# ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 1 of 11

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1 Science 9 Unit 5 Worksheet Chapter 13, Part Our sun is a that gives off light and other forms of energy. A is an object that travels in a path around the or around any. The Earth is one of the planets that around the sun. 2. In addition, a is an object that travels in a around a planet. Our Earth has moon travelling around it. Also, there are smaller space objects like,, and. 3. These objects, the planets and the sun make up something called the. Compare the known planets in the solar system in Figure 13.2 on page 266. List the planets names in the space below. Which are the largest and the smallest planets? 4. Everything in the solar system is in. This type of motion is called which is the motion of one object around another. The planets revolve around the sun in paths or which are nearly circular with the sun at the centre of each orbit. 5. Each planet in the solar system is from every other planet in its,,, and the which make it up. Each planet also takes a different amount of time to complete one around the sun. The it is from the sun, the it takes to revolve. 6. The amount of time it takes the Earth is one. The longest time to complete one revolution is by, approximately Earth years! Apart from revolving all the planets also. This of an object is about an imaginary. IE Our North and South Poles! 7. temperatures also vary depending on the planet s from the sun and the composition of its. Density also varies a lot, this measures how the particles of the substance are. The density of water is or. How does this compare to the Earth? 8. The planets are made up of different combinations of chemical and no two planets are th same. However, there are more common than others. List them in the space below: ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 1 of 11

2 9. Who are the Terrestrial planets and why are they given this name? What is their other name? 10. The first four inner planets are mentioned above. The remaining planets travel the vast areas of outer space and are called the. Four of these planets are. They are large and their atmosphere is mostly made up of the low density gases, and. For this reason they are called the. 11. The last planet is. It is so far away and so that we know little of it. is the science of outer space, even beyond the solar system! An is a person who studies astronomy and its mysteries. Part The terrestrial planets are composed mainly of and. This group includes Earth,,, and. They have been studied with electronic spacecraft called. 13. is not easy to see from the Earth because it is never far from the of the sun. The only times you can see it is just sunrise and after. It is a planet of. Being the closest to the sun, Mercury receives about times the sunlight and temperatures can reach over! 14. Since Mercury has no atmosphere to trap heat, it can get as cold as! It was first photographed by in. The pictures showed that it was a barren,, with many craters caused by rock collisions in the past. 15. is the easiest to see from Earth because it is our neighbour. It appears to be very bright because sunlight reflects from its thick. Venus is the brightest star and is sometimes called the. Its atmosphere is mostly which holds heat and causes the greenhouse effect. 16. Why is the planet Venus so difficult to explore with space probes? 17. The only planet in our solar system with an atmosphere is. Our atmosphere is mainly (78%) and (21%). The oxygen is mostly produced by living. More than of its surface is covered by water. The water in the atmosphere produces the and the Earth s ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 2 of 11

4 Part The sun and the planets are just some of the objects in the solar system. Each travels about its parent planet in an orbit. The Earth s moon is about of the size of Earth, making it one of the largest moons. There have been visits to the moon by Nasa. 29. Data has been collected on moon rock, soil,, and. Our moon has no and has been cratered by the impact of objects from outer space. The moons of other planets were not discovered until the invention of the modern. In 1610, was the first person to observe the four moons of Jupiter. 30. Space probes have investigated several different moons and what surprised astronomers the most was the difference in their and. Discuss some of these below: 31. The closest moon to Jupiter is. It is interesting because it appears to have. Only the number of moons orbiting the four planets is known for sure. By studying the planetary moons it helps us understand the and of our solar system. Why could knowledge about the planetary moons be useful to us some day? 32. The irregular, rock objects found travelling in orbit between and are called. Another name for these fragments is. Asteroids may be leftovers from a long time ago when the planets were, or the result of between what was a large planet and space debris. 33. Most are found between Mars and Jupiter in the, but some follow Jupiter s orbit or can even come closer to the Earth and Sun. An asteroid called came within km of the Earth. They are rich in which means they could be. They have a low gravity making rocket easy. 34. A is a lump of rock or that falls from space to Earth. As it passes through the atmosphere causes the meteor to burn up and produce a Visible streak across the night sky. Most meteors burn up before they reach the Earth s. If it does make it to our planet it is then called a. The larger meteors probably come from that have orbit which have crossed Earth s path. If it hits the surface, it can create huge craters such as the one at. 35. A is a chunk of rocky or material covered in ice and travelling in a very long around the sun. They are believed to be made up of,,, and. Their tails always point from the as their solar energy acts like ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 4 of 11

