Answers: Internal Processes and Structures (Isostasy)

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Answers: Internal Processes and Structures (Isostasy) 1. Analyse the adjustment of the crust to changes in loads associated with volcanism, mountain building, erosion, and glaciation by using the concept of isostasy Isostasy refers to the concept of how the lithosphere floats on top of the asthenosphere. As a volcano is adding dense rock to the crust the lithosphere will sink lower into the asthenosphere. Mountain building is a result of the crust being folded, and this will cause the lithosphere to sink further into the asthenosphere. However, the opposite occurs during erosion as sediment is carried off the mountain the crust will rebound and float higher. During the ice ages the massive ice sheets pushed down on the continental crust to make it float lower. As the ice sheets melted the continental crusts has rebounded. So Northern Canada and Scandinavia are still rising. 2. Explain how mountains can rise even though they are eroding? Mountains can rise even though being eroded because as a lot of material is carried off the mountain top the lithosphere floats higher. 3. Which of the following is a result of isostatic adjustment? a) Glacial flow down a valley b) Crust sinking beneath a delta c) Displacement along a transform fault d) Mountain building at a convergent plate boundary 4. Which of the following before and after sequences shows the correct Isostatic response? Use the following map that shows rates of crustal uplift in Scandinavia to answer question 5. The numbered lines join points of equal crustal uplift. 5. At location X, the crust is rising a) fastest because this is where the Pleistocene ice cap was the thickest. b) fastest because this is where the Pleistocene ice cap was the thinnest. c) slowest because this is where the Pleistocene ice cap was the thickest. d) slowest because this is where the Pleistocene ice cap was the thinnest Answers to Workbook 4

2 Use the following diagram to answer question 6 and After the sediments have been eroded, location X in the granite will be at a higher elevation above sea level. What is the name given to this process. Isostasy 7. Describe why the granite is now above sea level. As the overlying sediment erodes weight is removed from the lithosphere. As a result the lithosphere crust can float higher on the asthenosphere. The granite batholith will be at a higher elevation than before. Use the following cross-section of part of the coast of western Vancouver Island to answer question 8 8. One prominent feature of the coastal section is the series of beaches at different heights above sea level. Give two geologically reasonable explanations for how the beaches could have formed. The first should involve plate tectonics, and the second explanation should involve glaciation. Draw diagrams to help illustrate your answer. a) Explanation 1 (Plate Tectonics) Vancouver Island rises as the Juan de Fuca plate subducts below the North American plate. The tremendous forces of collision lift and create mountains, thus leaving beaches abandoned. b) Explanation 2 (Glaciation) During the ice age the enormous weight of the glaciers pushed the lithosphere down. But when the glaciers melted the weight was removed and the lithosphere has rebounded, thus leaving beaches abandoned. In this diagram the two beaches furthest west are submerged because the lithosphere has sunk lower Answers to Workbook 4

3 Answers: Internal Processes and Structures (Structural Geology) 1. Describe the factors that determine if a rock will behave in a plastic or brittle manner when stressed. When rocks behave in a plastic manner they undergo a large deformation for little added stress. The rock will not return to its original shape. When rocks behave in a brittle manner the rocks break before any real plastic deformation occurs. Temperature and pressure both affect whether a rock will behave in a plastic manner or brittle: there is more temperature and pressure inside the Earth, and these rocks tend to behave in a more plastic manner than those colder and less pressurized rocks near the surface. Another factor is tensile vs. compression stress. Different rocks behave differently when subjected to squeezing or pulling. Or the same rock may behave in a plastic manner when compressed, but a brittle manner when stretched. 2. Distinguish between faults and joints. Where there is no movement along a fracture in the rocks it is a joint, but if there is relative movement it is a fault. 3. Draw dip-slip (normal, reverse, thrust), strike-slip (left lateral, right lateral), and transform faults. Include arrows showing appropriate forces associated with the various types of faults (compressional, tensional and shear forces.) Normal Fault If the hanging wall (above) moves down relative to the footwall (below). Tensional forces. Hanging Wall Hanging Wall Footwall Reverse Fault If the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall. Compressional forces. Footwall Thrust A reverse fault with a very shallow (low angle) dip. Compressional forces Answers to Workbook 4

4 Strike Slip (Transform) If the relative movement along a fault is horizontal in the direction of the strike. This diagram is a right lateral strike slip fault. Shear forces. 4. Draw a diagram to explain the dip and strike of a structure. Strike is the compass direction of a line formed by the horizontal and inclined rock layers. Dip is the angle between the horizontal and inclined rocks. The strike and dip symbol would be: (Note that the symbol is always a perpendicular capital T.) Answers to Workbook 4

