# The Grade Descriptors below are used to assess work and student progress in Mathematics from Year 7 to

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1 Jersey College for Girls Assessment criteria for KS3 and KS4 Mathematics In Mathematics, students are required to become familiar, confident and competent with a range of content and procedures described as either Core, underlined or bold. All students are expected to be secure with Core content by the end of Year 11. Underlined content forms the foundation of Higher Tier GCSE Mathematics and most students will be secure with this content by the end of Year 11, if not earlier. The topics in bold are those which will attract grades 6-9 and students aiming at the top grades at GCSE will need to be fluent in this content. Although some of this content will be covered in Year 9 most will not be taught until Years 10 and 11. Year 11 at JCG. The Grade Descriptors below are used to assess work and student progress in Mathematics from Year 7 to It is very important to note that content progression is not linear; periodic reports in Mathematics typically assess the most recent assessment of (usually) 3 units. The difficulty and grade of this content can vary through each year and so some variation in attainment grade may occur within the year irrespective of student effort. The Grade Descriptors below have been produced by Herts for Learning.

2 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change HIGHER Estimate the gradient of a curved graph by drawing a tangent, and interpret the result in different contexts. Estimate the area under a graph, using the trapezium rule or other approximate method, and interpret the result (e.g. distance travelled). Understand and interpret the equation of a circle in the form (x a)² + (y b)² = r². Work out the equation of the tangent to a circle at any given point. For any function f(x), sketch and interpret the graphs of y = f(x + a), y = af(x), y = f(x) and y = f( x). Use iteration to solve equations to a given degree of accuracy. Work with general iterative processes. Distinguish between instantaneous rate of change (gradient of tangent) and average rate of change (gradient of chord), and interpret the result (e.g. in terms of velocity or acceleration, or in a financial context). Solve problems involving growth and decay, including compound interest. 9 CREATING EVALUATING

3 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics Use the standard circle theorems to prove results in geometry. Use the sine and cosine rules to calculate lengths and angles in 3D. HIGHER 9 CREATING EVALUATING

4 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change Work out the upper and lower bounds of multi-stage calculations, where the numbers involved are expressed to a known degree of accuracy. Appreciate that the set of integers is a subset of the set of rational numbers, which is a subset of the set of real numbers. Understand the concept of an irrational number. Understand the composition of two functions to make a third function. Work out the inverse function f 1 (x) for any given suitable function f(x). Manipulate and simplify expressions involving the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of algebraic fractions. Plot or sketch the graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x, and y = tan x, where x is measured in degrees. Use numerical, algebraic or graphical methods to solve problems involving more complex forms of proportion (e.g. P proportional to Q, P inversely proportional to Q²). CREATING EVALUATING HIGHER 8

5 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics Know and derive the standard circle theorems and use them to work out angles between radii, chords and tangents. Use the sine and cosine rules to calculate lengths and angles in 2D. Understand and use the formula ½ab sin C to calculate the area of a triangle. 8 CREATING EVALUATING

6 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change CREATING Convert any fraction into a decimal, with or without a calculator. Express any simple recurring decimal as a fraction in its simplest form. Rationalise the denominator of any fraction where the denominator is expressed in terms of a surd. Calculate with a range of expressions involving surds. Recognise geometric sequences whose common ratio is positive, and work out an expression for the nth term. Manipulate algebraic expressions involving surds. Express quadratic functions in the form p(x + q)² + r. Solve quadratic equations by completing the square. Solve quadratic equations by using the quadratic formula. Simplify algebraic fractions by cancelling common factors. Understand the effect of translating the graph of a quadratic function, or reflecting it in the co-ordinate axes, on its equation. Work out the co-ordinates of the turning point of the graph of a quadratic function. Understand and use the relationship between scale factor, area factor and volume factor, expressing this in ratio form when required. 7 EVALUATING

7 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics Use straight-edge and compasses to construct angles of 30, 45 and 60. Calculate lengths and angles in 3D shapes by identifying right-angled triangles. Understand and calculate frequency density, and draw and interpret histograms with unequal class widths. Solve problems using the ratios of areas and volumes of similar shapes in 2D and 3D. Know the formal conditions for triangles to be congruent, and use them in geometrical proofs. CREATING 7 EVALUATING

