AN IMPORTANT PITFALL OF PSEUDO-STATIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 AN IMPORTANT PITFALL OF PSEUDO-STATIC FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS S. Kontoe, L. Pelecanos & D.M. Potts ABSTRACT: Finite Element (FE) pseudo-static analysis can provide a good compromise between simplified methods of dynamic analysis and time domain analysis. The pseudo-static FE approach can accurately model the in-situ stresses prior to seismic loading (when it follows a static analysis simulating the construction sequence) is relatively simple and not as computationally expensive as the time domain approach. However this method should be used with caution as the results can be sensitive to the choice of the mesh dimensions. In this paper two simple examples of pseudo-static finite element analysis are examined parametrically, a homogeneous slope and a cantilever retaining wall, exploring the sensitivity of the pseudo static analysis results on the adopted mesh size. The mesh dependence was found to be more pronounced for problems with high critical seismic coefficients values (e.g. gentle slopes or small walls), as in these cases a generalised layer failure mechanism is developed simultaneously with the slope or wall mechanism. In general the mesh width was found not to affect notably the predicted value of critical seismic coefficient but to have a major impact on the predicted movements. 1

3 W W (1a) (1b) where F h, F v are the horizontal and vertical body forces respectively, k h, k v are the corresponding seismic coefficients and W is the weight of the failure mass. The main objective of the analysis is either to determine the critical acceleration ( ) for which the structure fails or to determine the Factor of Safety for the design acceleration level. Deformation based analysis. In this case, the mesh is subjected to simple shear conditions, as schematically illustrated in Figure 1b. A uniform displacement, u s, and a triangular displacement distribution, are applied incrementally along the top and the lateral boundaries of the mesh respectively. For the calculation of the displacement u s a site response analysis is performed first which determines the maximum free-field shear strain (γ ff ) at the level corresponding to the structure of interest (see Figure 1b). The deformation based analysis simulates more realistically the seismic loading as the imposed deformation is based on a site response analysis which takes into account the dynamic response of the stratigraphy to a time-varying ground motion. However this approach can only be used for problems in which it is possible to impose simple shear conditions to the mesh (mainly seismic analysis of underground structures, e.g. Hashash et al 2005, Kontoe et al 2008, Avgerinos & Kontoe 2011) and it cannot be used to calculate the factor of safety or the critical failure mode. Therefore, for most problems, the force based approach is followed. The aim of the present study is to highlight some common pitfalls related to the use of the forced-based approach by analysing two simple problems investigating the dependence of the solution on the mesh width. 1.2 Homogeneous layer failure mechanism Before examining the slope and the retaining wall examples, it is important to establish the failure mechanism which is imposed by the force based approach in a greenfield profile. Therefore the first problem analysed consists of a simple homogeneous soil layer of thickness DH overlaying perfectly rigid bedrock, which is subjected to an incremental horizontal body force. The objective of the exercise is to determine the critical horizontal yield acceleration coefficient,, for which the layer fails by sliding along the interface with the rigid bedrock. It will be shown in the following examples that this layer mechanism can be practically mobilised in any type of force based pseudo-static analysis and determines the limiting value of pseudo-static horizontal acceleration that can be reached. As suggested by Loukidis et al (2003), considering the limit equilibrium of a homogeneous soil profile of thickness DH overlying a rigid layer, the critical seismic coefficient,, required to balance the shear resistance at the interface is given by: 3

4 where γ is the bulk unit weight of the soil, DH is the layer thickness and c, cohesion and the angle of shearing resistance respectively. (2) are the Analysis arrangement The problem geometry and the adopted boundary conditions, restriction of movement in both directions along the bottom boundary and restriction of the horizontal displacement along the lateral boundaries, are schematically illustrated in Figure 2. In all the following analyses an initial stress field was assumed adopting the K o expression of Jaky (1944): The finite element mesh was constructed with 8 noded isoparametric quadrilateral elements and all the analyses presented herein were performed in plane strain with the finite element code ICFEP (Potts and Zdravkovic, 1999). The soil was assumed to be dry and was modelled using an associated Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, while the behaviour is assumed to be isotropic linear elastic before failure. The adopted soil properties are detailed in Table 1. The pseudo-static failure mechanism of the homogeneous soil layer was investigated by subjecting a layer 100m wide and 12m deep, using a fine discretization of 7500 square elements, to a gradually increasing body force. (3) Failure mechanism Figure 3 shows the contours of sub-accumulated deviatoric plastic strain (from the excavation stage), (see Equation 4), at the last stable increment of the analysis, for, illustrating the soil layer failure mechanism which develops tangentially along the interface with the rigid bedrock and extends up to the right mesh boundary. ( ) ( ) ( ) (4) where, are the sub-incremental principal plastic strains from the excavation stage. The FE analysis resulted in a, which is slightly higher than the limit equilibrium result of based on Equation 2. This layer mechanism, although theoretically justified, has little physical meaning, as this type of failure has not been observed in post-earthquake reconnaissance investigations. The subsequent examples will demonstrate that this layer mechanism can be mobilised in any type of force based pseudo-static analysis. 4

5 1.3 Example of seismic slope stability analysis Having established the fundamental layer mechanism induced by the force based approach and the limiting value of the critical seismic coefficient for a simple homogeneous layer, it is important to examine its impact on a more realistic problem of seismic slope stability Analysis arrangement A simple homogeneous dry slope is subjected to an incremental horizontal body force in order to determine the critical horizontal yield acceleration coefficient and the slope movements prior to failure. The problem geometry and the adopted boundary conditions are illustrated in Figure 4. The boundary conditions and material properties for this set of analysis were identical to the ones used for the homogeneous layer problem. Starting from level ground the stress field prior to the application of the seismic loading was established by excavating to form a 8m high slope (H=8m). The element edge size was taken as 5% of the slope height (i.e. 0.4m) in the vicinity of the eventual failure surfaces, in order to simulate the failure mechanism with sufficient accuracy Definition of slope failure mechanism and interaction with the mesh boundaries The first set of analyses concerns a parametric study in which the slope angle is varied ( =20, 30 and 45 ). The analysed slope geometries have a ratio c/γh=0.12, φ=20, L 1 =L 2 =50m and D=1.5 and are taken to failure by gradually increasing the horizontal body force. Figure 5 compares the resulting failure mechanisms for the three cases, by plotting the sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) contours of deviatoric plastic strain at the last stable increment of the analysis before failure. In all cases a slope failure mechanism can be depicted, but for the lowest slope angle ( =20 ), in addition to the slope failure mechanism, a generalised failure mechanism develops which extends up to the right mesh boundary. In all three analyses there is strain concentration around the bottom and right boundaries, but clearly the severity of strain concentration increases as the slope angle reduces. The contour plots of Figure 5 suggest that the right boundary of the mesh interferes with the failure mechanism, for the gently sloping cases, and thus it potentially affects the accuracy of the calculation. In addition, it is not clear from Figure 5 whether the resulting value corresponds to the slope or the generalised mechanism or to a combination of both. To further investigate this, the above set of analysis was repeated using a wider mesh taking the lateral boundary 100m away from the slope toe. The plastic strain contour plots for this case (Figure 6) shows that the mesh boundary interferes with the failure mechanism only for the case of =20. While the generalised mechanism starts developing for the case of =30 it does not extend up to the lateral boundary suggesting that the length of L 2 =100m is adequate for this analysis. Figure 7 plots the horizontal displacement at mid-height of the slope against the seismic coefficient k h for the various analyses. The mesh width has only a small impact on the predicted value for the =20 slope, while it has no impact on the predicted for the remaining two slopes. Therefore if the desired design parameter from the analysis is the value, for the cases examined 5

