Geomorphology Final Exam Study Guide

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Geomorphology Final Exam Study Guide"

Transcription

1 Geomorphology Final Exam Study Guide Geologic Structures STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY concerned with shapes, arrangement, interrelationships of bedrock units & endogenic (within) forces that cause them. Tectonic Forces Stress & Strain + Compressed Stress shortening strain + Tensional Stress stretching or extensional strain + Shear Stress shear strain Behavior of Rocks + Elastic rock returns to original shape after increased / decreased stress. - Elastic Limit point when rock reaches too much stress (Brittle / Plastic Fracture) + Plastic hot under pressure + Brittle rock reaches too much stress quickly and cracks. FACTORS: dependant on rock lithology, amount of time, and pressure. Strike intersection of a horizontal unit against an Inclined plane. (THAT LINE) Dip- angle horizontal to the rock layer that s inclined (ALWAYS MAX. ANGLE)

2 Horizontal Strata Cliff & Bench Topography -Cap of resistant rock type over softer rock (SS, Chert, Dolomite, Quartzite, Sills, Lava Flows, ect.) -More pronounced in arid regions (Not Very Humid) Types; Mesa wide top (Badlands common on side slopes) Butte narrow top Esplanade bench of resistant rock (Grand Canyon) Tilted Strata Differential Resistance to erosion -Scarp Face (more rugged, actively eroding) -Dip Slope Homoclinal Shifting adjustment due to basal sapping, stream erosion over time. (Landscapes change place over time) Homoclinal Ridges - uniform dip, flat irons, uniform rise, long, One angle. When cut by streams there is a V shape angle to the dip. WIND GAP no water flowing through the dip. WATER GAP wat flowing through the dip. Forms; Cuesta asymmetric, distinct dip/slip slopes(dip Slope & Scarp Slope different) Hogback symmetric (Dip Slope & Scarp Slope about equal)

3 Monoclinal Ridges uplift, tectonically folded one slope. Dip in one direction with local steepening. Dome uplift at a single point. (All rocks dip away from that point) STRUCTURAL DOME oldest material in middle. Basin subsidence at a single point. (All rocks dip towards that point) STRUCTURAL BASIN youngest material in middle. Folds Anticline folds away from each other UP FOLD oldest rock in center (exposed) Syncline folds towards each other DOWN FOLD-youngest rock in center (downward movement spares from erosion) Plunging Fold folds that are not horizontal anymore, U shaped ridge.

4 Folds are formed from COMPRESSIONAL SHORTENING DUCTILE (Plastic Deformation) Open Folds Isoclinal (hairpin) Folds Overturned Folds Recumbent Folds Plunging Folds (noses) Unconformities Angular sedimentary beds of differing dip on either side of the unconformity. Disconformity sedimentary beds of the same orientation on either side of the unconformity. Nonconformity sedimentary beds overlying unconformity developed on crystalline rocks. (Igneous / metamorphic)

5 Joints & Faults STRESS - Tensional (pull apart) -rifting, flexure -orientation perpendicular to stress - Shear -orientation 30 o -45 o from the max / min stress axes TOPOGRAPHIC EXPRESSION - Physical properties of the rock and accelerated weathering and erosion rates. Fins when joints become dominate, cap rocks preserve the below sediments. Faults Dip-Slip Normal Faults Reverse (thrust) Faults up and over the top. Strike-Slip Left or Right lateral (San Andreas Fault) Oblique-Slip (scissors) Components of both the Dip-Slip & Strike Slip.

6 Fault scarp steep linear bluff Relief formed solely by movement Fault-line scarp Relief caused by differential erosion along fault Composite scarp Combination of the 2 above Mountain landforms Horst Graben Forms basin & range Within the Basin and Range Province, the Earth s crust has been stretched up to 100% of its original width. The entire region has been subjected to extension that Thinned and cracked the crust as it was pulled apart. Volcanism Lava magma at the earth s surface, silica content controls explosiveness. Pyroclasts fragments of rock due to the explosiveness of The volcano classified to size & shape. Lava Flow Extrusive Rocks (Plugs & Domes) Volcanoes

7 Extrusive Rocks & Gases -Scientific study of Volcanism -Gases -Primarily H 2 0 -CO 2, SO 2, H 2 S, HCI -Gases & Pyroclasts -Ashfall -Pyroclastic Flow Magma Physical properties dependent on; -Temperature (700 o 1300 o C or above) -Composition - felsic (silicic) to mafic -Gas Content several % by weight (H 2 O, CO 2, SO 2, ect.) Eruptive Violence -Gas in lava -Viscosity (temperature & Silica content) Silica Lavas most viscous Mafic Lavas least viscous Classification of Volcanoes Based on; -Activity (Active, Dormant, Extinct) -Morphology (Shield, Composite, Cinder Cone) -Eruptive Style (Hawaiian, Icelandic, Strombolian, Plinian, Pelean, Krakatoan)