8 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change EVALUATING HIGHER Understand the uniqueness of prime decomposition, and use it to solve problems (including working out HCFs and LCMs). Appreciate the infinite nature of the set of rational numbers (e.g. that there are an infinite number of rationals between any two rationals). Express surds as multiples of smaller surds (for example, 18 = 3 2). Manipulate and simplify expressions involving surds. Understand the relationship between negative indices and reciprocals, and between fractional indices and roots. Work out the upper and lower bounds of calculations involving a single operation, where the numbers involved are expressed to a known degree of accuracy. Work out an expression for the nth term of a quadratic sequence. Work with sequences which involve surds. Change the subject of an equation or formula, where the new subject appears twice. Factorise quadratic expressions of the form ax² + bx + c. Solve quadratic equations of the form ax² + bx + c = 0 by factorisation, including those which require rearrangement. Find the solution of two simultaneous equations, one of which is linear and the other quadratic. Use a graph to find approximate solutions to simultaneous equations, one of which is quadratic. Solve quadratic inequalities in one variable, expressing the solution on a number line or using set notation. Use the x-y plane to represent the solution to one or more inequalities in two variables. Work out the equation of a line, given two points on the line, or given its gradient and one point on the line. Identify perpendicular lines, given their equations, re-arranging them into gradient-intercept form where necessary. Plot exponential graphs, including those arising from a given context, and interpret the key features. Prove results using algebra. Understand sin, cos and tan as the ratios of sides of rightangled triangles, and the link with similar triangles. Appreciate that two quantities in inverse proportion are connected by a reciprocal relationship, and understand the form of the graph connecting them. Use numerical, algebraic or graphical methods to solve problems involving quantities in inverse proportion. 6

9 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics Work out the volume and surface area of spheres, pyramids, cylinders, cones and composite 3D shapes. Work with combinations of transformations in 2D, knowing the properties that are invariant and those that are not. Use Venn diagrams and twoway tables, along with expected frequencies, to work out conditional probabilities. Calculate the probability of two or more combined events in a wide range of contexts. Use a range of information, including measures of central tendency, measures of spread, consideration of outliers and graphical representations (including box plots), to describe a population and compare distributions. Enlarge shapes by a negative scale factor from a centre of enlargement, with or without a co-ordinate grid. Understand and use the addition law in the form P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A and B). EVALUATING HIGHER Use similar shapes to prove geometrical results, including Pythagoras Theorem. 6

11 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics FOUNDATION / HIGHER Calculate the length of a circular arc and the area of a sector. Know the exact values of sin x, cos x and tan x for x = 0, 30, 45, 60 and 90. Recognise similar shapes, identify equal ratios and use these to solve problems. Use trigonometry to calculate lengths and angles in right-angled triangles in 2D. Realise that the shortest distance from a point to a given line is the perpendicular from that line to the point, and construct the perpendicular using straight-edge and compasses only. Enlarge shapes by a positive fractional scale factor from a centre of enlargement, with or without a coordinate grid. Understand the idea of independent events, and use the multiplication law to calculate the probability of a succession of independent events. Understand and use the term mutually exclusive, and use the addition law to calculate the probability of a combination of mutually exclusive events. Use tree diagrams and other methods to calculate the probability of combined independent events. Use the multiplication law for dependent events, using the idea of conditional probability. Use tree diagrams to calculate the probability of combined dependent events. Understand different sampling methods, use samples to estimate properties of a population, and appreciate the limitations of sampling. Work out the quartiles and interquartile range of a simple data set. Draw a cumulative frequency graph, and use it to work out the median, quartiles and interquartile range for continuous data. 5

