# LECTURE 2: SYMPLECTIC VECTOR BUNDLES

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1 LECTURE 2: SYMPLECTIC VECTOR BUNDLES WEIMIN CHEN, UMASS, SPRING Symplectic Vector Spaces Definition 1.1. A symplectic vector space is a pair (V, ω) where V is a finite dimensional vector space (over R) and ω is a bilinear form which satisfies Skew-symmetry: for any u, v V, Nondegeneracy: for any u V, ω(u, v) = ω(v, u). ω(u, v) = 0 v V implies u = 0. A linear symplectomorphism of a symplectic vector space (V, ω) is a vector space isomorphism ψ : V V such that ω(ψu, ψv) = ω(u, v) u, v V. The group of linear symplectomorphisms of (V, ω) is denoted by Sp(V, ω). Example 1.2. The Euclidean space R 2n carries a standard skew-symmetric, nondegenerate bilinear form ω 0 defined as follows. For u = (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n ) T, u = (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n) T, n ω 0 (u, u ) = (x i y i x iy i ) = u T J 0 u, i=1 ( ) 0, I where J 0 =. (Here I is the n n identity matrix.) I, 0 The group of linear symplectomorphisms of (R 2n, ω 0 ), which is denoted by Sp(2n), can be identified with the group of 2n 2n symplectic matrices. Recall a symplectic matrix Ψ is one which satisfies Ψ T J 0 Ψ = J 0. For the case of n = 1, a symplectic matrix is simply a matrix Ψ with det Ψ = 1. Let (V, ω) be any symplectic vector space, and let W V be any linear subspace. The symplectic complement of W in V is defined and denoted by W ω = {v V ω(v, w) = 0, w W }. Lemma 1.3. (1) dim W + dim W ω = dim V, (2) (W ω ) ω = W. Proof. Define ι ω : V V by ι ω (v) : w ω(v, w), v, w V, where V is the dual space of V. Since ω is nondegenerate, ι ω is an isomorphism. Now observe that ι ω (W ω ) = W where W V is the annihilator of W, i.e., W {v V v (w) = 0 w W }. 1

2 2 WEIMIN CHEN, UMASS, SPRING 07 Part (1) follows immediately from the fact that dim W + dim W = dim V. Part (2) follows easily from W (W ω ) ω and the equations which are derived from (1). dim W = dim V dim W ω = dim(w ω ) ω Theorem 1.4. For any symplectic vector space (V, ω), there exists a basis of V u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n such that ω(u j, u k ) = ω(v j, v k ) = 0, ω(u j, v k ) = δ jk. (Such a basis is called a symplectic basis.) In particular, dim V = 2n is even. Proof. We prove by induction on dim V. Note that dim V 2. When dim V = 2, the nondegeneracy condition of ω implies that there exist u, v V such that ω(u, v) 0. Clearly u, v are linearly independent so that they form a basis of V since dim V = 2. We can replace v by an appropriate nonzero multiple so that the condition ω(u, v) = 1 is satisfied. Hence the theorem is true for the case of dim V = 2. Now suppose the theorem is true when dim V m 1. We shall prove that it is also true when dim V = m. Again the nondegeneracy condition of ω implies that there exist u 1, v 1 V such that u 1, v 1 are linearly independent and ω(u 1, v 1 ) = 1. Set W span(u 1, v 1 ). Then we claim that (W ω, ω W ω) is a symplectic vector space. It suffices to show that ω W ω is nondegenerate. To see this, suppose w W ω such that ω(w, z) = 0 for all z W ω. We need to show that w must be zero. To this end, note that W W ω = {0}, so that V = W W ω by (1) of the previous lemma. Now for any z V, write z = z 1 + z 2 where z 1 W and z 2 W ω. Then ω(w, z 1 ) = 0 because w W ω and ω(w, z 2 ) = 0 by z 2 W ω and the assumption on w. Hence ω(w, z) = 0, and therefore w = 0 by the nondegeneracy condition of ω on V. Note that dim W ω = dim V 2 m 1, so that by the induction hypothesis, there is a