5 5. Draw a dome, basin, anticline, syncline, and overturned fold, and include arrows showing appropriate forces associated with these structures. Anticlines Synclines An upward fold A downward fold The oldest rocks are in the middle and the youngest rocks have eroded The youngest rocks are in the middle and the oldest rocks deep underneath Overturned folds The fold is tilted to the horizontal The limb is folded right over. Basin A downward fold in a circle. The youngest rocks are in the middle and the oldest rocks deep underneath Dome An upward fold in a circle. The oldest rocks are in the middle and the youngest rocks are eroded. Note: all folds are formed by compressional forces as found at converging plate boundaries Answers to Workbook 4

6 6. Which of the following block diagrams shows a left lateral strike-slip fault? 12. A fault that results from crustal stretching is represented in diagram A is a normal fault in which the block to the right, the hanging wall, has slipped down relative to the footwall. 13. Thrust faults would most likely occur at plate boundaries that are a) divergent b) transform c) convergent d) constructive 14. What type of faulting commonly occurs as a result of tensional stresses? a) Reverse fault b) Normal fault c) Thrust fault d) Strike slip fault Use the following diagram to answer question The structures shown in the diagram most likely formed at a boundary where the plates were a) moving apart. b) rising upwards c) coming together d) sliding past each other. These are all normal faults Answers to Workbook 4

7 16. Which of the geologic map symbols represent a tilted rock layer with a strike of 0 degrees and a dip of 45 degrees east? a) b) c) d) 17. When excessive stress is applied to rocks at great depth where temperatures and confining pressures are higher, the rocks are likely to a) rupture in a brittle fashion b) deform in a plastic manner c) continue to behave elastically, without any permanent effects of strain d) rupture in a brittle fashion initially and then begin to deform or bend in a plastic fashion Use the following map to answer question 18 and Which of the following sketches corresponds to the cross section along X and Y in the map above? 19. The name given to this structure is a) anticline b) syncline c) thrust fault d) basin 20. Which layer is the oldest? a) Black shale b) Red sandstone c) Grey limestone d) Cannot be determined e) Use the following geologic block diagram to answer questions 21 to There has been no vertical movement on fault F. Fault F would be best classified as a a) normal dip-slip fault. b) reverse dip-slip fault. c) left lateral strike-slip. d) right lateral strike-slip Answers to Workbook 4

8 22. The fold shown on the block diagram would be best described as a a) plunging syncline. b) plunging anticline. c) non-plunging syncline. d) non-plunging anticline. 23. Location P lies on the contact between the shale and the sandstone. The correct strike and dip symbol at location P would be Use the following map to answer questions 24 to Fault F would be classified as a) thrust b) normal c) reverse d) strike slip 25. Which layer is the oldest? a) limestone b) sandstone c) shale d) granite The graptolite in the limestone is older than the brachiopod in the shale. Therefore, the centre sandstone must be even older 26. What is the name of the fold which has affected the sedimentary rocks? a) Syncline. b) Anticline. The oldest rocks are in the middle, c) Plunging syncline. therefore it s an anticline. d) Plunging anticline. 27. Describe one change you would expect to see in the fossiliferous limestone due to contact metamorphism near the granite intrusion. The fossils would be destroyed by metamorphism. The limestone would be more like marble. The limestone would loose porosity 28. What changes in crystal size would be observed by a geologist as she walked the 200 metre section from X to Y across the granite? The crystals would become larger, because the cooling time would have been longer further from the edge of the granitic intrusion Answers to Workbook 4

9 29. The contact between the granite and the shale at position P is dipping to the west. The correct strike and dip symbol at position P is Use the following sketch map of a geological structure to answer question The geological structure shown in the sketch map is either a dome or a basin. a) Give evidence involving: i) the dip and strike of the strata, and ii) the ages of the strata that a geologist could look for to prove whether the structure is a dome or a basin. i) Evidence using the dip and strike of the strata: If it were a dome all the strata, rock layers, would dip away from the centre, whereas if it were a basin all the strata would dip toward the centre. ii) Evidence using the ages of the strata: If it were a dome the oldest rocks would be at the centre, whereas if it were a basin the youngest rocks would be at the centre. b) A vertical hole drilled at location X on the structure encountered three different rock strata. Assuming that the structure is a dome, sketch, in the space provided below, the first three strata that would be encountered in the drill hole. 31. Which sketch represents a map view of a plunging anticline? A B C D Answers to Workbook 4

