# LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS

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1 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS Contents 1. Almost complex manifolds 1. Complex manifolds 5 3. Kähler manifolds 9 4. Dolbeault cohomology Almost complex manifolds Almost complex structures. Recall that a complex structure on a (real) vector space V is automorphism J : V V such that J = Id. Roughly speaking a complex structure on V enable us to multiply 1 on V and thus convert V into a complex vector space. Definition 1.1. An almost complex structure J on a (real) manifold M is an assignment of complex structures J p on the tangent spaces T p M which depend smoothly on p. The pair (M J) is called an almost complex manifold. In other words an almost complex structure on M is a (1 1) tensor field J : T M T M so that J = Id. Remark. As in the symplectic case an almost complex manifold must be n dimensional. Moreover it is not hard to prove that any almost complex manifold must be orientable. On the other hand there does exists even dimensional orientable manifolds which admit no almost complex structure. There exists subtle topological obstructions in the Pontryagin class. For example there is no almost complex structure on S 4 (Ehresmann and Hopf). Example. As in the symplectic case any oriented surface Σ admits an almost complex structure: Let ν : Σ S be the Gauss map which associates to every point x Σ the outward unit normal vector ν(x). Define J x : T x Σ T x Σ by J x u = ν(x) u 1

2 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS where is the cross product between vectors in R 3. It is quite obvious that J x is an almost complex structure on Σ. Example. We have seen that on S 6 there is no symplectic structure since H (S 6 ) = 0. However there exists an almost complex structure on S 6. More generally every oriented hypersurface M R 7 admits an almost complex structure. The construction is almost the same as the previous example: first of all there exists a notion of cross product for vectors in R 7 : we identify R 7 as the imaginary Cayley numbers and define the vector product u v as the imaginary part of the product of u and v as Cayley numbers. Again we define J x u = ν(x) u where ν : M S 6 is the Gauss map that maps every point to its unit out normal. Then J is an almost complex structure. Details left as an exercise. Remark. S and S 6 are the only spheres that admit almost complex structures. Compatible triple. Now let (M ω) be a symplectic manifold and J an almost complex structure on M. Then at each tangent space T p M we have the linear symplectic structure ω p and the linear complex structure J p. Recall from lecture 1 that J p is tamed by ω p if the quadratic form ω p (v J p v) is positive definite and J p is compatible with ω p if it is tamed by ω p and is a linear symplectomorphism on (T p M ω p ) or equivalently is an inner product on T p M. g p (v w) := ω p (v J p w) Definition 1.. We say an almost complex structure J on M is compatible with a symplectic structure ω on M if at each p J p is compatible with ω p. Equivalently J is compatible with ω if and only if the assignment g p : T p M T p M R g p (u v) := ω p (u Jv) defines a Riemannian structure on M. So on M we get three structures: a symplectic structure ω an almost complex structure J and a Riemannian structure g and they are related by g(u v) = ω(u Jv) ω(u v) = g(ju v) J(u) = g 1 ( ω(u)) where g and ω are the linear isomorphisms from T M to T M that is induced by g and ω respectively. Such a triple (ω g J) is called a compatible triple.

