# LECTURE: KOBORDISMENTHEORIE, WINTER TERM 2011/12; SUMMARY AND LITERATURE

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1 LECTURE: KOBORDISMENTHEORIE, WINTER TERM 2011/12; SUMMARY AND LITERATURE JOHANNES EBERT 1.1. October 11th. 1. Recapitulation from differential topology Definition 1.1. Let M m, N n, be two smooth manifolds and f M N be a smooth map. An element x N is a regular value if for all y M with f(y) = x, the differential T y f T y M T x N is surjective. A singular value is an x N which is not a regular value. Remark 1.2. If m < n, then the condition that x N is a regular value means that x does not lie in the image of f. Definition 1.3. Let M m N n be a submanifold. The codimension of M is the number n m. Proposition 1.4. If x N is a regular value of the map f M m N n, then f 1 (x) M is a submanifold of codimension n. We now come to the most important fundamental result of differential topology. Definition 1.5. Let M m be a smooth manifold and C M be a subset. We say that C has measure zero if for each chart M U φ R n, the set φ(c U) R n has Lebesgue measure zero. This notion is well defined because of two facts: a C 1 -diffeomorphism of open subsets of R n maps sets of measure zero to measure zero; and any manifold has a countable atlas. Note that the union of countably many sets of measure zero has again measure zero and that the complement of a set of measure zero is never empty (unless M itself is empty). The following theorem is fundamental for all of differential topology. Theorem 1.6. (Sard s theorem) Let f M m N n be a smooth map. Then the set of singular values of f Crit(f) N has measure zero. For the proof, see [1], p. 58 ff. The most immediate application of Sard s theorem is: Corollary 1.7. If n > m and f M m N n is smooth, then f(m) N has measure zero. Theorem 1.8. (The Whitney embedding theorem) Let M m, N n be manifolds and A M be closed. Assume that n 2m + 1. Let N carry a complete metric. Let f M N be smooth and assume that there exists a neighborhood A U such that f U is an injective immersion. Let ɛ M (0, ) be a continuous function. Then there exists an injective immersion g M N such that g A = f A and such that d(f(x), g(x)) ɛ(x). 1

2 2 JOHANNES EBERT We discussed the proof that is given in [2], section 15.7, but only in the case N = R n. Recall that a proper injective immersion is an embedding. In particular, if we started with a proper map f and a bounded ɛ, the resulting g will be an embedding. Each manifold admits a proper map to R: pick a countable, locally finite cover by relatively compact open sets U i of M, let f i M R 0 be a function with compact support and f i Vi = 1. Then the function f = i if i is proper. So any manifold has a proper map ro R n for each n. This shows that we can realize any manifold as a closed submanifold of R n for n 2m + 1. In particular, any manifold admits a complete metric October 13th. Definition 1.9. Let f M N be an immersion. The normal bundle of f is the vector bundle ν f = f T N/T M on M. If f is the inclusion of a submanifold, we write ν N M or simply ν M for the normal bundle. Remark Suppose that N has a Riemann metric. Then the normal bundle is the orthogonal complement of T M in the Riemannian vector bundle f T N. Before we define tubular neighborhoods, we add a small remark on vector bundles. Let π E M be a smooth vector bundle. There is a canonical bundle monomorphism η E T E M, sending e E to the equivalence class of the curve R E; t te. Moreover, the differential of π yields a vector bundle epimorphism T π T E M T M. These maps yield an exact sequence (1.11) 0 E T E M T M 0, which admits a canonical splitting, namely the differential of the zero section ι M E. Definition Let f M N be an embedding. smooth map t ν f N with the following properties: A tubular map for f is a (1) The restriction of t to the zero section is equal to f. (2) There is an open neighborhood U ν f of the zero section such that t U is an embedding. (3) The composition ν f η T ν f T t f T N ν f (the first map was described before the definition, the third map is the quotient map) is the identity map. Theorem Each embedding has a tubular map. We followed the proof given in [2] and we used a lemma from [1]. To gain some flexibility in dealing with tubular maps, we need two lemmata. Lemma There exists a smooth map σ R + R + [0, 1] R n R n, (r, ɛ, t, x) (x) such that: σ r,ɛ t (1) for each fixed r, ɛ, the map (t, x) σ r,ɛ t (x) is an isotopy. (2) σ r,ɛ 0 = id. (3) σ r,ɛ t Br(0) = id. (4) σ r,ɛ 1 (Rn ) = B r+ɛ (0).