6 there. 44. The other motion of the Earth is or the movement of one object travelling around another. The Earth revolves around the once a year or 365 days. This motion, combined with the tilt of the axis, causes the of the Earth. It also causes different and to be visible at different times. 45. Many of the constellations were given the names of, and from the Greek word Zodion (for animal) they were called the. Refer to Figure 14.9 on page 300 of your text. What stars do we see in the northern hemisphere? 46. Predictions based upon the regular movement of objects in the sky have led humans to tell about the and conditions. Some people believe that events in the sky can influence events in a person s life. This is called. This is not to be confused with astronomy which is a study of outer space. The first astronomers recorded many detailed of the sky. Astrology is considered a science because it has not been tested through experiments. Instead, astrological observations are based upon beliefs and folk law. Part In the real world, sometimes there are no direct ways to measure certain calculations. One must find a way to distances using an method. You can calculate such things using a method called to determine the distances to some stars and planets indirectly. 48. Triangulation is a of measuring distances using a scaled diagram and a known length called a, along with angles measured from the end of the baseline. Refer to Figure & 14.14, draw the triangulation models in the space below: ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 6 of 11

7 49. The method above be used to calculated long distances. Read the Activity 14E on page 307 of your textbook. It is a simple process to use the triangulation baseline method. One way to obtain a long baseline is to use the of the Earth. Since the Earth rotates on its axis, it takes hours to rotate the diameter of kilometres. 50. The largest baseline possible to observers on Earth is the diameter of the. Angles to the stars are taken 6 months apart. Refer to Figures & on pages 307/ 308 of your textbook and draw the baseline models in the space below: 51. Since the distances and calculations that astronomers must make are so huge, scientists have developed unit of measurement such as the and notation to write very large or small numbers. A light year is the that light rays travel in year. It is not a way to measure, but to measure. Light travels at or in one year. Wow! Part Scientists use a special device called a to look closely at light given off by the sun and other stars. It light energy into a series of called a. One common example you have seen of this is a. The usual colours of the rainbow include:. 53. When a chemical element is, it gives off light energy in a unique when viewed through a spectroscope. The spectrum of a star can tell us about the elements that make up a star, how of the element is present, and how the star is moving towards or away from the Earth. Review Figure on page 310 of the text. 54. The of a hot object lets scientists its temperature with other hot objects. A red colour means the temperature is low compared to,, and the hottest. So hot stars have more blue than red light. Describe the classification of stars by using their spectral types: 55. Stars can also be classified by their,, from Earth, or ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 7 of 11

8 their. The brightness of a star is called its. The Greek astronomer developed a classification of stars by brightness. It was divided into categories ranging from the brightest as magnitude. The faintest stars were called magnitude. Astronomers now use the term in two ways. magnitude refers to brightness as it appears to us. The term magnitude refers to the actual amount of light energy given off and takes into account their distance from Earth. Chapter 15, Part The consists of all the matter and all the energy, as well as the space in between. Ancient astronomers thought that the Earth was and everything else revolved around it. Explain the ancient concept of the Earth-centred universe: 57. Briefly describe the contributions of the ancient Greeks and Chinese to astronomy: 58. About years ago scientific ideas were changing for reasons. One reason was that scientist were starting to use to learn about nature. The other reason was the of the in the early 1600s. Italian scientist by the name of improved the invention and magnified the sky by times. 59. Eventually the Earth-centred view of the universe was replaced by the. Briefly discuss the discoveries and contributions made to astronomy by Galileo Galilei: 60. Now we know that the planet revolve around the sun and that the sun is one of countless stars. Astronomers know that other stars are also and are gather into surrounded by gas and dust. The group of stars that our sun belongs to is called the Way Galaxy. A is a collection of gas, dust, and of stars. ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 8 of 11