symplectic basis u 2,, u n, v 2,, v n of (W ω, ω W ω). It is clear that u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n is a symplectic basis of (V, ω), and the theorem is proved. Corollary 1.5. Let ω be any skew-symmetric bilinear form on V. Then ω is nondegenerate if and only if dim V = 2n is even and ω n = ω ω 0. Proof. Suppose ω is nondegenerate, then by the previous theorem, dim V = 2n is even, and there exists a symplectic basis u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n. Clearly ω n (u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n ) 0, hence ω n 0. Suppose dim V = 2n is even and ω n 0. Then ω must be nondegenerate, because if otherwise, there exists a u V such that ω(u, v) = 0 for all v V. We complete u into a basis u, v 1, v 2,, v 2n 1 of V. One can easily check that ω n (u, v 1, v 2,, v 2n 1 ) = 0,

3 LECTURE 2: SYMPLECTIC VECTOR BUNDLES 3 which contradicts the assumption that ω n 0. Corollary 1.6. Let (V, ω) be any symplectic vector space. Then there exists an n > 0 and a vector space isomorphism φ : R 2n V such that ω 0 (z, z ) = ω(φz, φz ), z, z R 2n. Consequently, Sp(V, ω) is isomorphic to Sp(2n). Proof. Let u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n be a symplectic basis of (V, ω). The corollary follows by defining n φ : (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n ) (x i u i + y i v i ). Definition 1.7. A complex structure on a real vector space V is an automorphism J : V V such that J 2 = id. A Hermitian structure on (V, J) is an inner product g on V which is J-invariant, i.e., g(jv, Jw) = g(v, w), for all v, w V. Let J be a complex structure on V. Then V becomes a complex vector space by defining the complex multiplication by i=1 C V V : (x + iy, v) xv + yjv. If g is a Hermitian structure on (V, J), then there is an associated Hermitian inner product h(v, w) g(v, w) + ig(v, Jw), v, w V, i.e., h : V V C satisfies (1) h is complex linear in the first V and anti-complex linear in the second V, and (2) h(v, v) > 0 for any 0 v V. Note that there always exists a Hermitian structure on (V, J), by simply taking the average 1 2 (g(v, w) + g(jv, Jw)) of any inner product g on V. Definition 1.8. Let (V, ω) be a symplectic vector space. A complex structure J on V is called ω-compatible if ω(jv, Jw) = ω(v, w) for all v, w V, ω(v, Jv) > 0 for any 0 v V. We denote the set of ω-compatible complex structures by J (V, ω). Note that J (V, ω) is nonempty: let u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n be a symplectic basis of (V, ω), then J : V V defined by Ju i = v i, Jv i = u i is a ω-compatible complex structure. Finally, for any J J (V, ω), g J (v, w) ω(v, Jw), v, w V, is a (canonically associated) Hermitian structure on (V, J). Example 1.9. J 0 is a complex structure on R 2n which is ω 0 -compatible. The associated Hermitian structure g 0 (, ) ω 0 (, J 0 ) is the usual inner product on R 2n. J 0 makes R 2n into a complex vector space by C R 2n R 2n : (x + iy, v) xv + yj 0 v,

4 4 WEIMIN CHEN, UMASS, SPRING 07 which coincides with the identification of R 2n with C n by (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n ) T (z 1, z 2,, z n ) T where z j = x j + iy j with i = 1. With this understood, the associated Hermitian inner product h 0 g 0 iω 0 on (R 2n, J 0 ) is the usual one on C n : h 0 (z, w) = w T z. We would like to understand the set J (V, ω). Lemma Suppose dim V = 2n. Then for any J J (V, ω), there is a vector space isomorphism φ J : R 2n V such that φ Jω = ω 0, φ JJ φ 1 J J φ J = J 0. Moreover, φ J : J φ 1 J J φ J identifies