12 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change FOUNDATION / HIGHER Understand the reciprocal function and its use in evaluating numerical expressions. Appreciate that there are an infinite number of integers. Understand the rationale behind standard index form, and how it can be used to express and compare large and small numbers. Use approximations to estimate answers to calculations involving one operation (for example, = 1.5). Multiply out and simplify the product of two binomial expressions. Understand the laws of indices and simplify expressions involving powers. Manipulate and simplify a wide range of expressions involving sums, products and differences. Solve linear equations with integer coefficients, where the unknown appears on both sides of the equation. Understand how sequences can be generated from a position-to-term rule. Recognise arithmetic sequences and know how to find an expression for the nth term. Recognise and use Fibonacci-type sequences. Draw graphs of simple linear functions, expressed in the form y = mx + c or ax + by = c. Draw and interpret graphs arising from real-life situations, such as distance-time graphs. Understand and use the relationship between fractions and ratios. Perform calculations relating to distance, speed and time, using standard units (e.g. mph, kilometres per hour, metres per second). Solve problems involving other compound units (e.g. density, cost per 100 grams). Solve simple problems involving compound interest and depreciation. 4

13 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics FOUNDATION / HIGHER Use Pythagoras Theorem to calculate lengths in right-angled triangles in 2D. Solve problems involving the use of bearings. Calculate the area of a circle and simple fractions of a circle. Calculate the area of trapeziums and compound plane shapes. Calculate the volume of cylinders and of prisms with more complex crosssections (e.g. compound shapes). Use alternate, corresponding and supplementary angles to solve problems involving parallel lines. Work out the sum of the interior and exterior angles in any polygon, and deduce angle facts about regular polygons. Construct the perpendicular bisector of two points and bisect a given angle, using straight edge and compasses only. Work with relative frequency, and understand how this can be used as an estimate of probability. Appreciate that relative frequency distributions approach theoretical probability distributions as the number of trials increases. Draw lines of best fit on scatter diagrams, know how to use these to make predictions, and when it is valid to do so, and know that correlation does not imply cause. Work with time series data and their associated line graphs. Calculate the mean of a frequency distribution for grouped or ungrouped data, and identify the modal class. 4

14 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change FOUNDATION Convert fluently, without a calculator, between terminating decimals and fractions (for example, 2.24 = 2 6/25). Round to a degree of accuracy appropriate to the context, using significant figures. Estimate powers and roots of positive numbers. Understand how sequences can be generated from a term-to-term rule. Recognise the sequences of triangle, square and cube numbers. Simplify expressions by collecting like terms. Multiply a bracket by a single term, realising that the resulting expression is equivalent. Understand and use the word factor in the context of algebra, and factorise expressions by taking out a common factor. Use function machines as a means of representing simple expressions. Understand the idea of an equation, and solve linear equations in one variable where the unknown appears once only. Convert fluently between standard units (e.g. m and cm, litres and millilitres, hours and minutes). Interpret and work with scale diagrams and maps. Understand and use simple scale factors in the context of similar shapes. Understand and use ratios to describe unequal sharing in a variety of contexts, using part:part or part:whole form as appropriate. Describe a multiplicative relationship as a fraction or as a ratio. Express one quantity as a fraction of another, where the fraction is greater than 1. Express any percentage change as a fraction, decimal or percentage (for example, a 40% increase can be expressed as 140%, 1.4 or 7/5.) Increase a quantity by a fraction or percentage, with or without a calculator as appropriate. Solve problems involving simple interest. 3

15 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics Use and understand 2D representations of 3D shapes, including plans and elevations. Understand the translation of shapes, including the use of vector notation. Understand the rotation of shapes around a centre of rotation. Understand the reflection of shapes in a mirror line. Use a given positive integer scale factor to draw similar shapes on a square grid. List the equally likely, mutually exclusive outcomes of a combination of events using a systematic list or sample space diagram and use them to calculate probabilities. Construct and interpret pie charts. Construct and interpret scatter diagrams and use these to help describe the correlation, if any, between two quantities. Understand the meaning of the term outlier and use it appropriately in describing distributions. FOUNDATION Understand and use standard terms when working with circles: centre, radius, chord, diameter, circumference, tangent, arc, sector and segment. Calculate the circumference of a circle. Work out the perimeter of rectilinear shapes in 2D. Identify different types of triangle and quadrilateral, and know and use their angle properties. 3 Know and use the formulae for the area of a triangle and parallelogram, and understand how they are obtained. Know and use the formulae for the volume of a cuboid and the volume of a simple prism (excluding cylinders).