3 LECTURE: KOBORDISMENTHEORIE, WINTER TERM 2011/12; SUMMARY AND LITERATURE3 Using this lemma, we show: if t ν f N is a tubular map, then there exists a tubular map t ν f N that coincides with f on a neighborhood of the zero section and that embeds the whole of ν f into N. The image of such a tubular map is called a tubular neighborhood. The following theorem explains in which sense a tubular neighborhood is uniquely determined by f. Theorem Let f M N be an embedding and t 0, t 1 ν f N be tubular maps. Then there exists an isotopy from t 0 to t 1. An application of the Whitney embedding theorem and tubular maps is the smooth approximation theorem. Theorem Let M, N be manifolds, N with a complete Riemann metric. Let f M N be a continuous map. (1) There exists a function ɛ M (0, ), such that any function g M N which satisfies d(f(x), g(x)) < ɛ(x) is homotopic to f. (2) For any continuous function ɛ M (0, ), there is a smooth map g M N with d(f(x), g(x)) < ɛ(x). If there is a closed A M and f is already smooth on a neighborhood of A, we can pick g to coincide with f on A October 18th. The most important notion in differential topology is transversality. Definition Let M; X; Y be smooth manifolds, f X M, g Y N be smooth maps. Then f and g are called transverse if for all x, y with f(x) = g(y) = z, we have that (T x f)(t x X) + (T y g)(t y Y ) = T z Z. We write f g when f and g are transverse. If g is the inclusion of a submanifold Y M, we write f Y. One of the important properties of transversality is: Proposition Let M; X; Y be smooth manifolds, f X M be a smooth map and Y N. Assume that f Y. Then f 1 (Y ) X is a submanifold and the normal bundles are related by ν X f 1 (Y ) f ν M Y. The proof is an exercise. The following result is one of the key results of differential topology: Theorem (The transversality theorem) Let f M N and g L N be smooth maps. Let N be endowed with a Riemann metric and ɛ M (0, ) be a function. Then there exists a map h M N with d(f(x), h(x)) < ɛ(x) such that h g. If A M is closed and if f is transverse to g at all points of A, then we can choose h to coincide with f on A. Moreover, if ɛ is suitably small, then h will be homotopic to f relative to A. The proof presented in the lecture was taken from [1], 14. The first applicaiton of transversality is to computations of some homotopy groups (see any book mon algebraic topology, e.g. [2], for the definition of homotopy groups). Theorem Let M m and N n be smooth manifolds, g N n M m be a smooth map. Let x M g(n) and j M g(n) M be the inclusion. The map