J (V, ω) with J (R 2n, ω 0 ). Proof. Let u 1, u 2,, u n be a unitary basis of (V, h J ), where h J is the Hermitian inner product on V associated to the canonical Hermitian structure g J (, ) ω(, J ). Then one can easily check that u 1, u 2,, u n, Ju 1, Ju 2,, Ju n form a symplectic basis of (V, ω). If we define n φ J : (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n ) (x i u i + y i Ju i ), then it is obvious that φ J ω = ω 0 and φ J J = J 0. Moreover, the verification that φ J : J φ 1 J J φ J identifies J (V, ω) with J (R 2n, ω 0 ) is straightforward. We remark that in the proof the definition of φ J may depend on the choice of the unitary basis u 1, u 2,, u n, but the identification φ J : J (V, ω) J (R2n, ω 0 ) does not, it is completely determined by J. In order to understand J (R 2n, ω 0 ), we need to go over some basic facts about the Lie group Sp(2n). To this end, recall that R 2n is identified with C n by (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n ) T (z 1, z 2,, z n ) T, where z j = x j + iy j. Under this identification, GL(n, C) is regarded as a subgroup of GL(2n, R) via ( ) X Y Z = X + iy. Y X Note that ψ GL(2n, R) belongs to GL(n, C) iff ψj 0 = J 0 ψ. Lemma U(n) = Sp(2n) O(2n) = Sp(2n) GL(n, C) = O(2n) GL(n, C). Proof. Let ψ GL(2n, R), then ψ GL(n, C) iff ψj 0 = J 0 ψ, ψ Sp(2n) iff ψ T J 0 ψ = J 0, ψ O(2n) iff ψ T ψ = I. i=1

5 LECTURE 2: SYMPLECTIC VECTOR BUNDLES 5 The last two identities in the lemma ( follows) immediately. X Y It remains to show that a ψ = GL(n, C) lies in Sp(2n) iff ψ = X+iY Y X lies in U(n). But one can check easily that both conditions are equivalent to the following set of equations The lemma follows immediately. X T Y = Y T X, X T X + Y T Y = I. The previous lemma in particular says that U(n) is a subgroup of Sp(2n). space of right orbits Sp(2n)/U(n) {ψ U(n) ψ Sp(2n)} is known to be naturally a smooth manifold. We denote by the orbit of identity I Sp(2n) in Sp(2n)/U(n). Theorem There exists a canonically defined smooth map H : Sp(2n)/U(n) [0, 1] Sp(2n)/U(n) such that H(, 0) = id, H(, 1)(x) = { } for any x Sp(2n)/U(n), and H(, t) = for any t [0, 1]. In particular, Sp(2n)/U(n) is contractible. Proof. First of all, for any ψ Sp(2n), ψ T is also in Sp(2n), so that ψψ T is a symmetric, positive definite symplectic matrix. We will show that (ψψ T ) α is also a symplectic matrix for any real number α. To this end, we decompose R 2n = λ V λ where V λ is the λ-eigenspace of ψψ T, and λ > 0. Then note that for any z V λ, z V λ, ω 0 (z, z ) = 0 if λλ 1. Our claim that (ψψ T ) α is a symplectic matrix for any real number α follows easily from this observation. Now for any ψ Sp(2n), we decompose ψ = P Q where P = (ψψ T ) 1/2 is symmetric and Q O(2n). Note that Q = ψp 1 Sp(2n) O(2n) = U(n), which shows that ψ and P = (ψψ T ) 1/2 are in the same orbit in Sp(2n)/U(n). With this understood, we define H : (ψ U(n), t) (ψψ T ) (1 t)/2 U(n), ψ Sp(2n), t [0, 1]. Lemma J (R 2n, ω 0 ) is canonically identified with Sp(2n)/U(n), under which J 0 is sent to. Proof. By Lemma 1.11, for any J J (R 2n, ω 0 ), there exists a φ J Sp(2n) such that φ J J φ 1 J J φ J = J 0, or equivalently, J = φ J J 0 φ 1 J. The correspondence J φ J induces a map from J (R 2n, ω 0 ) to Sp(2n)/U(n), which is clearly one to one and onto. Note that under the correspondence, J 0 is sent to. The set of ω-compatible complex structures J (V, ω) can be given a natural topology so that it becomes a smooth manifold. Lemma 1.10, Theorem 1.12 and Lemma 1.13 give rise to the following The