10 32. Explain why you made your choice for question 31. Anticlines have their oldest rocks in the middle, the Mesozoic occurred before the Cenozoic. A plunging fold occurs when the fold axis dips down from the horizontal. In this case the plunge is to the southeast. 33. In the space provided below, sketch and clearly label a cross section that contains an anticline cut by a reverse fault Answers to Workbook 4

11 Use the following map of exposed sedimentary rock layers to answer question 34 Oldest Youngest 34. The map above has been constructed by sampling the surface rocks and measuring strike direction and dip angles. a) Complete the cross section for the map area above. See above b) Name the structure found between X and Y Syncline c) Label the oldest layers and youngest layer See diagram above Answers to Workbook 4

12 Use the geological map on this page to answer questions 35 to The orientation of the strata shown on the Geological Map is a) strike east, dip 30 degrees north. b) strike south, dip 30 degrees east. c) strike north, dip 30 degrees west. d) strike west, dip 30 degrees south. 36. The movement along structure X on the Geological Map is entirely vertical. Structure X is most likely a a) joint. b) dip-slip fault. c) unconformity. d) strike-slip fault. Use the following map of outcrops to answer question This map includes the geology of various outcrops in a small region. It reveals a geological structure. a) Complete the map view of the geologic structure on the diagram. See above b) Name the geological structure. Give evidence to support your answer. A syncline because the youngest layer is in the middle c) Draw the correct strike dip symbol in the box on the diagram. See above. The strike dip direction is about 45 0 NW, but the dip angle cannot be determined Answers to Workbook 4

13 Use the following map to answer questions 38 to 43 on the next page. The map area is generally flat except for the northeast section where the land surface rises steeply in a hill formed from nearly horizontal layers of schist, gabbro and quartzite units. 38. Name the type of fold which is shown on the flat part of the map and describe, with reference to the available geologic evidence, how the fold would likely have formed. It is a dome. This is because of the general shape of the structure circular, and because the oldest rocks are in the middle of the structure. 39. Would the type of stress that formed the fault have been compressive, tensional or horizontal shear? There is no indication of any vertical displacement and so the fault must be due to horizontal shear, it is a strike slip fault. 40. Describe how the schist, gabbro and quartzite units may have come to be overlying the folded rocks and give evidence, from the geologic map, for your reasoning. The schist, gabbro and quartzite units are not of the same general shape as the dome and they are indeed much older than the rocks of the dome. In addition, these overlying units have been metamorphosed. The schist, gabbro and quartzite units have likely been thrust faulted over the top of the dome units. However, the sequence could be accreted material along an old coastline. 41. The gabbro unit has a rich concentration of magnetite towards its base. Describe how the magnetite was concentrated in this way. The magnetite was concentrated by crystal settling, while the gabbro was cooling. The magnetite crystallizes from the magma melt and settles to the bottom of the chamber because it is more dense than the magma. 42. Place the following events in correct order Events in random order Events in correct order Intrusion of the gabbro Formation of the fault Youngest Deposition of the limestone Intrusion of the diorite Formation of the fault Intrusion of the diorite Deposition of the limestone Intrusion of the gabbro Metamorphism to form the schist Metamorphism to form the schist Oldest 43. List in the correct order, the name and age of the first five rock units which would be encountered in a drill hole at point Z. Order Name of rock unit and age 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Pleistocene sediment Oligocene siltstone Limestone Sandstone Green shale Answers to Workbook 4

Chapter. Mountain Building

Chapter Mountain Building 11.1 Rock Deformation Factors Affecting Deformation Factors that influence the strength of a rock and how it will deform include temperature, confining pressure, rock type, and

Chapter 16. Mountain Building. Mountain Building. Mountains and Plate Tectonics. what s the connection?

Chapter 16 Mountains and Plate Tectonics what s the connection? Mountain Building Most crustal deformation occurs along plate margins. S.2 Active Margin Passive Margin Mountain Building Factors Affecting

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 10 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 10 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

CHAPTER 7 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms.

