given in NGM Book 1, Chapters 17, 18, 22; and NGM Book 2, Chapters 18, Section 1: Additional material

12 Review Test 7: Everyday statistics teacher. 1 For each set of numbers, calculate the mean. a 12, 14, 1 c 1, 8, 6, 8, 7 b 9, 10, 14 d 7, 7, 3, 2, 11 2 Find the mode, median and mean of each set of numbers. a 7, 7, 9, 12, 15 b 0, 1, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6, 6, 7 c 10, 8, 5, 12, 8, 11 d 5, 3, 9, 5, 10, 6, 4, 7, 5 3 Table P4 shows the results of a survey of vehicles on a city road in one hour. Cars Lorries Buses Others Total Number Table P4 a How many vehicles altogether? b What is the probability that the next vehicle is a car? c What is the probability that the next vehicle is not a car? d What is the probability that the next vehicle is not a car, a lorry or a bus? Review Test 8: Everyday statistics teacher. 1 For each set of numbers, calculate the mean. a 18, 6, 8, 12 b 3, 11, 6, 8 c 2, 9, 0, 6, 7, 0 d 9, 10, 12, 13, 16, 18 2 Find the mode, median and mean of each set of numbers. a 4, 5, 5, 7, 8, 10 b 4, 8, 11, 11, 12, 12, 12 c 3, 1, 17, 1, 8, 12 d 4, 3, 1, 4, 1, 0, 2, 4, 2, 3, 4, 2 3 A school enters candidates for the JSC examination. Table P5 shows the results for the years Candidates entered Number gaining JSC Table P During the four years: a How many candidates were entered for the JSC? b How many candidates gained a JSC? c What is the school s success rate as a percentage? d What is the approximate probability (as a decimal to 1 s.f.) of a student at this school getting a JSC? Section 1: Additional material 13

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