6 6 WEIMIN CHEN, UMASS, SPRING 07 Corollary Given any J J (V, ω), there exists a canonically defined smooth map H J : J (V, ω) [0, 1] J (V, ω) depending smoothly on J, such that H J (, 0) = id, H J (, 1)(J ) = {J} for any J J (V, ω), and H(J, t) = J for any t [0, 1]. Recall that for any J J (V, ω), there is a canonically associated Hermitian structure (i.e. a J-invariant inner product) g J (, ) ω(, J ). The next theorem shows that one can construct ω-compatible complex structures from inner products on V. Let Met(V ) denote the space of inner products on V. Theorem There exists a canonically defined map r : Met(V ) J (V, ω) such that r(g J ) = J, r(ψ g) = ψ r(g) for all J J (V, ω), g Met(V ), and ψ Sp(V, ω). Proof. For any given g Met(V ), we define A : V V by ω(v, w) = g(av, w), v, w V. Then the skew-symmetry of ω implies that A is g-skew-adjoint. It follows that P A 2 is g-self-adjoint and g-positive definite. Set Q P 1/2, which is also g-self-adjoint and g-positive definite. We define the map r by g J g Q 1 A. Then J 2 g = Q 1 AQ 1 A = Q 2 A 2 = I is a complex structure. To check that J g is ω-compatible, note that ω(q 1 Av, Q 1 Aw) = g(aq 1 Av, Q 1 Aw) = g(v, Aw) = ω(v, w), v, w V, ω(v, Q 1 Av) = g(av, Q 1 Av) > 0 0 v V because Q 1 is g-self-adjoint and g-positive definite. Finally, for any ψ Sp(V, ω), replacing g with ψ g changes A to ψ 1 Aψ, and therefore changes Q to ψ 1 Qψ. This implies r(ψ g) = ψ r(g). If g = g J, then A = J and Q = I, so that r(g J ) = J. 2. Symplectic Vector Bundles Definition 2.1. A symplectic vector bundle over a smooth manifold M is a pair (E, ω), where E M is a real vector bundle and ω is a smooth section of E E such that for each p M, (E p, ω p ) is a symplectic vector space. (Here E is the dual of E.) The section ω is called a symplectic bilinear form on E. Two symplectic vector bundles (E 1, ω 1 ), (E 2, ω 2 ) are said to be isomorphic if there exists an isomorphism φ : E 1 E 2 (which is identity over M) such that φ ω 2 = ω 1. The standard constructions in bundle theory carry over to the case of symplectic vector bundles. For example, for any smooth map f : N M and symplectic vector bundle (E, ω) over M, the pull-back (f E, f ω) is a symplectic vector bundle over N. In particular, for any submanifold Q M, the restriction (E Q, ω Q ) is a symplectic vector bundle over Q. Let F be a sub-bundle of E such that for each

7 LECTURE 2: SYMPLECTIC VECTOR BUNDLES 7 p M, (F p, ω p Fp ) is a symplectic vector space. Then (F, ω F ) is naturally a symplectic vector bundle. We call F (or (F, ω F )) a symplectic sub-bundle of (E, ω). The symplectic complement of F is the sub-bundle F ω p M F ωp p = p M {v E p ω p (v, w) = 0, w F p }, which is naturally a symplectic sub-bundle of (E, ω). Note that as a real vector bundle, F ω is isomorphic to the quotient bundle E/F. Given any symplectic vector bundles (E 1, ω 1 ), (E 2, ω 2 ), the symplectic direct sum (E 1 E 2, ω 1 ω 2 ) is naturally a symplectic vector bundle. With this understood, note that for any symplectic sub-bundle F of (E, ω), one has (E, ω) = (F, ω F ) (F ω, ω F ω). Example 2.2. Let (M, ω) be a symplectic manifold. Note that ω as a 2-form on M is a smooth section of Ω 2 (M) T M T M. The nondegeneracy condition on ω implies that (T M, ω) is a symplectic vector bundle. Note that the closedness of ω is irrelevant here. Suppose Q is a symplectic submanifold of (M, ω). Then T Q is a symplectic subbundle of (T M Q, ω Q ). The normal bundle ν Q T M Q /T Q of Q in M is also naturally a symplectic sub-bundle of (T M Q, ω Q ) by identifying ν Q with the symplectic