3 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS 3 Almost complex = almost symplectic. According to proposition 3.4 and its corollary in lecture 1 we get immediately Proposition 1.3. For any symplectic manifold (M ω) there exists an almost complex structure J which is compatible with ω. Moreover the space of such almost complex structures is contractible. Remark. Obviously the proposition holds for any non-degenerate -form ω on M which does not have to be closed. Such a pair (M ω) is called an almost symplectic manifold. Conversely one can prove (exercise) Proposition 1.4. Given any almost complex structure on M there exists an almost symplectic structure ω which is compatible with J. Moreover the space of such almost symplectic structures is contractible. So the set of almost symplectic manifolds coincides with the set of almost complex manifolds. Example. For the almost complex structures on surfaces (or hypersurfaces in R 7 ) that we described above ω x (v w) = ν(x) v w defines a compatible almost symplectic structure (which is symplectic for surfaces but not symplectic for S 6 ). The following question is still open: Donaldson s question: Let M be a compact 4-manifold and J an almost complex structure on M which is tamed by some symplectic structure ω. Is there a symplectic form on M that is compatible with J? An important progress was made by Taubes who answered the problem affirmatively for generically almost complex structures with b + = 1. Almost complex submanifolds. Almost complex structure provides a method to construct symplectic submanifolds. Definition 1.5. A submanifold X of an almost complex manifold (M J) is an almost complex submanifold if J(T X) T X. Proposition 1.6. Let (M ω) be a symplectic manifold and J a compatible almost complex structure on M. Then any almost complex submanifold of (M J) is a symplectic submanifold of (M ω). Proof. Let ι : X M be the inclusion. Then ι ω is a closed -form on X. It is non-degenerate since ω x (u v) = g x (J x u v)

4 4 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS and g x TxX is nondegenerate. The splitting of tangent vectors. Let (M J) be an almost complex manifold. Denote by T C M = T M C the complexified tangent bundle. We extend J linearly to T C M by J(v z) = Jv z v T M z C. Then again J = Id but now on a complex vector space T p M C instead of on a real vector space. So for each p M the map J p has eigenvalues ±i and we have an eigenspace decomposition T M C = T 10 T 01 where T 10 = {v T M C Jv = iv} is the +i-eigenspace of J and T 01 = {v T M C Jv = iv} is the i-eigenspace of J. We will call vectors in T 10 the J-holomorphic tangent vectors and vectors in T 01 the J-anti-holomorphic tangent vectors. Lemma 1.7. J-holomorphic tangent vectors are of the form v 1 Jv i for some v T M while J-anti-holomorphic tangent vectors are of the form v 1 + Jv i for some v T M. Proof. Obviously for any v T M J(v 1 Jv i) = Jv 1 + v i = i(v 1 Jv i) while J(v 1 + Jv i) = Jv 1 v i = i(v 1 + Jv i). The conclusion follows from dimension counting. As a consequence we see Corollary 1.8. If we write v = v 10 + v 01 according to the splitting above then v 10 = 1 (v ijv) v 01 = 1 (v + ijv).

5 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS 5 The splitting of differential forms. Similarly one can split the complexified cotangent space T M C as where T M C = T 10 T 01 T 10 = (T 10 ) = {η T M C η(jw) = iη(w) w T M C} is the dual space of T 10 and = {ξ 1 (ξ J) i ξ T M} T 01 = (T 01 ) = {η T M C η(jw) = iη(w) w T M C} = {ξ 1 + (ξ J) i ξ T M} is the dual space of T 01. More over any covector η has a splitting where η = η 10 + η 01 η 10 = 1 (η iη J) η01 = 1 (η + iη J). The splitting of covectors gives us a splitting of k-forms Ω k (M C) = l+m=k Ω lm (M C) where Ω lm (M C) = Γ (Λ l T 10 Λ m T 01 ) is the space of (l m)-forms on M. For β Ω lm (M C) Ω k (M C) we have dβ Ω k+1 (M C). So we have a splitting dβ = (dβ) k+10 + (dβ) k1 + + (dβ) 1k + (dβ) 0k+1. Definition 1.9. For β Ω lm (M C) β = (dβ) l+1m β = (dβ) lm+1. Note that for functions we always have df = f + f while for more general differential forms we don t have d = +.. Complex manifolds Complex manifolds. Recall that a smooth manifold is a topological space that locally looks like R n with diffeomorphic transition maps. Definition.1. A complex manifold of complex dimension n is a manifold that locally homeomorphic to open subsets in C n with biholomorphic transition maps.