Chapter 10 Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms. Reading Strategy Previewing Before you read the section,

Forces in Earth s Crust

Forces in Earth s Crust (pages 180 186) Types of Stress (page 181) Key Concept: Tension, compression, and shearing work over millions of years to change the shape and volume of rock. When Earth s plates

Chapter 10: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Section 1: The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions I. Factors Affecting Eruptions Group # Main Idea:

Chapter 10: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Section 1: The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions I. Factors Affecting Eruptions Group # A. Viscosity Group # B. Dissolved Gases Group # II. Volcanic Material

Plate Tectonics. entirely rock both and rock

Plate Tectonics I. Tectonics A. Tectonic Forces are forces generated from within Earth causing rock to become. B. 1. The study of the origin and arrangement of Earth surface including mountain belts, continents,

Deformation of the Crust

Deformation of the Crust Review Choose the best response. Write the letter of that choice in the space provided. 1. The state of balance between the thickness of the crust and the depth at which it rides

GEOLOGIC MAPS PART II

EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY - EES 1005 LABORATORY FIVE GEOLOGIC MAPS PART II Introduction Geologic maps of orogenic belts are much more complex than maps of the stable interior. Just

Movement of the Earth s Crust: Formation of: Mountain s Plateau's and Dome s

Movement of the Earth s Crust: Formation of: Mountain s Plateau's and Dome s References Information taken from several places including Prentice Hall Earth Science: @ http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetaili

Name Student ID Exam 2c GEOL 1113 Fall 2009

Name Student ID Exam 2c GEOL 1113 Fall 2009 1. When a marine geologist collects a core of undeformed ocean-floor sediment, she knows that the youngest layer is on the top of the core and the oldest is

GLY 155 Introduction to Physical Geology, W. Altermann. Press & Siever, compressive forces. Compressive forces cause folding and faulting.

Press & Siever, 1995 compressive forces Compressive forces cause folding and faulting. faults 1 Uplift is followed by erosion, which creates new horizontal surface. lava flows Volcanic eruptions cover

Section 3 Deforming Earth s Crust

Section 3 Deforming Earth s Crust Key Concept Tectonic plate motions deform Earth s crust. Deformation causes rock layers to bend and break and causes mountains to form. What You Will Learn Stress is placed

Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS. asthenosphere uplift continental drift. known as. tectonic plates move. object. UNDERSTANDING KEY IDEAS

Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS 1. Use the following terms in the same sentence: crust, mantle, and core. Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the

Name Geo 4 Practice Match the principle on the left (column A) with the definition (or part of the definition) on the right (column B).

Name Geo 4 Practice 1 Target 1 2 3 4 Geo 4 I can define the create, alter and/or destroy the rock record. I can interpret a diagram to determine the sequence of events (relative age) in Earth s history

General Geology Lab #7: Geologic Time & Relative Dating

General Geology 89.101 Name: General Geology Lab #7: Geologic Time & Relative Dating Purpose: To use relative dating techniques to interpret geological cross sections. Procedure: Today we will be interpreting

Geomorphology Final Exam Study Guide

Geomorphology Final Exam Study Guide Geologic Structures STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY concerned with shapes, arrangement, interrelationships of bedrock units & endogenic (within) forces that cause them. Tectonic

Learning Objectives (LO) What we ll learn today:!

Learning Objectives (LO) Lecture 13: Mountain Building Read: Chapter 10 Homework #11 due Tuesday 12pm What we ll learn today:! 1. Define the types of stress that are present in the crust! 2. Define the

Faults, Fossils, Rocks and Minerals Review:

Faults, Fossils, Rocks and Minerals Review: 1. The preserved remains or traces of organisms that lived in the past are. - Fossils 2. How do Fossils form? - A dead organism becomes buried in sediment 3.

I. Earth s Layers a. Crust: Earth s outside layer. Made of mostly rock. i. Continental: er; made of mostly granite, forms the continents and shallow

I. Earth s Layers a. Crust: Earth s outside layer. Made of mostly rock. i. Continental: er; made of mostly granite, forms the continents and shallow sea beds, floats! ii. Oceanic: er; dense rock such as

Mountain Building. Mountain Building

Mountain Building Mountain building has occurred during the recent geologic past American Cordillera the western margin of the Americas from Cape Horn to Alaska Includes the Andes and Rocky Mountains Alpine

Chapter 7 Plate Tectonics. Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth s surface and major geologic events.