complement T Q ω of T Q. Notice the symplectic direct sum T M Q = T Q ν Q. Definition 2.3. Let (E, ω) be a symplectic vector bundle over M. A complex structure J of E, i.e., a smooth section J of Aut(E) M such that J 2 = I, is said to be ω-compatible if for each p M, J p is ω p -compatible, i.e., J p J (E p, ω p ). The space of all ω-compatible complex structures of E is denoted by J (E, ω). Example 2.4. Let (M, ω) be a symplectic manifold. Then a complex structure of T M is simply what we call an almost complex structure on M. An almost complex structure J on M is said to be ω-compatible if J J (T M, ω). In this context, we denote J (T M, ω), the set of ω-compatible almost complex structures on M, by J (M, ω). Notice that the closedness of ω is irrelevant here. In what follows, we will address the issue of classification of symplectic vector bundles up to isomorphisms, and determine the topology of the space J (E, ω). Lemma 2.5. Let (E, ω) be a symplectic vector bundle over M of rank 2n. (1) There exists an open cover {U i } of M such that for each i, there is a symplectic trivialization φ i : (E Ui, ω Ui ) (U i R 2n, ω 0 ). In particular, the transition functions φ ji (p) φ j φ 1 i (p) Sp(2n) for each p U i U j, and E becomes a Sp(2n)-vector bundle. Conversely, any Sp(2n)-vector bundle is a symplectic vector bundle, and their classification up to isomorphisms is identical. (2) (E, ω) as a Sp(2n)-vector bundle admits a lifting to a U(n)-vector bundle if and only if there exists a J J (E, ω). Proof. For any p M, one can prove by induction as in Theorem 1.4 (with a parametric version) that there exists a small neighborhood U p of p and smooth sections

8 8 WEIMIN CHEN, UMASS, SPRING 07 u 1, u 2,, u n, v 1, v 2,, v n of E over U p such that for each q U p, u 1 (q), u 2 (q),, u n (q), v 1 (q), v 2 (q),, v n (q) form a symplectic basis of (E q, ω q ). Part (1) follows immediately from this by defining φ p : (E Up, ω Up ) (U p R 2n, ω 0 ) to be the inverse of n (q, (x 1, x 2,, x n, y 1, y 2,, y n ) T ) (x i u i (q) + y i v i (q)). For part (2), if (E, ω) as a Sp(2n)-vector bundle admits a lifting to a U(n)-vector bundle, then the corresponding complex structure J on E is ω-compatible because the Hermitian structure and J determines ω completely. If there exists a J J (E, ω), then one can show that there are local smooth sections u 1, u 2,, u n which form a unitary basis at each point for (E, J, h J ). This makes E into a U(n)-vector bundle, which is a lifting of the Sp(2n)-vector bundle because u 1, u 2,, u n, Ju 1, Ju 2,, Ju n are local smooth sections which form a symplectic basis at each point for (E, ω). Lemma 2.6. Any Sp(2n)-vector bundle over a smooth manifold admits a lifting to a U(n)-vector bundle, which is unique up to isomorphisms (as U(n)-vector bundles). Consequently, for any J 1, J 2 J (E, ω), the complex vector bundles (E, J 1 ), (E, J 2 ) are isomorphic. (In other words, every symplectic vector bundle has a underlying complex vector bundle structure unique up to isomorphisms.) Proof. By Theorem 1.12, Sp(2n)/U(n) is contractible. This implies that the classifying spaces BSp(2n) and BU(n) are homotopy equivalent via i : BU(n) BSp(2n) induced by i : U(n) Sp(2n). In particular, any Sp(2n)-vector bundle over a smooth manifold M, which is classified by a map from M into BSp(2n) unique up to homotopy, can be lifted to a U(n)-vector bundle by lifting the classifying map to a map from M into BU(n), and such a lifting is unique up to isomorphisms. Theorem 2.7. Let (E 1, ω 1 ), (E 2, ω 2 ) be two symplectic