# Electron Theory of Charge. Electricity. 1. Matter is made of atoms. Refers to the generation of or the possession of electric charge.

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1 Electricity Refers to the generation of or the possession of electric charge. There are two kinds of electricity: 1. Static Electricity the electric charges are "still" or static 2. Current Electricity the electric charges are flowing Electrostatics Is the study of electric charge at rest. Static electricity can be generated by rubbing 2 different materials together. When this happens, each object becomes charged. One positively charged and the other negatively charged. Electron Theory of Charge 1. Matter is made of atoms. 2. Atoms have subatomic particles. electrons (-) protons (+) neutrons (no charge) 3. Electrons orbit the nucleus and may move to other atoms. 4. Protons cannot move to other atoms. 5. In a neutral atom: # electron = # protons

2 6. In a negatively charged object there are more electrons than protons. Laws of Electric Charge 1. There are two types of charge: negative (-) and positive (+) 2. A charged object will attract a neutral object. 7. In a positively charged object there are fewer electrons than protons. 3. Like charges repel. 4. Unlike charges attract. Conductors and Insulators **Remember** Only electrons can move between atoms or objects. Protons do not move!! Common examples of static electricity involve charges placed on an object by friction. The object is usually made of a material that restricts the movement of electrons, or an insulator. A material that allows electrons to move freely is called a conductor.

3 Series and Parallel Circuits There are two basic types of circuits: series and parallel, which describe how the components of the circuit are connected. 1. Four cells in series, one switch in series with one load In a series circuit there is only ONE path for the electrons to travel along. They must pass through every component in series. For example: 2. three cells in series, one switch with three bulbs and one ammeter, when one light bulb goes out all the light bulbs go out, one voltmeter connected in parallel to measure the potential difference across light three In a parallel circuit there is MORE THAN ONE path for the electrons to travel along. Each electron must choose one path to follow. For example: 3. three cells in series, three bulbs with one switch controlling all three bulbs, and a switch controlling each individual bulb, when all the switches are closed and one bulb goes out the other two still work Sample Circuits - Draw circuits with the following characteristics. Practice Questions:

4 1. Draw a circuit diagram showing a series connection of a switch, a bulb and a power source with 3 cells in series. Show an voltmeter across the power source and an ammeter between the bulb and the power source. Moving Charges In a circuit the negative charges are pushed through a conductor by a battery or a source of energy. This movement of charge is called CURRENT. Electrical current is defined as the amount of charge that passes a point in a conducting wire every second. In simplified terms: 2. Suppose you want to build a circuit with a source, a switch, a motor and a bulb. You want the bulb to indicate when the motor stops working. Draw the circuit. current = charge moving past a point time or in symbols 3. A circuit has a source, two light bulbs, and two switches. The two light bulbs do not have any effect on each other and each is controlled by its own switch. Draw the circuit. I= Q t Where: Current is measured in Amperes (A) Charge is measured in Coulombs (C) Time is measured in seconds (s) The instrument used to measure current is called an Ammeter.

5 1. If 240 Coulombs of charge pass a point in a conductor in 5.0 minutes, what is the current through that point in the conductor? Potential Difference Each coulomb of charge in a circuit has a certain amount of energy pushing it; this is expressed as voltage (V). The voltage does not move it pushes the charge. Therefore: 2. If the current in a circuit is 2.5 A, how long would it take for 950 C of charge pass by a single point? potential difference = energy charge or mathematically the potential difference is: V = E Q E is the energy of the charge, measured in Joules (J) 3. How much charge will pass through a point in a conductor in three minutes if the current is 0.85 A? Q is the amount of charge, measured in Coulombs (C) V is the potential difference or Joules per Coulomb, which we know as a Volt (V)

6 Sample Problems: 1. What is the potential difference if 56 J of energy is passed to 7 C of charge? Electrical Resistance A conductor is a material that allows electrons to flow through it. RESISTANCE is a measurement of how much energy is lost by the electrons as they flow through the conductor. The greater the resistance, the more energy is lost by the electrons (usually as heat). Resistance can be a good thing (ex. lamps and toasters) or a bad thing (ex. transmission lines). What factors affect resistance? 2. How much energy is produced if an appliance is plugged into a 120 V outlet and the appliance has 60 C passing through the appliance? 1. Length - longer wires have higher resistance 2. Diameter - wires that are wider in diameter have a lower resistance 3. Material - some materials offer less resistance 4. Temperature - hotter wires have greater resistance Resistance is measured in Ohms (Ω). A device that has a known resistance is called a RESISTOR.

7 Ohm's Law The amount of resistance in a device is given by the ratio of the potential difference over the current. This is called Ohm's Law: R = V I Power Power is the rate of energy consumption. Power = Energy time Another way to calculate power is: Power = potential difference x current The resistance of any device can be found by measuring the potential difference (V) and the current (I). For example, What is the resistance of a lamp that uses 0.5 A and is plugged into a 120 V outlet? P = V x I This allows us to calculate the current drawn by a device if we know the power rating. Example 1: How much current does a 1400 W hair dryer use when plugged into a 120 V socket?

8 Example 2: A battery uses 810 J of energy to run a portable radio for 30 minutes. What is the power of the radio? Example 3: How much energy does a 1200 W dishwasher use when it runs for 20 minutes?

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