Chapter 7 Plate Tectonics Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth s surface and major geologic events. 7-2 Alfred Wegener s Hypothesis of Continental Drift (1915) He noticed that the continents

Forces in Earth s Crust

Forces in Earth s Crust This section explains how stresses in Earth s crust cause breaks, or faults, in the crust. The section also explains how faults and folds in Earth s crust form mountains. Use Target

Name Class Date. 1. What is the outermost layer of the Earth called?. a. core b. lithosphere c. asthenosphere d. mesosphere

Name Class Date Assessment Geology Plate Tectonics MULTIPLE CHOICE Write the letter of the correct answer in the space provided. 1. What is the outermost layer of the Earth called?. a. core b. lithosphere

Plate Tectonics Unit II: Plate Boundaries (3.5 pts)

T. James Noyes, El Camino College Plate Tectonics Unit II: The Plate Boundaries (Topic 11A-2) page 1 Name: Section: Plate Tectonics Unit II: Plate Boundaries (3.5 pts) Plate Boundaries We will now discuss

Page 1. Name:

Name: Questions 1 through 3 refer to the following: The diagrams below represent two rock outcrops found several miles apart in New York State. Individual rock layers are lettered, and fossils and rock

Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion

Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion Key Terms Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere Plate Tectonics

NC Earth Science Essential Standards

NC Earth Science Essential Standards EEn. 2.1 Explain how processes and forces affect the Lithosphere. EEn. 2.1.1 Explain how the rock cycle, plate tectonics, volcanoes, and earthquakes impact the Lithosphere.

Name. 4. The diagram below shows a soil profile formed in an area of granite bedrock. Four different soil horizons, A, B, C, and D, are shown.

Name 1. In the cross section of the hill shown below, which rock units are probably most resistant to weathering? 4. The diagram below shows a soil profile formed in an area of granite bedrock. Four different

Skills Worksheet Directed Reading page 185-190 Section: Determining Relative Age 1. How old is Earth estimated to be? 2. Who originated the idea that Earth is billions of years old? 3. On what did the

September 14, SWBAT explain how divergent boundaries shape Earth s surface.

September 14, 2016 Aims: SWBAT explain how divergent boundaries shape Earth s surface. Agenda 1. Do Now 2. Class Notes 3. Guided Practice 4. Independent Practice 5. Practicing our AIMS: Homework: EI.11

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE

Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 9 Plate Tectonics 9.1 Continental Drift An Idea Before Its Time Wegener s continental drift hypothesis stated that the continents had once been joined

Plate Tectonics and the cycling of Earth materials

Plate Tectonics and the cycling of Earth materials Plate tectonics drives the rock cycle: the movement of rocks (and the minerals that comprise them, and the chemical elements that comprise them) from

GY111 Earth Materials Practice Final Exam

I. True/False Questions: circle a T for true or F for false (10% total -or- 0.5 per) 1. (T F) The Uranium used in nuclear power plants may explode if not controlled properly. 2. (T F) Natural Gas is an

Grade 7 Earth/Space Posttest Select the best answer to each question. 1. The three compositional layers of Earth are the core, the mantle, and the crust. Which phrase best describes the crust? A. the innermost

Topic 5: The Dynamic Crust (workbook p ) Evidence that Earth s crust has shifted and changed in both the past and the present is shown by:

Topic 5: The Dynamic Crust (workbook p. 65-85) Evidence that Earth s crust has shifted and changed in both the past and the present is shown by: --sedimentary horizontal rock layers (strata) are found

Geologic Mapping Regional Tournament Trial Event

Geologic Mapping Regional Tournament Trial Event A TEAM OF UP TO: 2 Team Name AVAILABLE TIME: 50 min Required Materials: Each team MUST have a protractor, ruler, non-programmable calculator, colored pencils,

Mountains, like those shown in Figure 1, provide some of the most

Section 11.1 11.1 Rock Deformation 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 11.1 Identify the factors that determine the strength of a rock and how it will deform. 11.2 Explain how rocks permanently deform. 11.3 Distinguish

Use a highlighter to mark the most important parts, or the parts. you want to remember in the background information.

P a g e 1 Name A Fault Model Purpose: To explore the types of faults and how they affect the geosphere Background Information: A fault is an area of stress in the earth where broken rocks slide past each

Evolution of Continents Chapter 20

Evolution of Continents Chapter 20 Does not contain complete lecture notes. Mountain belts Orogenesis the processes that collectively produce a mountain belt Includes folding, thrust faulting, metamorphism,

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks

1. Which characteristic of nonsedimentary rocks would provide the least evidence about the environment in which the rocks were formed? A) structure B) color C) crystal size D) mineral composition 2. Which

Answer sheet for question 1 Answer question 1 as soon as the sample arrives at your desk.

EAS 233 Geologic structures. Final test. April 2012. 3 hours. Answer question 1 and 2 and three other questions. If you start more than the required number of questions, clearly delete the answers you

Review Questions- GEOL 10113

Review Questions- GEOL 10113 Dr. Morgan 1. Pangaea broke up at the end of which era? 2. Marble and quartzite are in which rock category? 3. Which rocks indicate high grade (temp) or low grade (temp) metamorphism?