8 Eruptive Style Hawaiian - Quite, large volumes of basaltic magma - Eruptions from central vents & cones Icelandic -Quite, large volumes of basaltic magma -Eruptions from fissures (Columbian Plateau, Keweenaw) Strombolian -Mild to moderate explosive activity -Basaltic lava Plinian -Explosive -Ash & expanding gasses thrown upward (As high as 60,000 ft., gasses begin expanding deep in the vent)

9 Pelean -Explosive -Ash & expanding gases thrown outward Nuees Ardentes glowing clouds Pyroclastic Flows Krakatoan -Most explosive of all! -Forms Calderas huge craters -Infrequent (in human life history) -Can erupt 4 miles of material, have 3.5 mile diameter Calderas, Be heard thousands of Kilometers away, and start Tsunamis!

10

Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms.

Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms. Chapter 10 Section 10.1 The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions This section discusses volcanic eruptions, types of volcanoes, and other volcanic landforms. Reading Strategy Previewing Before you read the section,

More information

Chapter 10: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Section 1: The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions I. Factors Affecting Eruptions Group # Main Idea:

Chapter 10: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Section 1: The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions I. Factors Affecting Eruptions Group # Main Idea: Chapter 10: Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Section 1: The Nature of Volcanic Eruptions I. Factors Affecting Eruptions Group # A. Viscosity Group # B. Dissolved Gases Group # II. Volcanic Material

More information

Chapter 16. Mountain Building. Mountain Building. Mountains and Plate Tectonics. what s the connection?

Chapter 16. Mountain Building. Mountain Building. Mountains and Plate Tectonics. what s the connection? Chapter 16 Mountains and Plate Tectonics what s the connection? Mountain Building Most crustal deformation occurs along plate margins. S.2 Active Margin Passive Margin Mountain Building Factors Affecting

More information

GLY 155 Introduction to Physical Geology, W. Altermann. Press & Siever, compressive forces. Compressive forces cause folding and faulting.

GLY 155 Introduction to Physical Geology, W. Altermann. Press & Siever, compressive forces. Compressive forces cause folding and faulting. Press & Siever, 1995 compressive forces Compressive forces cause folding and faulting. faults 1 Uplift is followed by erosion, which creates new horizontal surface. lava flows Volcanic eruptions cover

More information

Characteristics and processes associated with the development of Hilly Landscapes

Characteristics and processes associated with the development of Hilly Landscapes GRADE 11 GEOGRAPHY SESSION 1: GEOMORPHOLOGY I (TOPOGRAPHY) Key Concepts In this lesson we will focus on summarising what you need to know about: Topography associated with Horizontally Layered Rocks Topography

More information

Answers: Internal Processes and Structures (Isostasy)

Answers: Internal Processes and Structures (Isostasy) Answers: Internal Processes and Structures (Isostasy) 1. Analyse the adjustment of the crust to changes in loads associated with volcanism, mountain building, erosion, and glaciation by using the concept

More information

Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features need to understand difference between relief and elevation

Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features need to understand difference between relief and elevation Chapter 1 Landform Patterns and Processes Highlighted script will not be assessed Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features need to understand difference between

More information

Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa

Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Foundations of Earth Science, 6e Lutgens, Tarbuck, & Tasa Fires Within: Igneous Activity Foundations, 6e - Chapter 7 Stan Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College The nature of volcanic eruptions Characteristics

More information

UNIT 1 - Major Land and Water Forms

UNIT 1 - Major Land and Water Forms UNIT 1 - Major Land and Water Forms Chapter 1 - Landform Patterns and Processes Topography the natural and human features of the Earth s surface. ie. Surface features elevation - the height of a particular

More information

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5

Overview of Ch. 4. I. The nature of volcanic eruptions 9/19/2011. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 Overview of Ch. 4 Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 4 or 5 I. Nature of Volcanic Eruptions II. Materials Extruded from a Volcano III.Types of Volcanoes IV.Volcanic Landforms V. Plutonic (intrusive)

More information

Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT

Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT 1. What is the role of a geologist? Geology 1 st Semester Exam YSBAT 2016-2017 2. Earth is subdivided into three main layers based on what? 3. What features do you find at divergent boundaries? 4. Rock