6 so far, the actual gain in accuracy from using a wider mesh is actually minimal. It should be clarified that in this study the horizontal movements are only plotted to identify the values and should not be confused with the permanent ground displacements which can accumulate during seismic failure. The latter can only be estimated by time domain elastoplastic finite element analysis or sliding block models. The k lim value of for the previous example of the homogeneous soil layer can explain why the generalised layer mechanism is triggered only for the gentle sloping cases. The steepest slope (i.e. =45 ) has obviously a much lower value than the other two slopes which is also considerably lower than the k lim value. Therefore in this case, the slope mechanism develops fully before even the layer mechanism is triggered. On the other hand for the =20 case the value is closer to the k lim value and the slope mechanism starts developing simultaneously with the layer mechanism making it difficult to distinguish the prevailing mechanism. Loukidis et al (2003) refer to slope problems developing the layer failure mechanisms as singularity cases and note that these cases occur for large values of the stability factor λ, defined in their paper as: (5) To further investigate the observations of Loukidis et al (2003), the analysis for =45, for which the layer mechanism did not develop, was repeated for φ =10 and φ =30 corresponding to λ=0.681 and respectively. Figure 8 plots the sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) contours of deviatoric plastic strain at failure for these two cases. The analysis for φ =10 shows a clear slope mechanism developing, while the analysis for φ =30 shows, apart from the slope failure, the development of the layer mechanism. Therefore for the examined cases herein the opposite trend was observed, since the singularity develops for the analysis with the lower stability factor. This can be explained again based on the computed values in comparison with the k lim value. The φ =10 analysis has a considerably lower (=0.047) value than the layer k lim (=0.256, from Eq.2) value, while the value for the φ =30 analysis (=0.418) lies closer to the corresponding k lim value (=0.657 from Eq.2). Hence for the φ =10 analysis the slope fails before the layer mechanism is triggered, while for the φ =30 analysis the two mechanisms develop simultaneously. The results of the present study show that the dominant factor for the development of the layer mechanism is not the stability factor, but the relative magnitude of the and k lim values Effect of the depth factor All the analyses presented so far have been carried out for slopes within a relatively shallow soil layer (DH=12m). Based on Equation 3, the k lim of the soil layer mechanism depends on the depth of the homogeneous layer. It is therefore of interest to explore the interaction of the layer mechanism with the slope mechanism for deeper layers. Hence the previous set of analysis for a 8m high slope was repeated for two additional depth factors, D=3.0 and D=5.0 and the resulting values are summarized in Table 2. As for the lower depth factor, the width of the mesh does not significantly affect the predicted 6

7 values and small differences between the L 2 =50m and the L 2 =100m analyses are only observed for slopes with =20. In addition, the depth factor itself only affects the very gentle slope of =20 where the value decreases with increasing depth factor. Although the differences in the resulting values are small, it should be noted that when the seismic coefficient ( ) is used as an input for a subsequent sliding block analysis, even small differences in can result in significant differences in terms of movements (Crespellani et al 1998, Li 2007). Furthermore Table 3 presents published values for various methods of analysis showing very good agreement with the results of the present study, especially for L 2 =100m. Figures 9 and 10 plot the sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) contours of deviatoric plastic strain at the last stable increment of the analysis before failure for =20 and =45 for D=3.0 and D=5.0 respectively. As for the case of D=1.5 the generalised mechanism develops only for the case of =20, while for =45 there is some strain concentration on the right boundary but without the development of the full layer mechanism. Based on the above and in accordance with Loukidis et al (2003), it can concluded that for the cases where the slope mechanism develops first (i.e. =30 and =45 ) the vale is insensitive both to the distance of the lateral boundary and to the depth factor. This is also seen in Table2, where the values of depend on the depth factor only for =20. Figure 11 plots the horizontal displacement at mid-height of the slope against the seismic coefficient k h for D=3.0 and D=5.0. In contrast to the critical acceleration, the differences between the predicted displacements for the two mesh widths significantly increase as the depth factor increases. While for the case of D=1.5 the differences in the predicted displacements were mainly just prior to failure and for =20, for the larger depth factors the width of the mesh affects the predicted displacements for all slope angles and for the entire range of k h values. The L 2 =50m mesh gives consistently lower movements, which for D=5.0 and =20 just prior to failure is 35.0% lower than that predicted by the L 2 =100m analysis. 1.4 Example of seismic retaining wall analysis Analysis arrangement The second example refers to a pseudo-static analysis of a simple cantilever retaining wall, which is schematically illustrated in Figure 12. The aim of this set of analysis is to investigate whether the problem identified in the slope analysis, regarding the development of the layer failure mechanism, is restricted to slope stability problems or whether it has wider implications to other types of problem when subjected to pseudostatic forces. For consistency with the previous example, the same soil properties and constitutive behaviour were assumed, while the wall was modelled as an elastic material with solid elements which were assigned the properties listed in Figure 12. The wall was wished in place and the initial stress field was established by excavation from level ground 7