State the principle of uniformitarianism. Explain how the law of superposition can be used to determine the relative age of rocks.

Objectives State the principle of uniformitarianism. Explain how the law of superposition can be used to determine the relative age of rocks. Compare three types of unconformities. Apply the law of crosscutting

Question #1 Assume that the diagram below shows a cross section of part of the lithosphere.

Name: Class: Date: Question #1 Assume that the diagram below shows a cross section of part of the lithosphere. Which diagram correctly shows what will happen to the lithosphere when pushed by tectonic

Earth History Exam. The remains of an early dinosaur could be found at reference point A. A B. B C. C D. D. page 1

Name: Date: 1. Base your answer(s) to the following question(s) on the Earth Science Reference Tables and your knowledge of Earth science. The accompanying cross section shows undisturbed sedimentary bedrock.

Forces in Earth s Crust

Name Date Class Earthquakes Section Summary Forces in Earth s Crust Guide for Reading How does stress in the crust change Earth s surface? Where are faults usually found, and why do they form? What land

Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks

Chapter 4 Rocks & Igneous Rocks Rock Definition A naturally occurring consolidated mixture of one or more minerals e.g, marble, granite, sandstone, limestone Rock Definition Must naturally occur in nature,

Captain s Tryouts 2017

Captain s Tryouts 2017 Dynamic Planet Test Written by: Araneesh Pratap (Chattahoochee High School) Name: Date: Answer all questions on the answer sheet. Point values are given next to each question or

Chapter 10. Chapter Rocks and the Rock Cycle. Rocks. Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle

Chapter 10 Rocks 1 Chapter 10 Section 1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle 2 10.1 Rocks and the Rock Cycle Magma is the parent material for all rocks. Once the magma cools and hardens, many changes can occur. Geology:

PLATE TECTONICS REVIEW GAME!!!!

PLATE TECTONICS REVIEW GAME!!!! Name the four layers of the earth - crust - mantle - outer core - inner core Which part of Earth s structure contains tectonic plates? LITHOSPHERE Name one reason why the

Boundaries, Stresses, and Faults OH MY! How do geologic events change and shape Earth s surface?

Boundaries, Stresses, and Faults OH MY! How do geologic events change and shape Earth s surface? Remember The Lithosphere is made of The CRUST + The Upper Rigid Mantle Plates may be called by different

Plate Tectonics. Goal 2.1

Plate Tectonics Goal 2.1 Lesson 1 Plate Tectonics: An Overview Think About It Look at the map below. Which two continents look like they d fit together? Focus Question How do Earth s tectonic plates cause

ANNOUNCEMENTS. Neighbor MEET & GREET. Turn to Neighbor: What is the difference between accretionary wedges and terranes?

ANNOUNCEMENTS THIS WEEK Thursday class: Please bring scissors! NEXT WEEK Wed CLASS: Bring a mechanical compass if have one. Neighbor MEET & GREET 1. Each person take out a sheet of paper and write LEGIBLY

Plate Boundaries & Resulting Landforms

Plate Boundaries & Resulting Landforms Divergent Plate Boundaries (plates being pulled apart) Type: oceanic plates Description: rising magma gently lifts the crust creating a ridge. The flow of convection

The tectonic evolution history of Borneo is complicated and had been hotly debated

Chapter 2: General Geology & Structure 2.1 REGIONAL GEOLOGY The tectonic evolution history of Borneo is complicated and had been hotly debated by different geologists such as C.S. Hutchison (2005), and

The Dynamic Crust 2) 4) Which diagram represents the most probable result of these forces? 1)

1. The diagrams below show cross sections of exposed bedrock. Which cross section shows the least evidence of crustal movement? 1) 3) 4. The diagram below represents a section of the Earth's bedrock. The

Chapter 3. Geology & Tectonics

Chapter 3 Geology & Tectonics 3.1 Geology The general geological features of Indonesia are shown in Figure 3.1. The basement formation is metamorphic and it is intruded with plutonic formations. They are

The Earth s Structure. The Lithosphere and Tectonic. The Lithosphere and Tectonic. System. Chapter 12. The Earth s Interior

The Lithosphere and Tectonic System Chapter 12 The Lithosphere and Tectonic System The theory describing the changing configuration of the continents through time is called plate tectonics. Plate tectonic

Continental Drift. & Plate Tectonics

Continental Drift & Plate Tectonics Alfred Wegener, a German scientist, proposed the hypothesis of CONTINENTAL DRIFT, in 1912. Hypothesis stated: All Earth s continents were once a single landmass (Pangaea)