More information

Chapter. Mountain Building

Chapter. Mountain Building Chapter Mountain Building 11.1 Rock Deformation Factors Affecting Deformation Factors that influence the strength of a rock and how it will deform include temperature, confining pressure, rock type, and

More information

Layers of the Earth Date: SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics

Layers of the Earth Date: SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics Layers of the Earth SWABT: Identify and describe the layers of the Earth and their characteristics CRUST Composition: Thickness: State of Matter: : Mostly Basalt : Mostly Granite : Crust and Upper Mantle

More information

A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through

A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through Volcanoes A Volcano is An opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt. Also, the landform that develops around this opening. Kinds of Eruptions Geologists classify volcanic

More information

Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8/18/2014. Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) 8 th Grade. Ring of Fire

Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8/18/2014. Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) 8 th Grade. Ring of Fire Section 1 (Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics) Chapter 7: Volcanoes 8 th Grade Ring of Fire a major belt of es that rims the Pacific Ocean Volcanic belts form along the boundaries of Earth s plates as they

More information

Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted.

Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted. What is a Volcano? Volcano - A Volcano is an opening in the Earth s surface through which molten material or volcanic gases are erupted. A volcano can either be a classic volcanic cone.. Mt. St. Helens,

More information

World Geography 3202 Unit 1. Ch. 1: Landform Patterns and Processes

World Geography 3202 Unit 1. Ch. 1: Landform Patterns and Processes World Geography 3202 Unit 1 Ch. 1: Landform Patterns and Processes - Planet Earth is dynamic - behaves as if it s a living organism - some changes are rapid enough for us to see and record - exs. Tidal

More information

Learning Objectives (LO) What we ll learn today:!

Learning Objectives (LO) What we ll learn today:! Learning Objectives (LO) Lecture 13: Mountain Building Read: Chapter 10 Homework #11 due Tuesday 12pm What we ll learn today:! 1. Define the types of stress that are present in the crust! 2. Define the

More information

LANDFORMS. Patterns and Processes

LANDFORMS. Patterns and Processes LANDFORMS Patterns and Processes Structure From the surface the Earth is a planet of continents and oceans. There is constant motion on the earth s surface. Seismology is the study of earthquakes. Scientists

More information

Structural Geology Lab. The Objectives are to gain experience

Structural Geology Lab. The Objectives are to gain experience Geology 2 Structural Geology Lab The Objectives are to gain experience 1. Drawing cross sections from information given on geologic maps. 2. Recognizing folds and naming their parts on stereoscopic air

More information

Folding/Faulting: Topographic Expression of Folded Strata

Folding/Faulting: Topographic Expression of Folded Strata Folding/Faulting: Topographic Expression of Folded Strata Mountains: Orogenesis and Deformation Folding Faulting Joints & Fractures Domes and Basins Horst and Graben Rift Valleys US Examples: Sierra Nevada

More information

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary.

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary. Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form

More information

Section 3 Deforming Earth s Crust

Section 3 Deforming Earth s Crust Section 3 Deforming Earth s Crust Key Concept Tectonic plate motions deform Earth s crust. Deformation causes rock layers to bend and break and causes mountains to form. What You Will Learn Stress is placed

More information

Directed Reading page

Directed Reading page Skills Worksheet Directed Reading page 185-190 Section: Determining Relative Age 1. How old is Earth estimated to be? 2. Who originated the idea that Earth is billions of years old? 3. On what did the

More information

General Geology Lab #7: Geologic Time & Relative Dating

General Geology Lab #7: Geologic Time & Relative Dating General Geology 89.101 Name: General Geology Lab #7: Geologic Time & Relative Dating Purpose: To use relative dating techniques to interpret geological cross sections. Procedure: Today we will be interpreting

More information

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust

4 Deforming the Earth s Crust CHAPTER 7 4 Deforming the Earth s Crust SECTION Plate Tectonics BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What happens when rock is placed under stress?

More information

A bowl shaped depression formed by the collapse of a volcano is called a. Magma that has left the vent of a volcano is known as. Lava.

A bowl shaped depression formed by the collapse of a volcano is called a. Magma that has left the vent of a volcano is known as. Lava. Magma that has left the vent of a volcano is known as Lava A bowl shaped depression formed by the collapse of a volcano is called a Caldera This can form in a caldera when magma starts to come back up

More information

Critical Thinking 1. Contrast How could you tell the difference between a mafic rock and a felsic rock by looking at them?