8 to form an 8m deep cutting and in a homogeneous soil layer of thickness DH=40m overlaying perfectly rigid bedrock. Subsequently, the wall was taken to failure by gradually increasing the horizontal body force Interaction with the mesh boundaries For the first analysis of the cantilever wall with φ =20, the right boundary of the mesh was placed at a distance L 2 =50m from the wall (Figure 13a). The resulting contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) deviatoric plastic strain at failure show that the active mechanism extends up to the right mesh boundary, while, once more, a layer failure mechanism is depicted developing tangentially from the bottom mesh boundary and extending up to the right boundary. Furthermore the strain contours of Figure 13a suggest that the active wall failure mechanism interacts with the layer mechanism making it difficult to distinguish the prevailing mechanism. The analysis was then repeated moving the right boundary further away from the wall to a distance of L 2 =100m. The corresponding contour plots for this case (Figure 13b) show that the two mechanisms are more distinct and that the active wall failure mechanism can be depicted more clearly. It is interesting to note that once again the mesh width does not affect the predicted values as both analyses gave almost identical values ( for L 2 =50m and for L 2 =100m). Considering that the corresponding k lim value based on Equation 2 is 0.388, it is not surprising that the layer mechanism is so pronounced. To further investigate the argument that the dominant factor for the development of the layer mechanism is the relative magnitude of the and k lim values, the retaining wall analysis was repeated for φ =10 and φ =30. The sub-accumulated deviatoric plastic strain contours of Figure 14 show the same trends as the ones observed for the slope analyses of Figure 8. Once more, the φ =10 analysis has a lower (=0.135) value than the layer k lim (=0.2, based on Eq. 2) value, while the value for the φ =30 analysis (=0.61) lies very close to the corresponding k lim value (=0.601, based on Eq. 2). Hence for the φ=10 analysis the slope fails before the layer mechanism is developed, while for the φ=30 analysis the two mechanisms develop simultaneously. Figure 15a plots the horizontal wall movement just prior to failure and shows that the analysis with the smaller mesh predicts significantly lower movements. However these differences are mainly related to a rigid body movement of the wall (i.e. there is no significant variation in the predicted deflected shape of the wall) and thus they do not result in considerable differences in the induced wall stresses (not shown herein for brevity). Figure 15b plots the evolution of the horizontal displacement of the top of wall with k h indicating that the mesh width affects the predicted movements not only close to failure, but even for low values of k h. 1.5 Conclusions Pseudo-static finite element analysis has been widely used in engineering practice for the seismic design of geotechnical structures, as it is not as complicated or time 8

9 consuming as full time-domain dynamic analysis. However this method should be used with caution as the results can be sensitive to the choice of the mesh dimensions. In this paper two simple examples of pseudo-static finite element analysis were examined parametrically, a homogeneous slope and a cantilever retaining wall, aiming to explore the sensitivity of the pseudo static analysis results to the adopted mesh size. Several conclusions regarding the applicability of pseudo-static analysis can be drawn from the examined examples: The analyses showed that a layer mechanism can be triggered and that this mechanism interferes with the slope failure mechanism or the active wall failure mechanism and the mesh boundaries. The development of the layer mechanism, while theoretically justified, is not realistic as such types of failure have not been observed in the field. The triggering or not of the layer mechanism in the analysis was shown to depend on the relative magnitude of the seismic coefficient ( ) and the layer seismic coefficient (k lim ) both for the slope and the retaining wall analyses. In accordance with Loukidis et al (2003), it was found that for the cases where the slope mechanism develops first the value is insensitive both to the distance of the lateral boundary and to the depth factor. Comparison of analyses with different mesh widths, for both types of problem, showed that the triggering of the layer mechanism has a small impact on the predicted seismic coefficient ( ), but it can significantly affect the predicted movements. It should be highlighted though, that when the seismic coefficient ( ) is used as an input for a subsequent sliding block analysis, even small differences in can result in significant differences in terms of movements. The results of this study show that pseudo- static FE analysis is a useful tool in estimating the seismic coefficient. However, when the seismic coefficient ( ) is expected to have similar magnitude to the layer seismic coefficient (k lim ) the effects of the lateral boundaries should be carefully monitored and the mesh size should be accordingly adjusted. On the other hand, pseudo- static FE analysis should not be used for the estimation of movements; either a sliding block type of analysis or a full dynamic FE analysis should be used to estimate movements. 1.6 Acknowledgements The authors are grateful for the anonymous reviews of this paper which helped to improve the clarity and completeness of the manuscripts considerably. 1.7 References 1. Avgerinos V. & Kontoe S. (2011) Modelling the ovalisation of circular tunnels due to seismic loading using different approaches, 5th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering, Santiago, Chile, No. MTOKO. 2. Crespollani, T., Madiai, C. & Vannucchi G. (1998) Earthquake destructiveness potential factor and slope stability. Geotechnique, Vol.48, No.3, pp

10 3. Hashash Y.M.A., Park D. & Yao J.I-C., (2005) Ovaling deformations of circular tunnels under seismic loading, and update on seismic design and analysis of underground structures, Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, Vol.20, pp Jaky, J. (1944), The coefficient of earth pressure at rest, J. Soc. Hungarian Arch. Engrs, Vol. 25, pp Kontoe S., Zdravkovic L., Potts D.M & Menkiti C.O. (2008) Case study on Seismic Tunnel Response, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 45, No.12, Pages: Li, X. (2007), Finite element analysis of slope stability using a nonlinear failure criterion, Computers & Structures, Vol.34, pp Loukidis D., Bandini R. & Salgado R. (2003), Stability of seismically loaded slopes using limit analysis Geotechnique, Vol. 53, No. 5, pp Potts D.M. & Zdravkovic L.T. (1999), Finite element analysis in geotechnical engineering: theory, Thomas Telford, London. 9. Tan D. & Sarma S. (2008), Finite element verification of an enhanced limit equilibrium method for slope analysis, Geotechnique, Vol. 58, No. 6, pp Woodward P.K. & Griffiths D.V. (1996), Comparison of the pseudo-static and dynamic behaviour of retaining walls, Geotechnical and Geological Engineering. Vol.14, pp

11 1.8 Figures Figure 1: Schematic representation of FE mesh configuration in pseudo-static analysis; (a) force based approach and (b) deformation based approach, where u ff is the maximum free-field displacement at the level of the structure and u s is the displacement applied at the top boundary of the mesh Figure 2: Problem arrangement and boundary conditions used in FE analysis for the homogeneous layer case. 11

12 Figure 3: Contours of accumulated plastic deviatoric strain just prior to failure, for the homogeneous soil layer case. Figure 4: Problem arrangement and boundary conditions used in FE analysis. 12