STUDY GUIDE FOR MID-TERM EXAM KEY. Color, luster, cleavage, fracture, hardness, taste, smell, fluorescence, radioactivity, magnetism

STUDY GUIDE FOR MID-TERM EXAM KEY 1. In which type of rock are fossils most likely to be found? Sedimentary Rocks 2. Which mineral is easily identified by smell? Sulfur 3. Which natural resource makes

Moho (Mohorovicic discontinuity) - boundary between crust and mantle

Earth Layers Dynamic Crust Unit Notes Continental crust is thicker than oceanic crust Continental Crust Thicker Less Dense Made of Granite Oceanic Crust Thinner More Dense Made of Basalt Moho (Mohorovicic

Section 19.1: Forces Within Earth Section 19.2: Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Section 19.3: Measuring and Locating.

CH Earthquakes Section 19.1: Forces Within Earth Section 19.2: Seismic Waves and Earth s Interior Section 19.3: Measuring and Locating Earthquakes Section 19.4: Earthquakes and Society Section 19.1 Forces

Composition of the earth, Geologic Time, and Plate Tectonics

Composition of the earth, Geologic Time, and Plate Tectonics Layers of the earth Chemical vs. Mechanical Chemical : Mechanical: 1) Core: Ni and Fe 2) Mantle: Mostly Peridotite 3) Crust: Many different

Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers

Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Weathering and Erosion 1. What is the difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering is the breakdown of earth materials and erosion is the movement of earth

Chapter. Graphics by Tasa Graphic Arts. Inc.

Earth Chapter Plate Science 9 Tectonics Graphics by Tasa Graphic Arts. Inc. 1 I. Earth s surface is made up of lithospheric plates. A. Lithospheric plates are composed of the crust and part of the upper

Dynamic Crust Practice

1. Base your answer to the following question on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The cross section represents the distance and age of ocean-floor bedrock found on both sides

Science 20. Unit C: The Changing Earth. Assignment Booklet C1

Science 20 Unit C: The Changing Earth Assignment Booklet C FOR TEACHER S USE ONLY Summary Teacher s Comments Chapter Assignment Total Possible Marks 60 Your Mark Science 20 Unit C: The Changing Earth Assignment

OCN 201: Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics I

OCN 201: Seafloor Spreading and Plate Tectonics I Revival of Continental Drift Theory Kiyoo Wadati (1935) speculated that earthquakes and volcanoes may be associated with continental drift. Hugo Benioff

Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory

Plate Tectonics: A Unifying Theory What is Plate Tectonics? - 7 large tectonic plates and many smaller ones that break up the lithosphere - Plates are brittle and float on asthenosphere and glide past

C) Trenton limestone

1. Base your answer to the following question on the Earth Science Reference Tables, the core section below, and your knowledge of Earth Science. The core section shows the subsurface bedrock geology for

Marine Science and Oceanography

Marine Science and Oceanography Marine geology- study of the ocean floor Physical oceanography- study of waves, currents, and tides Marine biology study of nature and distribution of marine organisms Chemical

24. Ocean Basins p

24. Ocean Basins p. 350-372 Background The majority of the planet is covered by ocean- about %. So the majority of the Earth s crust is. This crust is hidden from view beneath the water so it is not as

Earthquakes = shaking of Earth because of a rapid release of energy

There are more than 30,000 earthquakes worldwide each year! Earthquakes = shaking of Earth because of a rapid release of energy usually because of movement of tectonic plates Most earthquakes last for

Chapter 4 Earthquakes and Tsunamis

Geology of the Hawaiian Islands Class 21 30 March 2004 100 100 100 96 A B C D F Exam Scores 95 94 94 90 85 83 83 83 Mean 72 67 61 59 59 55 54 41 Mean = 78.5 Median = 83 Any Questions? Chapter 4 Earthquakes

PART 7: PLATE TECTONICS, EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES

PART 7: PLATE TECTONICS, EARTHQUAKES & VOLCANOES 1. Theory of Plate Tectonics: a theory born in 1968 that there are massive rock plates under the surface of the Earth called tectonic plates that are in

Why Does Oceanic Crust Sink Beneath Continental Crust At Convergent Boundaries

Why Does Oceanic Crust Sink Beneath Continental Crust At Convergent Boundaries What is the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean Why does oceanic crust sink beneath continental crust

Geology of the Pacific Northwest

Geology of the Pacific Northwest Pat Pringle photo, April 16, 1983 Group sedimentary northeast of Ashford of Eocene age