Critical Thinking 1. Contrast How could you tell the difference between a mafic rock and a felsic rock by looking at them? CHAPTER 13 2 SECTION Volcanoes Volcanic Eruptions KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: How does the composition of magma affect volcanic eruptions and lava flow? What are the

More information

Igneous Rocks. Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members:

Igneous Rocks. Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members: Igneous Rocks Magma molten rock material consisting of liquid rock and crystals. A variety exists, but here are the end members: Types of Magma Basaltic, Basic or Mafic very hot (900-1200 C) very fluid

More information

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary.

Magma. Objectives. Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary. Magma Objectives Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Vocabulary viscosity Magma Magma The ash that spews from some volcanoes can form

More information

State the principle of uniformitarianism. Explain how the law of superposition can be used to determine the relative age of rocks.

State the principle of uniformitarianism. Explain how the law of superposition can be used to determine the relative age of rocks. Objectives State the principle of uniformitarianism. Explain how the law of superposition can be used to determine the relative age of rocks. Compare three types of unconformities. Apply the law of crosscutting

More information

Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity. Aka Volcano Under the City

Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity. Aka Volcano Under the City Chapter 18 - Volcanic Activity Aka Volcano Under the City 18.1 Magma Describe factors that affect the formation of magma. Compare and contrast the different types of magma. Temperature and pressure increase

More information

Name: Answer Key Date: Period:

Name: Answer Key Date: Period: Name: Answer Key Date: Period: Earth Science Final Exam Study Guide Ch 1: Mapping 1. On the global grid, the equator is at 0 degrees. Is the equator a line of longitude or latitude? Latitude 2. What type

More information

GEOLOGIC MAPS PART II

GEOLOGIC MAPS PART II EARTH AND ENVIRONMENT THROUGH TIME LABORATORY - EES 1005 LABORATORY FIVE GEOLOGIC MAPS PART II Introduction Geologic maps of orogenic belts are much more complex than maps of the stable interior. Just

More information

The Nature of Igneous Rocks

The Nature of Igneous Rocks The Nature of Igneous Rocks Form from Magma Hot, partially molten mixture of solid liquid and gas Mineral crystals form in the magma making a crystal slush Gases - H 2 O, CO 2, etc. - are dissolved in

More information

Volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb.

Volcanoes. Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Ch. 13 Volcanoes Volcanoes Volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than the explosion of an atomic bomb. Many of these eruptions are caused by the movement of tectonic plates. Volcanism Volcanism-any activity

More information

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED

Volcano Vocabulary ROCK CYCLE. Igneous REMELTED REMELTED BURIED BURIED HEAT ERODED DEPOSITED. Metamorphic Sedimentary ERODED, TRANSPORTED DEPOSITED Volcano Vocabulary VOLCANISM VENT CRATER CALDERA QUIET ERUPTION EXPLOSIVE ERUPTION PYROCLASTIC DEBRIS CINDER CONE SHIELD VOLCANO COMPOSITE VOLCANO STRATO VOLCANO ACTIVE DORMANT EXTINCT INTRUSION DIKE SILL

More information

Volcano an opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt and the landform that develops around this opening.

Volcano an opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt and the landform that develops around this opening. Chapter 9 Volcano an opening in Earth s crust through which molten rock, gases, and ash erupt and the landform that develops around this opening. 3 Conditions Allow Magma to Form: Decrease in pressure

More information

Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers

Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Tectonic Plates Test Study Guide Answers Weathering and Erosion 1. What is the difference between weathering and erosion? Weathering is the breakdown of earth materials and erosion is the movement of earth

More information

Unit Study Guide: Earth s Changing Surface

Unit Study Guide: Earth s Changing Surface Name Date Per Unit 8.3.2 Study Guide: Earth s Changing Surface I Can Statements I Can Statements are the learning targets for each unit. By the time you take the test for this unit, you should be able

More information

Plate Tectonics. entirely rock both and rock

Plate Tectonics. entirely rock both and rock Plate Tectonics I. Tectonics A. Tectonic Forces are forces generated from within Earth causing rock to become. B. 1. The study of the origin and arrangement of Earth surface including mountain belts, continents,

More information

Volcanoes. Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms

Volcanoes. Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms Volcanoes Table of Contents Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Volcanic Eruptions Volcanic Landforms What is a volcano? cone Conduit Or Pipe vent Side vent Central vent Crater A volcano is a vent or 'chimney'

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanic Eruptions

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanic Eruptions Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanic Eruptions 1. Lava provides an opportunity for scientists to study a. the nature of Earth s inner core. b. the nature of Earth s tectonic plates. c. temperatures

More information

Forces in Earth s Crust

Forces in Earth s Crust Forces in Earth s Crust (pages 180 186) Types of Stress (page 181) Key Concept: Tension, compression, and shearing work over millions of years to change the shape and volume of rock. When Earth s plates

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics

Directed Reading. Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Volcanoes and Plate Tectonics 1. Some volcanic eruptions can be more powerful than a(n) a. hand grenade. b. earthquake. c. geyser. d. atomic bomb. 2. The cause

More information

Magma vs. Lava. Molten rock below Earth s surface is called magma. The magma that reaches the surface and erupts out of a volcano is called lava.