6 6 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS Obviously any complex manifold is a real manifold but the converse is not true. As in the symplectic case a complex manifold must be of even dimensional if view as a real manifold and must be orientable. In fact we have Proposition.. Any complex manifold has a canonical almost complex structure. Proof. Let M be a complex manifold and (U V ϕ) be a complex chart for M where U is an open set in M and V an open set in C n. We denote ϕ = (z 1 z n ) with z i = x i + 1y i. Then (x 1 x n y 1 y n ) is a coordinate system on U when we view M as a real manifold. So { } T p M = R-span of x i y i i = 1 n. We define J on U by the recipe J( x i ) = y i J( y i ) = x i for i = 1 n and extends to T p M by linearity. Obviously J = Id. It remains to prove that J is globally well-defined i.e. it is independent of the choice of complex coordinate charts. Suppose (U V ϕ ) is another coordinate chart with ϕ = (w 1 w n ) and w i = u i + 1v i. Then on the overlap U U the transition map ψ : ϕ(u U ) ϕ (U U ) is biholomorphic. If we write the map as u i = u i (x y) v i = v i (x y) z w = ψ(z) in real coordinates then the real tangent vectors are related by x k = j y k = j u j + v j x k u j x k v j u j y k while the Cauchy-Riemann equation gives u j + v j y k v j It follows that J ( x k ) = J ( j u j x k = v j y k u j y k = v j x k. u j + v j ) = x k u j x k v j j v j y k v j + u j y k u j = y k. Since J = Id we must also have J ( y i ) = x i. It follows J = J.

7 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS 7 Conversely not every almost complex manifold admits a complex structure. One example is CP #CP #CP. We have seen that S and S 6 are the only spheres that admits almost complex structure. We will see below that S admits a complex structure. One of the major open question in complex geometry is Open problem: Is there a complex structure on S 6? Differential forms on complex manifolds. Now suppose M is a complex manifold and J its canonical almost complex structure. Then in local coordinates { } T p M C = C-span of x i y i i = 1 n. and the two eigenspaces of J are { ( ) 1 T 10 = C-span of i = 1 n} We define T 01 = C-span of { 1 = 1 ( i ) z j x j y j i x i y i ( + i x i y i ) i = 1 n} = 1 ( + i ) z j x j y j then { } { } T 10 = C-span of z j j = 1 n T 01 = C-span of z j j = 1 n then Similarly if we put dz j = dx j + idy j d z j = dx j idy j T 10 = C-span of {dz j j = 1 n} T 01 = C-span of {d z j j = 1 n} Note that under these notions the fact df = f + f is given explicitly as df = ( f dx j + f ) dy j = ( f dz j + f ) d z j. x j j y j z j j z j As a consequence any (l m)-form β Ω lm (M C) can be expressed locally as β = b JK dz J d z K J =l K =m for some smooth functions b JK C (U C) where we use the notion dz J to represent dz j1 dz jl for a multi-index J = (j 1 j l ) and likewise for d z K. This nice local expression implies Theorem.3. On complex manifolds d = + for any (l m)-forms.

8 8 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS Proof. The local expression above for β Ω lm (M C) gives dβ = db JK dz J d z K. J =l K =m The conclusion follows from the facts db JK = b JK + b JK and b JK = b JK z j dz j bjk = b JK z j d z j. Integrability. The canonical almost complex structure on a complex manifold that we constructed above is just the map multiplication by 1 in coordinate charts. Definition.4. An almost complex structure J on M is called integrable if it is a complex structure i.e. there exists local complex coordinates on M so that (M J) = (C n 1). So a complex structure is an integrable almost complex structure. It is hard to use the definition above to detect whether an almost complex structure is complex or not. However we do have a very useful criteria. Definition.5. The Nijenhuis tensor N J is N J (u v) = [Ju Jv] J[Ju v] J[u Jv] [u v]. We will leave the proof of the next two exercises as an exercise. Proposition.6. N J is a tensor i.e. N j (fu gv) = fgn j (u v) for vector fields u v and smooth functions f g. Proposition.7. One has N J (u v) = 8Re([u 10 v 10 ]) 01 ). As a consequence we get Corollary.8. N J = 0 [T 10 T 10 ] T 10. On a complex manifold [ z j z k ] = 0. It follows Corollary.9. N J = 0 for the canonical almost complex structure J on complex manifolds. The following theorem is a hard theorem which gives an easy-to-use characterization of integrability of almost complex structures: Theorem.10 (Newlander-Nirenberg). Let J be an almost complex structure on M. Then J is integrable N J = 0 d = +.