Earth s Interior. Use Target Reading Skills. Exploring Inside Earth

Plate Tectonics Name Date Class Earth s Interior This section explains how scientists learn about Earth s interior. The section also describes the layers that make up Earth and explains why Earth acts

Geologic Trips San Francisco and the Bay Area

Excerpt from Geologic Trips San Francisco and the Bay Area by Ted Konigsmark ISBN 0-9661316-4-9 GeoPress All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced without written permission in writing,

deep within the planet. They are also shaped by conditions on the planet s surface. In

Chapter 4 Landforms, Water, and Natural Resources Earth is home to many different types of landforms. These landforms are shaped by forces deep within the planet. They are also shaped by conditions on

Sedimentary Basin Analysis http://eqsun.geo.arizona.edu/geo5xx/geos517/ Sedimentary basins can be classified based on the type of plate motions (divergent, convergent), type of the lithosphere, distance

Tsunami, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Tsunami, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Destruction of Moawhitu. Plate tectonics: terminology

Tsunami, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions Tsunami, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions Tsunami: Wavelenths > 200 km Very fast in open ocean Destruction of Moawhitu Brian Flintoff, New Zealand Plate tectonics

Earth Science Unit 1 Review

Name: Date: 1. The picture below shows a model of the rock cycle. 2. rock cycle diagram is shown below. During which part of the rock cycle does water break rocks apart?. part 1 B. part 2. part 3 D. part

Geology 12 FINAL EXAM PREP. Possible Written Response Exam Questions

Geology 12 FINAL EXAM PREP Possible Written Response Exam Questions Use this study guide to prepare for the written response portion of the final exam. Name FINAL EXAM - POSSIBLE WRITTEN RESPONSE QUESTIONS

Characteristics and processes associated with the development of Hilly Landscapes

GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SESSION 1: GEOMORPHOLOGY I (TOPOGRAPHY) Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Topography associated with Horizontally Layered Rocks Topography

GEOLOGY - GL4 INTERPRETING THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD

Candidate Name Centre Number 2 Candidate Number GCE A level 1214/01 GEOLOGY - GL4 INTERPRETING THE GEOLOGICAL RECORD A.M. MONDAY, 21 June 2010 2 hours Section A 1. 2. 3. 15 15 15 1214 01 01 4. 15 Section

Brittle Deformation. Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm

Lecture 6 Brittle Deformation Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm WW Norton, unless noted otherwise Brittle deformation EarthStructure (2 nd

1. List the 3 main layers of Earth from the most dense to the least dense.

1. List the 3 main layers of Earth from the most dense to the least dense. 2. List the 6 layers of earth based on their physical properties from the least dense to the most dense. 3. The thinnest layer

D) outer core B) 1300 C A) rigid mantle A) 2000 C B) density, temperature, and pressure increase D) stiffer mantle C) outer core

1. In which area of Earth's interior is the pressure most likely to be 2.5 million atmospheres? A) asthenosphere B) stiffer mantle C) inner core D) outer core Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on

Questions for the Edwards formation

Name: Professor name: Class Time: The Virtual Field trip is to be completed by your self. You should not work with a partner. This is not group work. Nor should you search for answers on the internet.

Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics: From Hypothesis to Theory

Continental Drift to Plate Tectonics: From Hypothesis to Theory 1 Key Understandings Internal structure of the earth/structure of the crust. Difference between continental drift & plate tectonics. Evidence

Layers of the Earth Date: SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics

Layers of the Earth SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics CRUST Composition: Thickness: State of Matter: : Mostly Basalt : Mostly Granite : Crust and Upper Mantle

The Rocky Road Game. Sedimentary Rock. Igneous Rock. Start. Metamorphic Rock. Finish. Zone of Transportation. Weathering Way.

Sedimentary Rock Deposition Depot Zone of Transportation Transported: Advance 3 Weathering Way The Rocky Road Game Uplift: Advance 5 Lithification Lane Crystallization Crossway Submerge Detour take the

Plates & Boundaries The earth's continents are constantly moving due to the motions of the tectonic plates.

Plates & Boundaries The earth's continents are constantly moving due to the motions of the tectonic plates. As you can see, some of the plates contain continents and others are mostly under the ocean.

Lithospheric plates. Geology of the Batemans Bay region. Tectonic processes

1 Lithospheric plates Enormous heat sources in the Earth s deep interior, acquired during the very early history of the planet billions of years ago continue to drive present-day geological at the surface.