Magma vs. Lava. Molten rock below Earth s surface is called magma. The magma that reaches the surface and erupts out of a volcano is called lava. CH. 10.1 Be able to Explain the factors that determine the type of volcanic eruption. List the 3 types of volcanoes Describe the features of a volcano. What is a Volcano? Volcanoes are sites where molten

More information

Movement of the Earth s Crust: Formation of: Mountain s Plateau's and Dome s

Movement of the Earth s Crust: Formation of: Mountain s Plateau's and Dome s Movement of the Earth s Crust: Formation of: Mountain s Plateau's and Dome s References Information taken from several places including Prentice Hall Earth Science: @ http://www.eram.k12.ny.us/education/components/docmgr/default.php?sectiondetaili

More information

Name Student ID Exam 2c GEOL 1113 Fall 2009

Name Student ID Exam 2c GEOL 1113 Fall 2009 Name Student ID Exam 2c GEOL 1113 Fall 2009 1. When a marine geologist collects a core of undeformed ocean-floor sediment, she knows that the youngest layer is on the top of the core and the oldest is

More information

Study guide chapter 9

Study guide chapter 9 Study guide chapter 9 1. What are the three ways solid mantle material can change phase to a liquid? Associate a boundary/hot spot to each way mantle material changes phase. 1. A decrease in pressure which

More information

Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20)

Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Examining the Terrestrial Planets (Chapter 20) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and your geology

More information

1/31/2013 BASALTIC BASALTIC ANDESITIC RHYOLITIC

1/31/2013 BASALTIC BASALTIC ANDESITIC RHYOLITIC Can you predict the location of volcanoes? What is causing this eruption? What factors influence its character? A volcano is any landform from which lava, gas, or ashes, escape from underground or have

More information

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks

B) color B) Sediment must be compacted and cemented before it can change to sedimentary rock. D) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks 1. Which characteristic of nonsedimentary rocks would provide the least evidence about the environment in which the rocks were formed? A) structure B) color C) crystal size D) mineral composition 2. Which

More information

Earth Science. STREAM DRAINAGE PATTERNS (start by reading the first page of these notes!)

Earth Science. STREAM DRAINAGE PATTERNS (start by reading the first page of these notes!) Name _ Earth Science STREAM DRAINAGE PATTERNS (start by reading the first page of these notes!) WHAT IS A DRAINAGE PATTERN? Streams seek the lowest path as they move downhill, and they tend to erode their

More information

Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion

Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion Section 1: Earth s Interior and Plate Tectonics Section 2: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Section 3: Minerals and Rocks Section 4: Weathering and Erosion Key Terms Crust Mantle Core Lithosphere Plate Tectonics

More information

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 10 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens

Lecture Outlines PowerPoint. Chapter 10 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 10 Earth Science, 12e Tarbuck/Lutgens 2009 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

Volcano. Magma. Lava. weak spot in crust where magma and gases come up. molten mixture of rockforming

Volcano. Magma. Lava. weak spot in crust where magma and gases come up. molten mixture of rockforming Volcanoes Volcano weak spot in crust where magma and gases come up Magma Lava molten mixture of rockforming substance, gases, water from the mantle Magma that flows onto earth surface forms solid rock

More information

Name Geo 4 Practice Match the principle on the left (column A) with the definition (or part of the definition) on the right (column B).

Name Geo 4 Practice Match the principle on the left (column A) with the definition (or part of the definition) on the right (column B). Name Geo 4 Practice 1 Target 1 2 3 4 Geo 4 I can define the create, alter and/or destroy the rock record. I can interpret a diagram to determine the sequence of events (relative age) in Earth s history

More information

2/25/2013. Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic.