9 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS 9 An an example we immediately get Theorem.11. Any almost complex structure on a surface is integrable. Proof. A direct computation gives N J (v v) = 0 and N J (v Jv) = 0. Details left as an exercise. Kähler manifolds. 3. Kähler manifolds Definition 3.1. A Kähler manifold is a triple (M ω J) where ω is a symplectic form on M and J an integrable complex structure on M which is compatible with ω. In this case we will call ω a Kähler form. Example. (C n Ω 0 J 0 ) is a Kähler manifold. Example. Any oriented surface Σ carries a Kähler structure: one just choose ω to be the area form and choose J to be an almost complex structure that is compatible with ω. Example. Complex tori M = C n /Z n : Since both the symplectic structure and the complex structure on C n are invariant under translations along real directions the standard symplectic and complex structures on C n give us a Kähler structure on M. Remark. By definition a Kähler manifold is both a symplectic manifold and a complex manifold. In 1976 Thurston constructed an example that is both symplectic and complex but admits no Kähler structure. People also constructed symplectic manifolds which do not admit any complex structure (Fernandez-Gotay-Gray 1988) and complex manifolds that admits no symplectic structure (Hopf surface S 1 S 3 C {0}/{(z 1 z ) (z 1 z )}). The Kähler form. Now let ω be a Kähler form on M. Then ω is a real-valued non-degenerate closed -form on M. Let s see what does these conditions give us: Since M is complex locally ω = a jk dz j dz k + b jk dz j d z k + c jk d z j d z k. Since J is a symplectomorphism J ω = ω. On the other hand it is easy to check J dz j = idz j and J d z j = id z j. So J ω = a jk dz j dz k + b jk dz j d z k c jk d z j d z k. It follows ω = b jk dz j d z k

10 10 LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS i.e. ω Ω 11 (M C) Ω (M). We will write b jk = i h jk so that ω = i hjk dz j d z k h jk C (U). Since ω is real-valued ω = ω. But ω = i hjk d z j dz k = i hkj dz j d z k so at each point p M the matrix (h jk (p)) is Hermitian. Moreover one can check ω n = n!( i )n det(h jk )dz 1 d z 1 dz n d z n so the non-degeneracy condition of ω is equivalent to the fact that the matrix (h jk ) is non-singular. The tamed condition ω(v Jv) > 0 for each v 0 implies that at each p the matrix (h jk ) is positive definite. Finally since 0 = dω = ω + ω and ω Ω 1 (M C) and ω Ω 1 (M C) we get ω = 0 ω = 0. In conclusion we get Theorem 3.. Kähler forms are - and -closed (1 1) forms which are given locally by ω = i hjk dz j d z k h jk C (U) where at each p the matrix (h jk ) is a positive-definite Hermitian matrix. In general one cannot hope that two symplectic forms in the same cohomology class are symplectomorphic unless they are connected by a path of symplectic structures. As an application of the previous theorem we have Corollary 3.3. Let M be compact and ω 1 ω be Kähler forms on M with [ω 1 ] = [ω ] H (M) then (M ω 1 ) and (M ω ) are symplectomorphic. Proof. On a local chart ω i = i h i jk dz j d z k h i jk C (U). We let ω t = i ((1 t)h 1 jk + th 0 jk)dz j d z k h i jk C (U). Then ((1 t)h 1 jk + th0 jk ) is a positive definite Hermitian matrix so ω t s are all symplectic. Now apply Moser s trick.

11 Student presentation. LECTURE 5: COMPLEX AND KÄHLER MANIFOLDS Dolbeault cohomology

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