16 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change FOUNDATION Understand how different operations work in combination with each other. Use and understand the idea of inverse operations. Use efficient listing strategies and/or simple products to help with counting. Work out common factors (including the HCF) and common multiples (including the LCM). Express any positive integer as a product of primes, using index notation Round to a degree of accuracy appropriate to the context, using decimal places. Know the formal methods for adding, subtracting, multiplying and dividing integers and decimals. Apply the four rules with fractions and mixed numbers. Apply the four rules with positive and negative numbers. Understand and use positive integer powers and roots. Know the squares of numbers up to 15, and numbers related to these (for example, 40 2 = 1600), and recognise the related square roots. Recognise cubes of numbers up to 5, and of numbers related to these, and recognise the related cube roots. Use a calculator to work out square and cube roots, realising when it gives only an approximate answer. Apply the conventional rules governing priority of operations, including brackets, powers and roots. Substitute numbers into expressions, including formulae used in science. Construct expressions to describe simple everyday situations. Understand and use the words expression and term. Express one quantity as a fraction of another, where the fraction is less than 1. Use decimal equivalents to work out one number as a percentage of another, and to compare proportions. Understand that fractions and percentages can be interpreted as operators (for example, 25% of is the same as 0.25 ). 2

17 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics FOUNDATION Understand and use standard terms and notation when working with plane geometry: parallel, perpendicular, labelling sides and angles (e.g. angle PQR, length PQ ) Know how to tell whether two triangles are congruent, and the standard conventions for labelling sides and angles in geometric figures. Understand and use the terms face, edge and vertex when working with solid shapes, and recognise common solids. Draw triangles and other simple shapes accurately, given the required lengths and angles. Draw simple loci to solve problems (e.g. the locus of points at, within or beyond a fixed distance from a line or point). Use theoretical probabilities to predict the results of future experiments. Analyse the results of simple probability experiments, compare them with theoretical outcomes, and draw appropriate conclusions. Use graphical representations to compare distributions of a single variable. Work out the mean, median, mode and range of an ungrouped data set, and use these measures to compare distributions. 2

18 Number PROBABILITY Algebra Ratio and Proportion, Rates of Change FOUNDATION Understand the relative positions of integers and decimals (both positive and negative) on the number line. Use equality and inequality symbols in statements about integers and decimals. Use and understand the vocabulary of multiples, factors and prime numbers. Use common units of measurement in simple contexts (e.g. and p, minutes and seconds, m and cm), including those involving decimals Know when it is appropriate to use a calculator, and how to use it accurately. Understand the positions of fractions (including mixed numbers) on the number line. Understand the concept of equivalent fractions. Compare and order different fractions. Appreciate the equivalence between percentages, fractions and decimals, and convert between them, using a calculator where necessary. Understand how algebraic notation works, including that used for multiplication and division, squaring and cubing, and brackets. Understand the equivalence between expressions such as p + p + p + p and 4p; and between ¼a and a/4. Work with co-ordinates, including those involving negative numbers. Understand and use ratio as a means of describing patterns, sizes, scales, as appropriate. Understand the idea of percentages as hundredths, and their use in making comparisons. 1

19 PROBABILITY Geometry and Measures Probability Statistics Understand and use the angle sum around a point, the angle sum at a point on a straight line, the angle sum in a triangle, and that vertically opposite angles are equal. Understand and use standard vocabulary when describing angles: acute, obtuse, reflex, right angle. Measure and draw angles, including reflex angles, to the nearest degree. Know the types of process which have random outcomes, and understand the notion of fairness. Use the probability scale from 0 to 1 and use appropriate terminology connected with probability. Distinguish between cases when outcomes are equally likely and those where they are not, and develop the notion of fairness. Use equally likely outcomes to determine the probability of an event as a fraction. Use the fact that the sum of probabilities of all possible outcomes of an event is 1. Summarise information in tables, including grouping of data into frequency tables. Present grouped, ungrouped and categorical data in simple charts and diagrams, including bar charts, pictograms and vertical line charts. 1

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