2/25/2013. Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic. Introduction to Environmental Geology, 5e Edward A. Keller Chapter 8 Volcanic Activity Volcanoes: summary in haiku form A volcano forms. Magma comes to the surface - explodes, if felsic. Lecture Presentation

More information

Mountain Building. Mountain Building

Mountain Building. Mountain Building Mountain Building Mountain building has occurred during the recent geologic past American Cordillera the western margin of the Americas from Cape Horn to Alaska Includes the Andes and Rocky Mountains Alpine

More information

Use a highlighter to mark the most important parts, or the parts. you want to remember in the background information.

Use a highlighter to mark the most important parts, or the parts. you want to remember in the background information. P a g e 1 Name A Fault Model Purpose: To explore the types of faults and how they affect the geosphere Background Information: A fault is an area of stress in the earth where broken rocks slide past each

More information

Reading Sections/Concept Check Questions for Earth Science, 13 th ed., Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa

Reading Sections/Concept Check Questions for Earth Science, 13 th ed., Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa Reading Sections/Concept Check Questions for Earth Science, 13 th ed., Tarbuck, Lutgens, Tasa Chapter 1 Read: P. 2 P. 20 Concept Check Qs. o 1.1: 1 o 1.3: 1, 2 o 1.4: 2 o 1.5: 1, 2 o 1.7: 2, 3 o 1.8: 1

More information

Chapter 7 Lecture Outline. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity

Chapter 7 Lecture Outline. Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Chapter 7 Lecture Outline Volcanoes and Other Igneous Activity Focus Question 7.1 How were the eruptions of Mount St. Helens and Hawaii s Kilauea volcano different? Mount St. Helens eruption (May 18,1980)

More information

Plate Boundaries & Resulting Landforms

Plate Boundaries & Resulting Landforms Plate Boundaries & Resulting Landforms Divergent Plate Boundaries (plates being pulled apart) Type: oceanic plates Description: rising magma gently lifts the crust creating a ridge. The flow of convection

More information

Forces in Earth s Crust

Forces in Earth s Crust Forces in Earth s Crust This section explains how stresses in Earth s crust cause breaks, or faults, in the crust. The section also explains how faults and folds in Earth s crust form mountains. Use Target

More information

Faults, Fossils, Rocks and Minerals Review:

Faults, Fossils, Rocks and Minerals Review: Faults, Fossils, Rocks and Minerals Review: 1. The preserved remains or traces of organisms that lived in the past are. - Fossils 2. How do Fossils form? - A dead organism becomes buried in sediment 3.

More information

Happy Tuesday. Pull out a ½ sheet of paper

Happy Tuesday. Pull out a ½ sheet of paper Happy Tuesday Pull out a ½ sheet of paper 1. Physical properties of a mineral are predominantly related to 1. the external conditions of temperature, pressure, and amount of space available for growth.

More information

6. The lithosphere is

6. The lithosphere is Name: APES: Geology and Nonrenewable Mineral Resources Earth Composition and Structure Webquest Date: I. Earth Structure http://scign.jpl.nasa.gov/learn/plate1.htm Click on the button press here to see

More information

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes

Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Lecture 6 - Igneous Rocks and Volcanoes Learning objectives Understand and be able to predict where and why magma will be forming at different tectonic settings Understand the factors controlling magma

More information

Volcanology. The study of volcanoes

Volcanology. The study of volcanoes Volcanology The study of volcanoes Magma forms wherever temperature and pressure are high enough to melt rock. Some magma forms at the aesthenosphere Magma also forms at plate boundaries, where intense

More information

Plate Tectonics and the cycling of Earth materials

Plate Tectonics and the cycling of Earth materials Plate Tectonics and the cycling of Earth materials Plate tectonics drives the rock cycle: the movement of rocks (and the minerals that comprise them, and the chemical elements that comprise them) from

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Earthquakes Lesson 2 Volcanoes Chapter Wrap-Up What causes earthquakes and volcanic eruptions? What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each

More information

UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards

UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards UGRC 144 Science and Technology in Our Lives/Geohazards Session 5 Magma and Volcanism Lecturer: Dr. Patrick Asamoah Sakyi Department of Earth Science, UG Contact Information: pasakyi@ug.edu.gh College

More information

LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types

LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types GEOL 0820 Ramsey Natural Disasters Spring, 2018 LECTURE #11: Volcanic Disasters: Lava Properties & Eruption Types Date: 13 February 2018 I. Exam I grades are posted on the class website (link at the bottom

More information

The Earth s Structure. The Lithosphere and Tectonic. The Lithosphere and Tectonic. System. Chapter 12. The Earth s Interior

The Earth s Structure. The Lithosphere and Tectonic. The Lithosphere and Tectonic. System. Chapter 12. The Earth s Interior The Lithosphere and Tectonic System Chapter 12 The Lithosphere and Tectonic System The theory describing the changing configuration of the continents through time is called plate tectonics. Plate tectonic