4 4 JOHANNES EBERT π i (M g(n), x) π i (M, x) induced by j is an epimorphism if j m n 1 and an isomorphism if j < m n 1. Example M = S m, N =. Then M N R m and hence contractible. We obtain that π i (S m ) = 0 for i m 1. Example Let Mon(R n, R m ) Mat m,n (R) be the subspace of injective linear maps. It is an open subset; and the complement Mat m,n Mon(R n, R m ) is the union n 1 r=0 M r, where M r is the subset of all matrices of rank r. M r is a submanifold of dimension (m r)r + rn and therefore π i (Mon(R n, R m ) = 0 for i < m n. Example Let M be an m-dimensional manifold. The ordered configuration space of M is the manifold F k (M) = {(x i,..., x k ) M k i j x i x j }. Let i,j = {(x 1,..., x k ) x i = x j }, a submanifold of M k of codimension m. Then F k (M) = M k i i,j. Therefore the inclusion F k (M) M k is highly connected. In particular, for M = R m, we obtain π i (F k (M)) = 0 as long as i m 2 (this does not depend on k). For many purposes in differential topology, orientations are quite important. We begin by fixing definitions and conventions. Let V be a finite-dimensional real vector space. An orientation of V is an equivalence of bases of V, where two bases are equivalent if their transformation matrix has positive determinant. Another way (and in some sense better) to define orientations is by means of the exterior algebra. Definition Let V be a finite-dimensional real vector space, of dimension n. Let λ n V be the top exterior power; a one-dimensional vector space. An orientation of V is one of the two components of Λ n V {0}. The standard orientation of R n is the component containing the element e 1... e n. If V and W are two oriented vector spaces, we orient their sum V W so that, if (v 1,..., v n ) is an oriented basis of V and (w 1,..., w m ) is an oriented basis of W, then (v 1 1,..., v n, w 1,..., w m ) is an oriented basis of V W. The problem with this definition is that the vector spaces V W and W V are canonically isomorphic, but that the isomorphism is not orientation preserving (the sign of its determinant is ( 1) mn ). It can be shown that it is impossible to remove this problem: direct sum of oriented vector spaces is not a symmetric operation. Definition Let V X be a real vector bundle. An orientation of V is a family x, x X, where x is an orientation of the fibre V x x, such that for each y X, there exists a neighborhood U of y and a bundle map h V U U R n, such that for each x U, the linear isomorphism h x V x R n is orientation- preserving, where R n is endowed with the standard orientation. Again, a more elegant definition can be given using the exterior algebra. Let Λ n V X be the bundle of top exterior powers. It is a real line bundle. We form Or(V ) = (Λ n V 0)/R >0 X; which is a twofold covering. We define an orientation to be a cross-section of Or(V ) X October 20th. The above orientation conventions prompt an orientation convention for submanifolds. If M is an oriented manifold and N M a submanifold, we say that orientations of N and the normal bundle νn M are conmpatible if the (almost) canonical isomorphism T M N T N νn M is orientation-preserving.

5 LECTURE: KOBORDISMENTHEORIE, WINTER TERM 2011/12; SUMMARY AND LITERATURE5 Definition Let M i, i = 0, 1 be closed manifolds. A bordism (or cobordism) from M 0 to M 1 is a triple (W, φ 0, φ 1 ), where W is a compact manifold with boundary W = 0 W 1 W, which is decomposed into open a disjoint union of closed and open subsets. The maps φ i i W M i are diffeomorphism. Let M be a manifold with boundary. If x M, the tangent space T x M T x M is a codimension 1 subspace. A vector v T x M T x M is an inward vector if there is a smooth curve c [0, 1) M, c(t) M t = 0, c(0) = x and d c(0) = v. dt A vector v is an outward vector if v is an inward one. The subset of all inward vectors in an open half-space in the tangent space. Definition Let (W, φ 0, φ 1 ) be a bordism from M 0 to M 1. A normal vector field is a section v M T M M such that for all x 0 W, the vector v(x) is an inward vector and for all x 1 W, v(x) is outward. One can show that there is always a normal vector field and the space of normal vector fields is convex (a partition of unity argument). Any normal vector field gives ris to vector bundle isomorphism (1.28) R T W T W W ; (u, t) u + tv. Using this isomorphism, we define the notion of an oriented bordism. Definition Let M i, i = 0, 1 be oriented closed manifolds. An oriented bordism from M 0 to M 1 is a bordism (W, φ 0, φ 1 ), where W is in addition oriented, the above vector bundle isomorphism and φ i are orientation-preserving. Definition The unoriented bordism group of n-dimensional manifolds is the set N n of all bordism classes of n-dimensional manifolds. The oriented bordism group is the set of all oriented bordism classes of oriented n-manifolds. Theorem Bordism and oriented bordism are equivalence relations. The assigment [M 0 ] + [M 1 ] [M 0 M 1 ] turns both N n and Ω n into abelian groups. Moreover, defining [M 0 ][M 1 ] = [M 0 M 1 ], turns N = n 0 N n into a commutative ring and Ω = n 0 Ω n into a graded-commutative ring. Due to the classification of 1-dimensional manifolds, the zero dimensional bordism groups are easy to calculate. The result is that Ω 0 Z and N 0 Z/2. This calculation already gives rise to interesting results. Consider the following situation. Let M m be an oriented manifold, N n M m be a submanifold. Let furthermore K k be a third oriented and closed manifold and f K M be a smooth map. Assume that f N. Then f 1 (N) K is a submanifold of K; it has dimension k m + n and the normal bundle is ν K f 1 (N) f νn M. Since M and N are oriented, νn M has an orientation by the above convention and we orient f 1 (N) by this orientation convention. Taking the bordism class of f 1 (N), we obtain an element (f; N) = [f 1 (N)] Ω k m+n. That this definition makes sense is the content of the next result. The proof gives a first insight of the connection between homotopies and bordism and is an important motivation for the Pontrjagin-Thom construction.