13 Figure 5: Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) plastic deviatoric strain just prior to failure, for D=1.5, L 2 =50m and 3 slope angles ( =45, 30 & 20 ). Figure 6: Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) plastic deviatoric strain just prior to failure, for D=1.5, L 2 =100m and 3 slope angles ( =45, 30 & 20 ). 13

14 Figure 7: Horizontal displacement at the mid-height of the slope versus seismic coefficient k h for D=

15 Figure 8: Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) deviatoric plastic strain just prior to failure for a) =10 and b) =30 (D=1.5, =45, L 2 =50m). Figure 9: Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) plastic deviatoric strain just prior to failure, for (a) =45 and (b) =20 (D=3.0, L 2 =50m). 15

16 Figure 10: Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) plastic deviatoric strain just prior to failure, for (a) =45 and (b) =20 (D=5.0, L 2 =50m) 16

17 Figure 11: Horizontal displacement at the mid-height of the slope versus seismic coefficient k h for (a) D=3.0 and (b) D=5.0. Figure 12: Problem arrangement and boundary conditions used in FE analysis. 17

18 Figure 13: Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) deviatoric plastic strain just prior to failure for the retaining wall problem for a) L 2 =50m and b) L 2 =100m (. Figure 14 Contours of sub-accumulated (from the end of excavation) deviatoric plastic strain just prior to failure for the retaining wall problem for a) =10 and b) =30 (L 2 =50m). 18

19 Figure 15: (a) Horizontal wall movement at failure and (b) horizontal displacement of the top of the wall versus seismic coefficient k h. 1.9 Tables Table 1: Material properties Youngs Modulus, E (MPa) 20.0 Poisson ratio, ν 0.33 Bulk unit weight (kn/m 3 ) 19.0 Cohesion, c (kpa) 18.0 Angle of shearing resistance, varied parametrically, 10, 20, 30 Table 2: Summary of the calculated values for the various slope analyses =20 =30 =45 Depth factor, D L 2 =50m L 2 =100m L 2 =50m L 2 =100m L 2 =50m L 2 =100m

20 Table 3: Summary of published values for various methods of analysis Reference β=20 o β=30 o β=45 o Loukidis et al. (2003) Log-spiral Upper Bound D=1.5 Leshchinsky & San (1994) Limit Equilibrium N/A 0.344* 0.24 Tan & Sarma (2008) Limit Equilibrium 0.394* 0.355* N/A Michalowski (2002) Log-spiral Upper Bound N/A N/A 0.238* *Values obtained by linear interpolation 20

FLAC3D analysis on soil moving through piles

University of Wollongong Research Online Faculty of Engineering - Papers (Archive) Faculty of Engineering and Information Sciences 211 FLAC3D analysis on soil moving through piles E H. Ghee Griffith University

PILE-SUPPORTED RAFT FOUNDATION SYSTEM

PILE-SUPPORTED RAFT FOUNDATION SYSTEM Emre Biringen, Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, Maryland, USA Mohab Sabry, Bechtel Power Corporation, Frederick, Maryland, USA Over the past decades, there has

Modelling Progressive Failure with MPM

Modelling Progressive Failure with MPM A. Yerro, E. Alonso & N. Pinyol Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences, UPC, Barcelona, Spain ABSTRACT: In this work, the progressive failure phenomenon

Recent Research on EPS Geofoam Seismic Buffers. Richard J. Bathurst and Saman Zarnani GeoEngineering Centre at Queen s-rmc Canada

Recent Research on EPS Geofoam Seismic Buffers Richard J. Bathurst and Saman Zarnani GeoEngineering Centre at Queen s-rmc Canada What is a wall (SEISMIC) buffer? A compressible inclusion placed between

3D ANALYSIS OF STRESSES AROUND AN UNLINED TUNNEL IN ROCK SUBJECTED TO HIGH HORIZONTAL STRESSES

3D ANALYSIS OF STRESSES AROUND AN UNLINED TUNNEL IN ROCK SUBJECTED TO HIGH HORIZONTAL STRESSES Abdel Meguid, M. Graduate Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London,

Model tests and FE-modelling of dynamic soil-structure interaction

Shock and Vibration 19 (2012) 1061 1069 1061 DOI 10.3233/SAV-2012-0712 IOS Press Model tests and FE-modelling of dynamic soil-structure interaction N. Kodama a, * and K. Komiya b a Waseda Institute for

Seismic Slope Stability

ISSN (e): 2250 3005 Volume, 06 Issue, 04 April 2016 International Journal of Computational Engineering Research (IJCER) Seismic Slope Stability Mohammad Anis 1, S. M. Ali Jawaid 2 1 Civil Engineering,

SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF AN EMBEDDED RETAINING STRUCTURE IN COARSE-GRAINED SOILS

4 th International Conference on Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering June 25-28, 27 Paper No. 97 SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF AN EMBEDDED RETAINING STRUCTURE IN COARSE-GRAINED SOILS Luigi CALLISTO, Fabio M. SOCCODATO

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE EARTH PRESSURES WITH INTERFACES

III European Conference on Computational Mechanics Solids, Structures and Coupled Problems in Engineering C.A. Mota Soares et.al. (eds.) Lisbon, Portugal, 5-8 June 2006 NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE EARTH

SETTLEMENT TROUGH DUE TO TUNNELING IN COHESIVE GROUND

Indian Geotechnical Journal, 41(), 11, 64-75 SETTLEMENT TROUGH DUE TO TUNNELING IN COHESIVE GROUND Mohammed Y. Fattah 1, Kais T. Shlash and Nahla M. Salim 3 Key words Tunnel, clay, finite elements, settlement,

1 Introduction. Abstract

Abstract This paper presents a three-dimensional numerical model for analysing via finite element method (FEM) the mechanized tunneling in urban areas. The numerical model is meant to represent the typical

Back Analysis of Measured Displacements of Tunnels

Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 16, 173--180 (1983) Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering 9 by Springer-Verlag 1983 Back Analysis of Measured Displacements of Tunnels By S. Sakurai and K. Takeuchi Kobe

DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PILES IN SAND BASED ON SOIL-PILE INTERACTION

October 1-17,, Beijing, China DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF PILES IN SAND BASED ON SOIL-PILE INTERACTION Mohammad M. Ahmadi 1 and Mahdi Ehsani 1 Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Geotechnical Group,