More information

STUDY GUIDE FOR MID-TERM EXAM KEY. Color, luster, cleavage, fracture, hardness, taste, smell, fluorescence, radioactivity, magnetism

STUDY GUIDE FOR MID-TERM EXAM KEY. Color, luster, cleavage, fracture, hardness, taste, smell, fluorescence, radioactivity, magnetism STUDY GUIDE FOR MID-TERM EXAM KEY 1. In which type of rock are fossils most likely to be found? Sedimentary Rocks 2. Which mineral is easily identified by smell? Sulfur 3. Which natural resource makes

More information

D) outer core B) 1300 C A) rigid mantle A) 2000 C B) density, temperature, and pressure increase D) stiffer mantle C) outer core

D) outer core B) 1300 C A) rigid mantle A) 2000 C B) density, temperature, and pressure increase D) stiffer mantle C) outer core 1. In which area of Earth's interior is the pressure most likely to be 2.5 million atmospheres? A) asthenosphere B) stiffer mantle C) inner core D) outer core Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on

More information

Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337

Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337 Chapter 11 Section 2 VOLCANOES TB 337 http://www.brainpop.com/science/earthsystem/volcanoes/ I. How do volcanoes form? Rising Magma leads to eruptions. Magma (solids and gases) are spewed out to form cone-shape

More information

UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure. Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes

UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure. Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes UNIT SIX: Earth s Structure Chapter 18 Earth s History and Rocks Chapter 19 Changing Earth Chapter 20 Earthquakes and Volcanoes Chapter Twenty: Earthquakes and Volcanoes 20.1 Earthquakes 20.2 Volcanoes

More information

2. A rock cycle diagram is shown below. Which rock layer most likely contains fossils of the most recently evolved organisms?

2. A rock cycle diagram is shown below. Which rock layer most likely contains fossils of the most recently evolved organisms? Do Not Write On Test - You Will Fail 1. The picture below shows a model of the rock cycle. 3. Shale is a sedimentary rock that can be metamorphosed into slate by A. cementation. B. chemical weathering.

More information

ANNOUNCEMENTS. Neighbor MEET & GREET. Turn to Neighbor: What is the difference between accretionary wedges and terranes?

ANNOUNCEMENTS. Neighbor MEET & GREET. Turn to Neighbor: What is the difference between accretionary wedges and terranes? ANNOUNCEMENTS THIS WEEK Thursday class: Please bring scissors! NEXT WEEK Wed CLASS: Bring a mechanical compass if have one. Neighbor MEET & GREET 1. Each person take out a sheet of paper and write LEGIBLY

More information

Bryson Extra Credit Reading

Bryson Extra Credit Reading VOLCANOES New homework due next Tuesday, Nov 23 Extra Credit Chapter 14 The Fire Below due next Tuesday, Nov 23 Bryson Extra Credit Reading A Short History of Nearly Everything Chapter 14: The Fire Below

More information

Chapter 22: Earth s Interior

Chapter 22: Earth s Interior Chapter 22: Earth s Interior Vocabulary: Geologists Uniformitarianism Silicates Crust Mantle Lithosphere Asthenosphere Mesosphere Core Rock Inorganic Streak Luster Hardness Fracture Cleavage Igneous Rock

More information

VOLCANOES. Homework due Wed./Thurs. I have a few copies left, or get by moodle or webpage

VOLCANOES. Homework due Wed./Thurs. I have a few copies left, or get by moodle or webpage VOLCANOES Homework due Wed./Thurs. I have a few copies left, or get by moodle or webpage Bowen s Reaction Series Oceanic basin tectonics http://my.execpc.com/~acmelasr/mountains/geogramsnf.html Icelandic

More information

Answer sheet for question 1 Answer question 1 as soon as the sample arrives at your desk.

Answer sheet for question 1 Answer question 1 as soon as the sample arrives at your desk. EAS 233 Geologic structures. Final test. April 2012. 3 hours. Answer question 1 and 2 and three other questions. If you start more than the required number of questions, clearly delete the answers you

More information

Name: Date: Geography 12 Tectonic Processes Exercise

Name: Date: Geography 12 Tectonic Processes Exercise Name: Date: Geography 12 Tectonic Processes Exercise 1) How has knowledge of our earth's interior been primarily obtained? 2) What are two key differences between the composition of the continents and

More information

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals.