6 6 JOHANNES EBERT Proposition If f i K M, i = 0, 1, are both transverse to N and if f 0 f 1, then [f0 1 (N)] = [f1 1 (N)] Ω k m+n. The simplest special case of the invariant (f; N) is when k m + n = 0; in this case we get an element in Ω 0 = Z. We discuss two special cases in more detail. The first is the mapping degree. Let f M n N n be a smooth map between closed oriented manifolds of the same dimension. Let z N be a regular value. Let 1 f M M N be the map x (x, f(x)) (the graph embedding). Definition The mapping degree is the element deg(f) = (1 f; M z) Ω 0 = Z. Proposition The mapping degree has the following properties: (1) If N is connected, then deg(f) does not depend on the choice of the regular value z. (2) If f 0 f 1, then deg(f 0 ) = deg(f 1 ). (3) deg fg = deg(f) deg(g). The first two properties are not entirely trivial consequences of the homotopy invariance. For the first, we consider the submanifold graph(f) = {(x, f(x)} M N and the map ι z M M N, x (x, z) and note that (1 f; M z) = ( 1) n2 (ι z, graph(f)). Now we can give a purely differential-topological proof of one of the pivotal results of homotopy theory. Let M n be a closed oriented connetced n-manifold. Let [M; S n ] be the set of homotopy classes of continuous maps. Given f M S n, we know that f is homotopic to a smooth map. The homotopy invariance of the mapping degree shows that [f] deg(f) is a well-defined map [M; S n ] Z. Theorem (Hopf) The map deg [M; S m ] Z is a bijection for each closed oriented connected n-manifold M. Corollary There is an isomorphism of groups π n (S n ) Z. 2. October 25th Another important special case of the intersection index is the Euler number of a vector bundle. Let V M be a rank k oriented vector bundle over a compact oriented manifold of dimension n. Then the Euler number Eul(V ) is defined to be the element (s; M) Ω n k, where M V is the zero section and s M V is any section transverse to the zero section. Surely Eul(V ) does not depend on the choice of s and if V has a section without zero, then Eul(V ) = 0. Computation of some examples (spheres, complex-projective spaces, oriented surfaces) give credibility to the following theorem. Theorem 2.1. If M is a closed oriented manifold, then Eul(T M) = χ(m) = n k=0( 1) k dim H k (M; Q). References [1] T. Bröcker, K. Jänich: Einführung in die Differentialtopologie, Springer-Verlag, [2] T. tom Dieck: Algebraic Topology. EMS Textsbooks in Mathematics, zürich, 2008.

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