Seismic design of bridges

NATIONAL TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS LABORATORY FOR EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING Seismic design of bridges Lecture 3 Ioannis N. Psycharis Capacity design Purpose To design structures of ductile behaviour

Back Analysis of the Lower San Fernando Dam Slide Using a Multi-block Model

Proceedings Geohazards Engineering Conferences International Year 2006 Back Analysis of the Lower San Fernando Dam Slide Using a Multi-block Model C. A. Stamatopoulos P. Petridis Stamatopoulos and Associates

Example-3. Title. Description. Cylindrical Hole in an Infinite Mohr-Coulomb Medium

Example-3 Title Cylindrical Hole in an Infinite Mohr-Coulomb Medium Description The problem concerns the determination of stresses and displacements for the case of a cylindrical hole in an infinite elasto-plastic

IGJ PROOFS SETTLEMENT TROUGH DUE TO TUNNELING IN COHESIVE GROUND. Surface Settlement. Introduction. Indian Geotechnical Journal, 41(2), 2011, 64-75

Indian Geotechnical Journal, 41(), 11, 64-75 SETTLEMENT TROUGH DUE TO TUNNELING IN COHESIVE GROUND Key words Tunnel, clay, finite elements, settlement, complex variable Introduction The construction of

2D Embankment and Slope Analysis (Numerical)

2D Embankment and Slope Analysis (Numerical) Page 1 2D Embankment and Slope Analysis (Numerical) Sunday, August 14, 2011 Reading Assignment Lecture Notes Other Materials FLAC Manual 1. 2. Homework Assignment

Earth Pressure Theory

Lateral Earth Pressure Page 1 Earth Pressure Theory Examples of Retaining Walls Lateral Earth Pressure Page 2 At-Rest, Active and Passive Earth Pressure Wednesday, August 17, 2011 12:45 PM At-rest condition

Foundation Analysis LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE

Foundation Analysis LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE INTRODUCTION Vertical or near-vertical slopes of soil are supported by retaining walls, cantilever sheet-pile walls, sheet-pile bulkheads, braced cuts, and other

An Analytical Method for Static Earth Pressure Distribution against Rectangular Shallow Tunnels Using Lateral Deformation

RESEARCH ARTICLE OPEN ACCESS An Analytical Method for Static Earth Pressure Distribution against Rectangular Shallow Tunnels Using Lateral Deformation Farzad Habibbeygi*, Amin Chegenizadeh*, Hamid Nikraz*

Seismic Stability of Tailings Dams, an Overview

Seismic Stability of Tailings Dams, an Overview BY Gonzalo Castro, Ph.D., P.E. Principal International Workshop on Seismic Stability of Tailings Dams Case Western Reserve University, November 2003 Small

The Frictional Regime

The Frictional Regime Processes in Structural Geology & Tectonics Ben van der Pluijm WW Norton+Authors, unless noted otherwise 1/25/2016 10:08 AM We Discuss The Frictional Regime Processes of Brittle Deformation

Practical methodology for inclusion of uplift and pore pressures in analysis of concrete dams

Practical methodology for inclusion of uplift and pore pressures in analysis of concrete dams Michael McKay 1 and Francisco Lopez 2 1 Dams Engineer, GHD Pty 2 Principal Dams/Structural Engineer, GHD Pty

Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay

Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay R. Ziaie Moayed, S. Tamassoki, and E. Izadi Abstract Investigation of sandy clay behavior is important since urban development demands mean that sandy

Seismic stability safety evaluation of gravity dam with shear strength reduction method

Water Science and Engineering, 2009, 2(2): 52-60 doi:10.3882/j.issn.1674-2370.2009.02.006 http://kkb.hhu.edu.cn e-mail: wse@hhu.edu.cn Seismic stability safety evaluation of gravity dam with shear strength

VORONOI APPLIED ELEMENT METHOD FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: THEORY AND APPLICATION FOR LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR MATERIALS

The 4 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering October -7, 008, Beijing, China VORONOI APPLIED ELEMENT METHOD FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: THEORY AND APPLICATION FOR LINEAR AND NON-LINEAR MATERIALS K.

The Role of Slope Geometry on Flowslide Occurrence

American Journal of Environmental Sciences 3 (3): 93-97, 27 ISSN 1553-345X 27 Science Publications Corresponding Author: The Role of Slope Geometry on Flowslide Occurrence Chiara Deangeli DITAG, Politecnico

Brittle Deformation. Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm

Lecture 6 Brittle Deformation Earth Structure (2 nd Edition), 2004 W.W. Norton & Co, New York Slide show by Ben van der Pluijm WW Norton, unless noted otherwise Brittle deformation EarthStructure (2 nd

STUDY OF THE BARCELONA BASIC MODEL. INFLUENCE OF SUCTION ON SHEAR STRENGTH

STUDY OF TH BARCLONA BASIC MODL. INFLUNC OF SUCTION ON SHAR STRNGTH Carlos Pereira ABSTRACT The Barcelona Basic Model, BBM, is one of the most used elasto-plastic models for unsaturated soils. This summary

VOL., NO., DECEMBER 8 ISSN 89-8 -8 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved. CONSOLIDATION BEAVIOR OF PILES UNDER PURE LATERAL LOADINGS Qassun S. Mohammed Shafiqu Department of Civil

Landslide stability analysis using the sliding block method

Landslide stability analysis using the sliding block method E. Lino, R. Norabuena, M. Villanueva & O. Felix SRK Consulting (Peru) S.A., Lima, Peru A. Lizcano SRK Consulting (Vancouver) S.A., British Columbia,

Where αh and αv are the horizontal and vertical pseudostatic k h, k v = coefficient of horizontal and vertical pseudostatic

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 5, Issue 12, December-2014 75 Seismic Active Earth Pressure behind Retaining Wall Roshni John 1, K. Preethakumari 2, Pankaj Sethi 3 1

ANALYSIS OF LATERALLY LOADED FIXED HEADED SINGLE FLOATING PILE IN MULTILAYERED SOIL USING BEF APPROACH

INDIAN GEOTECHNICAL SOCIETY, KOLKATA CHAPTER GEOTECHNICS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT KOLKATA 11 th 12 th March 2016, Kolkata, West Bengal, India ANALYSIS OF LATERALLY LOADED FIXED HEADED SINGLE FLOATING