Directed Reading. Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle. made of a. inorganic matter. b. solid organic matter. c. liquid organic matter. d. chemicals. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Rocks and the Rock Cycle 1. The solid part of Earth is made up of material called a. glacial ice. b. lava. c. rock. d. wood. 2. Rock can be a collection of one

More information

The Devils Postpile and its Unusual Surroundings. Shannon B. Carpenter A May 3, 2001

The Devils Postpile and its Unusual Surroundings. Shannon B. Carpenter A May 3, 2001 The Devils Postpile and its Unusual Surroundings Shannon B. Carpenter A25584605 May 3, 2001 Abstract: The Devils Postpile is located in the eastern Sierra Nevada region just a few miles southwest of the

More information

Astronomy: 1. What is the shape of the earth and why is it this shape? 2. Describe the theory used to explain how the universe began.

Astronomy: 1. What is the shape of the earth and why is it this shape? 2. Describe the theory used to explain how the universe began. Astronomy: 1. What is the shape of the earth and why is it this shape? The Earth is not a perfect sphere. Due to its rotation, the Earth (like all rotating planets) has a slightly distorted shape. The

More information

LANDFORMS. Extra Credit. Name Date

LANDFORMS. Extra Credit. Name Date LANDFORMS Extra Credit Name Date 1. Label the drawing above using the words below that match the landforms. canyon meander plateau delta mountain valley 2. The bending of rock at plate boundaries is A.

More information

Structural Geology Laboratory.

Structural Geology Laboratory. Structural Geology Wikipedia-Structural geology is the study of the threedimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories. The primary goal of structural geology is

More information

Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth

Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth Unit 8: Internal dynamics of the Earth 1. The internal heat of the earth 2. Plate tectonics theory 3. Internal geological processes 3.1. Volcanoes 3.2. Earthquakes 3.3. Rock deformation 3.4. Mountain ranges

More information

Tectonics. Planets, Moons & Rings 9/11/13 movements of the planet s crust

Tectonics. Planets, Moons & Rings 9/11/13 movements of the planet s crust Tectonics Planets, Moons & Rings 9/11/13 movements of the planet s crust Planetary History Planets formed HOT Denser materials fall to center Planet cools by conduction, convection, radiation to space

More information

Plates & Boundaries The earth's continents are constantly moving due to the motions of the tectonic plates.

Plates & Boundaries The earth's continents are constantly moving due to the motions of the tectonic plates. Plates & Boundaries The earth's continents are constantly moving due to the motions of the tectonic plates. As you can see, some of the plates contain continents and others are mostly under the ocean.

More information

Dynamic Planet RAHS C Division Invitational

Dynamic Planet RAHS C Division Invitational Dynamic Planet RAHS C Division Invitational 2017-18 School /Team: C- Names: Instructions: DO NOT OPEN OR START TEST UNTIL TOLD TO DO SO Answer all questions on this answer sheet. Sheets may be double sided,

More information

Dynamic Planet Exam Metea Valley High School

Dynamic Planet Exam Metea Valley High School Dynamic Planet Exam 2017-2018 Metea Valley High School Multiple Choice/True-False Matching Fill in the Blank Short Answer/Free-Response Total /35 /10 /16 /25 /86 Directions: You have 50 Minutes to answer

More information

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through.

Imagine the first rock and the cycles that it has been through. A rock is a naturally formed, consolidated material usually composed of grains of one or more minerals The rock cycle shows how one type of rocky material gets transformed into another The Rock Cycle Representation

More information

Chapter 4 Earthquakes and Tsunamis

Chapter 4 Earthquakes and Tsunamis Geology of the Hawaiian Islands Class 21 30 March 2004 100 100 100 96 A B C D F Exam Scores 95 94 94 90 85 83 83 83 Mean 72 67 61 59 59 55 54 41 Mean = 78.5 Median = 83 Any Questions? Chapter 4 Earthquakes

More information

Mountains, like those shown in Figure 1, provide some of the most

Mountains, like those shown in Figure 1, provide some of the most Section 11.1 11.1 Rock Deformation 1 FOCUS Section Objectives 11.1 Identify the factors that determine the strength of a rock and how it will deform. 11.2 Explain how rocks permanently deform. 11.3 Distinguish

More information

12.2 Volcanoes Looking inside a volcano What is a volcano? volcano magma magma chamber lava

12.2 Volcanoes Looking inside a volcano What is a volcano? volcano magma magma chamber lava 12.2 Volcanoes Early explorers noticed that many volcanoes were located near coastlines, but they didn t know why. One volcano that is near a coastline is Mount St. Helens in Washington state. This famous

More information