9 61. Past the Milky Way Galaxy is a vast of space that appears to be empty, but the universe is made up of countless. See Figure 15.4 on page 322 of the text. The distances between objects in the universe are given different. Distances between the in the solar system are called. Distances between the stars are called distances and the distances that separate galaxies are referred to as. Part Galileo s telescope worked because it or bent light rays as they pass through a light-gathering called a,. This type of telescope is called a telescope. It allows more light to be, but lenses can not be made any larger than in diameter. Why is this the largest possible? 63. A telescope uses a curved mirror instead of a lens to gather light. The English scientist was the first to use such an instrument. Both the refracting and reflecting telescopes are called telescopes. They may be portable or set up permanently in. 64. The Earth s atmosphere with their views of outer space. To minimize the problem, observatories are usually built on mountain tops. Seven extra moons of Jupiter have just been discovered from such an observatory in Hawaii! The air high up helps to absorb and far less light than the air lower down. 65. Recently, scientists have discovered that putting a telescope in space orbit can overcome the problem of the Earth s atmosphere. The was launched to view further into outer space, but it was and had to be fixed by shuttle astronauts. 66. may be used to gather permanent images of space. Pictures can be taken over a period of many and thus we can see images beyond the naked eye! Another device used to explore space is the. It separates light into a spectrum of colours. The spectrum we can see is called the, but it is only a small part of the broad band of energy called the spectrum. This includes : 67. A device which receives radio waves from stars and galaxies in outer space is called a. They look like satellite dishes and can be very large and are made to work in sets called. Together they collect signals and data over time to make up maps. 68. Parts of the electromagnetic spectrum become by the Earth s atmosphere and can not be detected from the surface. Satellite observatories, like the, ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 9 of 11

11 77. A is an extremely small, core of a star. It has a force of gravity and pulls everything near towards it. It even pulls toward it so that it can t be seen! Scientists only know of their existence through. Chapter 16, Part A is a series of actions repeated in the same order every time. The life cycles of stars may take of years to happen. Stars begin their lives in or huge clouds of dust and gas. This dust and gas forms attracted by gravity and becomes tightly packed. Eventually the clumps give off enough energy and become stars. 79. New stars are usually very at first and are or in colour. The life cycle of a star depends upon its. Low mass stars may live for billion years, while medium mass stars like our sun may live for billion years. High mass stars have a much shorter life, perhaps only a million years. 80. When a star source of energy runs out it cools and swells up into what is called a. Their outer layers and they shrink into what is called a. These are very dense and eventually they just fade away. High mass stars end their life cycle in a different way. They swell into and then they explode in what is called a. A supernova leaves behind a of dust and gas. At the centre of this is a small called a. 81. Read Figure 16.4 on page 346 of your textbook. Describe the life cycle of high-mas stars: 82. Read Figure 16.5 on page 347 of your textbook. Using a diagram, what possible stages were in the formation of the solar system? Why are the so called minor bodies of special interest? ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 11 of 11

12 83. The study of the origin and changes of the universe is called. Longer light wavelengths indicate that the galaxy is moving from you is called a. Scientists use the theory to explain the universe beginning from a very dense, hot mass, under pressure. This mass eventually exploded sending out intense. Another theory called the theory suggests that the universe and until another cycle repeats itself. We still know very little about how the universe began, but we do know that are still the building blocks of life which form proteins and all living things. ProActive Curriculum Design - Rev: 10/8/03 Page 12 of 11

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