Lateral Earth Pressure

1 of 11 6/2/2012 4:28 AM Lateral Earth Pressure The magnitude of lateral earth pressure depends on: 1. Shear strength characteristics of soil 2. Lateral strain condition 3. Pore water pressure 4. State

Applicability of Multi-spring Model Based on Finite Strain Theory to Seismic Behavior of Embankment on Liquefiable Sand Deposit

Applicability of Multi-spring Model Based on Finite Strain Theory to Seismic Behavior of Embankment on Liquefiable Sand Deposit Kyohei Ueda Railway Technical Research Institute, Kokubunji, Tokyo, Japan

Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Wall Rotating About Top

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY Volume 9, 05 Active Earth Pressure on Retaining Wall Rotating About Top Ahad Ouria and Sajjad Sepehr Abstract Traditional methods for calculation of lateral earth pressure

COMPARISON BETWEEN 2D AND 3D ANALYSES OF SEISMIC STABILITY OF DETACHED BLOCKS IN AN ARCH DAM

COMPARISON BETWEEN 2D AND 3D ANALYSES OF SEISMIC STABILITY OF DETACHED BLOCKS IN AN ARCH DAM Sujan MALLA 1 ABSTRACT The seismic safety of the 147 m high Gigerwald arch dam in Switzerland was assessed for

The Dynamic Response Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam under the Earthquake

Copyright 2013 Tech Science Press SL, vol.9, no.1, pp.23-36, 2013 The Dynamic Response Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam under the Earthquake Yang Lu 1, Li Shi-Min 1, Cao Peng 2 and Shen Xin-Pu 1 Abstract:

Pullout Tests of Geogrids Embedded in Non-cohesive Soil

Archives of Hydro-Engineering and Environmental Mechanics Vol. 51 (2004), No. 2, pp. 135 147 Pullout Tests of Geogrids Embedded in Non-cohesive Soil Angelika Duszyńska, Adam F. Bolt Gdansk University of

ELASTIC CALCULATIONS OF LIMITING MUD PRESSURES TO CONTROL HYDRO- FRACTURING DURING HDD

North American Society for Trenchless Technology (NASTT) NO-DIG 24 New Orleans, Louisiana March 22-24, 24 ELASTIC CALCULATIONS OF LIMITING MUD PRESSURES TO CONTROL HYDRO- FRACTURING DURING HDD Matthew

EVALUATION OF SEISMIC DISPLACEMENTS OF CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS

Paper No. ESDEV EVALUATION OF SEISMIC DISPLACEMENTS OF CANTILEVER RETAINING WALLS Aldo Evangelista 1, Anna Scotto di Santolo 2 ABSTRACT A simplified dynamic analysis method is proposed to predict the seismic

Geology 229 Engineering Geology. Lecture 5. Engineering Properties of Rocks (West, Ch. 6)

Geology 229 Engineering Geology Lecture 5 Engineering Properties of Rocks (West, Ch. 6) Common mechanic properties: Density; Elastic properties: - elastic modulii Outline of this Lecture 1. Uniaxial rock

Mining. Slope stability analysis at highway BR-153 using numerical models. Mineração. Abstract. 1. Introduction

Mining Mineração http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0370-44672015690040 Ricardo Hundelshaussen Rubio Engenheiro Industrial / Doutorando Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul - UFRS Departamento de Engenharia

SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR PSEUDOSTATIC SLOPE ANALYSIS

13 th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering Vancouver, B.C., Canada August 1-6, 2004 Paper No. 369 SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR PSEUDOSTATIC SLOPE ANALYSIS Cristiano MELO 1 and Sunil SHARMA 2 SUMMARY

Prof. B V S Viswanadham, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Bombay

56 Module 4: Lecture 7 on Stress-strain relationship and Shear strength of soils Contents Stress state, Mohr s circle analysis and Pole, Principal stressspace, Stress pathsin p-q space; Mohr-Coulomb failure

NUMERICAL MODELING OF BRITTLE ROCK FAILURE UNDER DYNAMIC STRESS LOADING. N. Golchinfar and M. Cai

NUMERICAL MODELING OF BRITTLE ROCK FAILURE UNDER DYNAMIC STRESS LOADING N. Golchinfar and M. Cai Laurentian University 935 Ramsey Lake Road Sudbury, Canada P3E 2C6 NUMERICAL MODELING OF BRITTLE ROCK FAILURE

THEME A. Analysis of the elastic behaviour of La Aceña arch-gravity dam

THEME A Analysis of the elastic behaviour of La Aceña arch-gravity dam Gjorgi KOKALANOV, Professor, Faculty of Civil Eng., Skopje, Republic of Macedonia Ljubomir TANČEV, Professor, Faculty of Civil Eng.,

7.4 The Elementary Beam Theory

7.4 The Elementary Beam Theory In this section, problems involving long and slender beams are addressed. s with pressure vessels, the geometry of the beam, and the specific type of loading which will be

IZMIT BAY BRIDGE SOUTH APPROACH VIADUCT: SEISMIC DESIGN NEXT TO THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT

Istanbul Bridge Conference August 11-13, 2014 Istanbul, Turkey IZMIT BAY BRIDGE SOUTH APPROACH VIADUCT: SEISMIC DESIGN NEXT TO THE NORTH ANATOLIAN FAULT A. Giannakou 1, J. Chacko 2 and W. Chen 3 ABSTRACT

Estimation of the Passive Earth Pressure with Inclined Cohesive Backfills: the Effect of Intermediate Principal Stress is Considered

108 The Open Mechanical Engineering Journal, 011, 5, 108-116 Open Access Estimation of the Passive Earth Pressure with Inclined Cohesive Backfills: the Effect of Intermediate Principal Stress is Considered

LATERAL DISPLACEMENTS OF COMMONLY FOUND GRAVITY RETAINING WALLS IN SRI LANKA DUE TO SEISMIC ACTION

LATERAL DISPLACEMENTS OF COMMONLY FOUND GRAVITY RETAINING WALLS IN SRI LANKA DUE TO SEISMIC ACTION Gopinath Kathiravelu, Graduate Research Student, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Moratuwa

Building on Past Experiences Worker Safety

EOSC433: Geotechnical Engineering Practice & Design Lecture 11: Rock Stabilization Principles 1 of 43 Erik Eberhardt UBC Geological Engineering EOSC 433 (2016) Building on Past Experiences Worker Safety