vector bundles. Then they are isomorphic as symplectic vector bundles iff they are isomorphic as complex vector bundles. Proof. Pick J 1 J (E 1, ω 1 ), J 2 J (E 2, ω 2 ). Then by the previous lemma (E 1, ω 1 ), (E 2, ω 2 ) are isomorphic as symplectic vector bundles iff (E 1, J 1, ω 1 ), (E 2, J 2, ω 2 ) are isomorphic as U(n)-vector bundles. But the classification of U(n)-vector bundles up to isomorphisms is the same as classification of the underlying complex vector bundles because GL(n, C)/U(n) is contractible. The theorem follows immediately. Theorem 2.8. For any symplectic vector bundle (E, ω), the space of ω-compatible complex structures J (E, ω) is nonempty and contractible. Proof. There are actually two proofs of this important fact. Proof 1: The nonemptiness of J (E, ω) follows from Lemmas 2.5 and 2.6. On the other hand, for any J J (E, ω), a parametric version of Corollary 1.14 gives rise to a deformation retraction of J (E, ω) to {J}, which shows that J (E, ω) is contractible. i=1

9 LECTURE 2: SYMPLECTIC VECTOR BUNDLES 9 Proof 2: A parametric version of Theorem 1.15 gives rise to a similar map r : Met(E) J (E, ω). Contractibility of J (E, ω) follows from convexity of Met(E). Corollary 2.9. For any symplectic manifold (M, ω), the space of ω-compatible almost complex structures on M is nonempty and contractible. Proof 2 of Theorem 2.8 is less conceptual than proof 1 but more useful in various concrete constructions. As an example of illustration, we prove the following Proposition Let Q be a symplectic submanifold of (M, ω). Then for any J J (Q, ω Q ), there exists a Ĵ J (M, ω) such that Ĵ T Q = J. In particular, every symplectic submanifold of (M, ω) is a pseudo-holomorphic submanifold for some ω- compatible almost complex structure on M. Proof. Recall the symplectic direct sum decomposition (T M Q, ω Q ) = (T Q, ω T Q ) (ν Q, ω νq ), where ν Q is the normal bundle of Q in M. For any J J (Q, ω Q ), we can extend it to J = (J, J ν ) by choosing a J ν J (ν Q, ω νq ). We then extend the corresponding metric ω(, J ) on T M Q over the whole M to a metric g on T M. Let r : Met(M) J (M, ω) be the parametric version of the map in Theorem Then Ĵ r(g) satisfies Ĵ T Q = J, and in particular, Q is a pseudo-holomorphic submanifold with respect to the ω-compatible almost complex structure Ĵ on M. We end this section with a brief discussion about integrability of almost complex structures. Recall that an almost complex structure J on a manifold M is said to be integrable, if M is the underlying real manifold of a complex manifold and J comes from the complex structure. Let (M, J) be an almost complex manifold with almost complex structure J. The Nijenhuis tensor of J is defined by N J (X, Y ) = [JX, JY ] J[JX, Y ] J[X, JY ] [X, Y ] for two vector fields X, Y : M T M. N J is a bilinear map T p M T p M T p M for each p M, and has properties N J (X, X) = 0 and N J (X, JX) = 0 for any vector field X. In particular, N J = 0 if M is 2-dimensional. Moreover, one can also check easily that N J = 0 if J is integrable. The converse is given by the following highly nontrivial theorem of A. Newlander and L. Nirenberg. Theorem (Newlander-Nirenberg). An almost complex structure is integrable if and only if the Nijenhuis tensor vanishes. In particular, every symplectic 2-dimensional manifold is Kähler. References [1] D. McDuff and D. Salamon, Introduction to Symplectic Topology, Oxford Mathematical Monographs, 2nd edition, Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.

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