NEW DOWN-HOLE PENETROMETER (DHP-CIGMAT) FOR CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS

NEW DOWN-HOLE PENETROMETER (DHP-CIGMAT) FOR CONSTRUCTION APPLICATIONS 1 2 C. Vipulanandan 1, Ph.D., M. ASCE and Omer F. Usluogullari 2 Chairman, Professor, Director of Center for Innovative Grouting Materials

Aim of the study Experimental determination of mechanical parameters Local buckling (wrinkling) Failure maps Optimization of sandwich panels

METNET Workshop October 11-12, 2009, Poznań, Poland Experimental and numerical analysis of sandwich metal panels Zbigniew Pozorski, Monika Chuda-Kowalska, Robert Studziński, Andrzej Garstecki Poznan University

FE prediction of bearing capacity over reinforced soil

Applications of Computational Mechanics in Geotechnical Engineering Sousa, Fernandes, Vargas Jr & Azevedo (eds) 27 Taylor & Francis Group, London, ISBN 978--45-43789-9 Nogueira, C.L., Oliveira, R.R.V.,

Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading Misko Cubrinovski University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand

US New Zealand Japan International Workshop Liquefaction-Induced Ground Movements Effects UC Berkeley, California, 2 4 November 2016 Liquefaction-Induced Lateral Spreading Misko Cubrinovski University

A s Bingham Canyon Mine Pit Wall S des

Proceedings Tailings and Mine Waste 2016 Keystone, Colorado, USA October 2-5, 2016 A s Bingham Canyon Mine Pit Wall S des M.A. Llano-Serna The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia D.. Williams

CHAPTER 6: ASSESSMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE METHOD FOR PREDICTING PERFORMANCE

CHAPTER 6: ASSESSMENT OF A COMPREHENSIVE METHOD FOR PREDICTING PERFORMANCE 6.1 Overview The analytical results presented in Chapter 5 demonstrate the difficulty of predicting the performance of an improved

AB Engineering Manual

AB Engineering Manual Allan Block Retaining Walls Excerptfrom theabengineeringmanualforretainingwals CHAPTER FIVE Seismic Analysis Introduction In seismic design we take a dynamic force and analyze it

EA (kn/m) EI (knm 2 /m) W (knm 3 /m) v Elastic Plate Sheet Pile

1. Introduction Nowadays, the seismic verification of structures has dramatically evolved. Italy is surrounded many great earthquakes; hence it would be unwise to totally ignore the effects of earthquakes

A Preliminary Finite-Element Analysis of a Shallow Landslide in the Alki Area of Seattle, Washington

A Preliminary Finite-Element Analysis of a Shallow Landslide in the Alki Area of Seattle, Washington By S. Debray and W.Z. Savage Open-File Report 01-0357 2001 This report is preliminary and has not been

Elements of Rock Mechanics

Elements of Rock Mechanics Stress and strain Creep Constitutive equation Hooke's law Empirical relations Effects of porosity and fluids Anelasticity and viscoelasticity Reading: Shearer, 3 Stress Consider

Observational Methods and

Observational Methods and NATM System for Observational approach to tunnel design Eurocode 7 (EC7) includes the following remarks concerning an observational method. Four requirements shall all be made

Numerical evaluation of the bearing capacity factor N of ring footings for associated soils

Numerical evaluation of the bearing capacity factor N of ring footings for associated soils BENMEBAREK Sadok Numerical Modeling and Instrumentation Laboratory, Biskra University, Algeria, benmebareks@yahoo.fr

Numerical and Theoretical Study of Plate Load Test to Define Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction

Journal of Geotechnical and Transportation Engineering Volume 1 Issue 2 Numerical and Theoretical Study of Plate Load Test to Define Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction Naeini and Taherabadi Received 9/28/2015

Soil strength. the strength depends on the applied stress. water pressures are required

Soil Strength Soil strength u Soils are essentially frictional materials the strength depends on the applied stress u Strength is controlled by effective stresses water pressures are required u Soil strength

STABILITY CHARTS FOR UNSUPPORTED CIRCULAR TUNNELS IN COHESIVE SOILS

Geotec., Const. Mat. & Env., ISSN:2186-2990, Japan, DOI: https://doi.org/10.21660/2017.39.47674 STABILITY CHARTS FOR UNSUPPORTED CIRCULAR TUNNELS IN COHESIVE SOILS *Jim Shiau 1, Brian Lamb 1, Mathew Sams

INVESTIGATION OF SATURATED, SOFT CLAYS UNDER EMBANKMENTS. Zsolt Rémai Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Geotechnics

INVESTIGATION OF SATURATED, SOFT CLAYS UNDER EMBANKMENTS PhD thesis Zsolt Rémai Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department of Geotechnics Budapest December, 2012 1. IMPORTANCE OF THE RESEARCH

COMPARING SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS BASED ON LINEAR ELASTIC OR ELASTO PLASTIC STRESSES USING DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING TECHNIQUES

57ième CONGRÈS CANADIEN DE GÉOTECHNIQUE 5ième CONGRÈS CONJOINT SCG/AIH-CNN 57TH CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL CONFERENCE 5TH JOINT CGS/IAH-CNC CONFERENCE COMPARING SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS BASED ON LINEAR ELASTIC

A non-linear elastic/perfectly plastic analysis for plane strain undrained expansion tests

Bolton, M. D. & Whittle, R. W. (999). GeÂotechnique 49, No., 33±4 TECHNICAL NOTE A non-linear elastic/perfectly plastic analysis for plane strain undrained expansion tests M. D. BOLTON and R. W. WHITTLE{

Civil Engineering Design (1) Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 2006/7

Civil Engineering Design (1) Design of Reinforced Concrete Columns 2006/7 Dr. Colin Caprani, Chartered Engineer 1 Contents 1. Introduction... 3 1.1 Background... 3 1.2 Failure Modes... 5 1.3 Design Aspects...

Technical Report Documentation Page 2. Government 3. Recipient s Catalog No.

1. Report No. FHWA/TX-08/0-5506-1 Technical Report Documentation Page 2. Government 3. Recipient s Catalog No. Accession No. 4. Title and Subtitle Design Considerations for MSE Retaining Walls Constructed

S. Freitag, B. T. Cao, J. Ninić & G. Meschke

SFB 837 Interaction Modeling Mechanized Tunneling S Freitag, B T Cao, J Ninić & G Meschke Institute for Structural Mechanics Ruhr University Bochum 1 Content 1 Motivation 2 Process-oriented FE model for

1.5 STRESS-PATH METHOD OF SETTLEMENT CALCULATION 1.5 STRESS-PATH METHOD OF SETTLEMENT CALCULATION

Module 6 Lecture 40 Evaluation of Soil Settlement - 6 Topics 1.5 STRESS-PATH METHOD OF SETTLEMENT CALCULATION 1.5.1 Definition of Stress Path 1.5. Stress and Strain Path for Consolidated Undrained Undrained

Finite Element Modelling with Plastic Hinges

01/02/2016 Marco Donà Finite Element Modelling with Plastic Hinges 1 Plastic hinge approach A plastic hinge represents a concentrated post-yield behaviour in one or more degrees of freedom. Hinges only

Rock Berm Restraint of an Untrenched Pipeline on Soft Clay

Rock Berm Restraint of an Untrenched Pipeline on Soft Clay J.-C. Ballard, P.H. Yonatan and M.J. Rattley, Fugro GeoConsulting A. Griffiths, Shell UK Limited ABSTRACT This paper discusses soil structure

Upper bound seismic rotational stability analysis of gravity retaining walls considering embedment depth

J. Cent. South Univ. (05) : 4083 4089 DOI: 0.007/s77-05-953-4 Upper bound seismic rotational stability analysis of gravity retaining walls considering embedment depth LIU Jie( 刘杰 ),, HUNG Da( 黄达 ), 3,

Sample Chapter HELICAL ANCHORS IN SAND 6.1 INTRODUCTION

6 ELICAL ANCORS IN SAN At the present time, limited studies on helical anchors are available, the results of which can be used to estimate their ultimate uplift capacity. In many instances, the ultimate

Plane Strain Test for Metal Sheet Characterization

Plane Strain Test for Metal Sheet Characterization Paulo Flores 1, Felix Bonnet 2 and Anne-Marie Habraken 3 1 DIM, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 270, Concepción, Chile 2 ENS - Cachan, Avenue

Piles in Lateral Spreading due to Liquefaction: A Physically Simplified Method Versus Centrifuge Experiments

"Pile-Group Response to Large Soil Displacements and Liquefaction: Centrifuge Experiments Versus A Physically Simplified Analysis", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol.

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering

Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 30 (2010) 1430 1445 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/soildyn Interaction

SOIL-BASEMENT STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS ON DYNAMIC LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE ON BASEMENT WALL

International Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Disaster Mitigation, Jakarta, April 1-15, SOIL-BASEMENT STRUCTURE INTERACTION ANALYSIS ON DYNAMIC LATERAL EARTH PRESSURE ON BASEMENT WALL Nurrachmad

Stability Analysis of Earth Retaining Walls

6 th International Advanced echnologies Symposium (IAS 11), 16-18 May 11, Elazığ, urkey Stability Analysis of Earth Retaining Walls L. Belabed 1 and J. Yahiaoui 2 1 University of Guelma, Algeria, drbelabed@yahoo.de

Stability analysis of a borehole wall during horizontal directional drilling

Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology 22 (2007) 620 632 Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology incorporating Trenchless Technology Research www.elsevier.com/locate/tust Stability analysis of

Constitutive models: Incremental plasticity Drücker s postulate

Constitutive models: Incremental plasticity Drücker s postulate if consistency condition associated plastic law, associated plasticity - plastic flow law associated with the limit (loading) surface Prager

A Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of a Plane Tillage Tool in Soil Using a Non-linear Elasto-Plastic Model

American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 3 (3): 498-505, 2008 ISSN 88-6769 IDOSI Publications, 2008 A Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of a Plane Tillage Tool in Soil Using a Non-linear Elasto-Plastic

UNCERTAINTY MODELLING AND LIMIT STATE RELIABILITY OF TUNNEL SUPPORTS UNDER SEISMIC EFFECTS

UNCERTAINTY MODELLING AND LIMIT STATE RELIABILITY OF TUNNEL SUPPORTS UNDER SEISMIC EFFECTS Mallika S 1, Srividya. A, Venkatachalam. G 3 1 Research Scholar, Reliability Engineering Group, IIT Bombay, Powai,

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering

Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering by Dr. Deepankar Choudhury Humboldt Fellow, JSPS Fellow, BOYSCAST Fellow Professor Department of Civil Engineering IIT Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076, India. Email: dc@civil.iitb.ac.in

Behavior of Offshore Piles under Monotonic Inclined Pullout Loading Mohamed I. Ramadan Lecturer, Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt, mihr81@gmail.com

EXTENDED ABSTRACT. Combined Pile Raft Foundation

EXTENDED ABSTRACT Combined Pile Raft Foundation Rui Diogo Gomes da Silva Supervisor: Prof. Jaime Alberto dos Santos December 2009 1. Introduction The piled raft foundation is an innovative design concept

Evaluating the Seismic Coefficient for Slope Stability Analyses

Evaluating the Seismic Coefficient for Slope Stability Analyses by Edward Kavazanjian, Jr., Ph.D., P.E.,D.GE., NAE Ira A. Fulton Professor of Geotechnical Engineering School of Sustainable Engineering

Assessment of the Post-earthquake Safety and the Maximum Anti-Seismic Capability of Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam

Assessment of the Post-earthquake Safety and the Maximum Anti-Seismic Capability of Zipingpu Concrete Face Rockfill Dam Jian-ming Zhao, Jinsheng Jia, Yanfeng Wen China Institute of Water Resources and

Back analysis of staged embankment failure: The case study Streefkerk

Back analysis of staged embankment failure: The case study Streefkerk C.M. Bauduin Besix, Brussels, Belgium M. De Vos Belgian Building Research Institute, Brussels, Belgium P.A. Vermeer Institut für Geotechnik,

Effect Of The In-Situ Stress Field On Casing Failure *

Effect Of The In-Situ Stress Field On Casing Failure * Tang Bo Southwest Petroleum Institute, People's Republic of China Lian Zhanghua Southwest Petroleum Institute, People's Republic of China Abstract

Centrifuge Shaking Table Tests and FEM Analyses of RC Pile Foundation and Underground Structure

Centrifuge Shaking Table s and FEM Analyses of RC Pile Foundation and Underground Structure Kenji Yonezawa Obayashi Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Takuya Anabuki Obayashi Corporation, Tokyo, Japan. Shunichi

Stresses and Strains in flexible Pavements

Stresses and Strains in flexible Pavements Multi Layered Elastic System Assumptions in Multi Layered Elastic Systems The material properties of each layer are homogeneous property at point A i is the same