1 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Topic 3: Solar System Topic 4: The Planets Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies
2 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Essential Question: What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth?
3 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Essential Question: What causes the cycle of seasons on Earth? Well, what do YOU think?? Earth s distance from the Sun? (so it is warmer here when we are closer to the Sun and colder when we are farther away from the Sun) OR Earth s tilt? (so it is warmer here when we are tilted towards the Sun and colder when we are tilted away from the Sun)
4 Topic 1: Earth s Motion The Sun is the nearest star to Earth and has a diameter 100 times greater than Earth s. The Sun s core reaches temperatures over 15,000,000ᵒC, with the surface reaching temps of 5,500ᵒC. A small part of this energy reaches Earth as light and thermal energy.
5 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Earth orbits, or follows an ellipitical* path, around the Sun making one complete revolution every days due to the Sun s gravitational pull. Ellipse: oval shape with 2 foci (center points) *Note: The fact that Earth s orbit is an ellipse, NOT a circle, is an important idea that we will continue to discuss more soon!
6 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Earth s elliptical orbit means that the Sun is not at the center of its orbit.
7 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Thus Earth moves closer to and farther away from the Sun as it orbits. Perihelion: Closer to the Sun Occurs around January 3 rd Aphelion: Farther Away from the Sun Occurs around July 4 th Perihelion Aphelion
8 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Evidence for Earth s Revolution: (1) Changing Constellations: As Earth orbits the Sun, different constellations can be seen in the sky FYI Constellation: Man-made patterns of stars in the sky
9 Topic 1: Earth s Motion (2) Changing Seasons: As Earth orbits the Sun, areas on Earth experience different seasons
10 Topic 1: Earth s Motion As Earth revolves around the Sun, Earth rotates, or spins, on its rotational axis (an imaginary line on which the Earth rotates).
11 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Evidence for Earth s Rotation: (1) Coriolis Effect: the apparent curved motion of fluids (like water or air) on Earth s surface Video Explanation 1 Video Explanation 2 Video Explanation 3
12 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Evidence for Earth s Rotation: (2) Foucault s Pendulum: a pendulum whose movement changes directions over time Video Demonstration 1 (from Space) Video Demonstration 2 (on Earth)
13 Topic 1: Earth s Motion The (1) tilt of Earth s rotational axis + (2) Earth s revolution around the Sun = the seasons change Earth s tilt and orbit cause the sun s radiation to strike the hemispheres at different angles. The hemisphere tilted towards the Sun receives more daylight hours than the hemisphere tilted away from the Sun receives more total sunlight than the hemisphere tilted away from the Sun
14 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Solstice: Day when Earth s rotational axis is the most toward or away from the Sun June (Summer) solstice: June 20/21 in the northern hemisphere December (Winter) solstice: Dec 21/22 in the northern hemisphere *Challenge Question* When it is the June (summer) solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, what solstice is happening in the Southern Hemisphere?
15 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Solstice: Day when Earth s rotational axis is the most toward or away from the Sun June (Summer) solstice: June 20/21 in the northern hemisphere December (Winter) solstice: Dec 21/22 in the northern hemisphere *Challenge Question* When it is the June (summer) solstice in the Northern Hemisphere, what solstice is happening in the Southern Hemisphere? Winter Solstice
16 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Equinox ( equal nights ): Day when Earth s rotational axis is leaning along Earth s orbit, neither toward nor away from the Sun March (Spring/Vernal) equinox: March 20/21 in the northern hemisphere September (Fall/Autumnal) equinox: Sept 22/23 in the northern hemisphere *Challenge Question* When it is the September (fall/autumnal) equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, what equinox is happening in the Southern Hemisphere?
17 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Equinox ( equal nights ): Day when Earth s rotational axis is leaning along Earth s orbit, neither toward nor away from the Sun March (Spring/Vernal) equinox: March 20/21 in the northern hemisphere September (Fall/Autumnal) equinox: Sept 22/23 in the northern hemisphere *Challenge Question* When it is the September (fall/autumnal) equinox in the Northern Hemisphere, what equinox is happening in the Southern Hemisphere? Spring/Vernal Equinox
18 Topic 1: Earth s Motion
19 Topic 1: Earth s Motion Practice: Ellipses & Eccentricity Key Points Earth and all the planets in our Solar System travel in elliptical orbits around the Sun Ellipses can be very round (a circle) or very stretched out (a straight line) Eccentricity is how we measure how round or stretched out an ellipse is Using p. 1 of your Reference Table, write down the formula for eccentricity here: Eccentricity = distance between foci Length of major axis Eccentricity values range between 0 and 1 0 = circle 1 = straight line
21 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Essential Question: Why does the moon appear to change shape?
22 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite The Moon appears to shine because it reflects the Sunlight.
23 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite The gravitational pull of Earth on the Moon causes the Moon to move in an orbit around the Earth. The changing relative positions of the Moon, Earth and Sun cause the phases of the Moon, eclipses and tides.
24 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Phases the different forms the Moon takes in its appearance from Earth; the sequence of phases is called the lunar cycle and lasts 29.5 days
25 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite new moon when the moon is between Earth and Sun and can t be seen Draw a new moon, like the one above, in the circle in your notes
26 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite full moon when the Earth is between the moon and Sun and the moon can be fully seen Draw a full moon, like the one above, in the circle in your notes ;) (don t over-think this one!)
27 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Waxing Phases: More of the moon s right side is bright each night waxing crescent first visible thin slice of moon on right first quarter right half of the lighted side of moon is visible waxing gibbous more than one quarter of right side is visible
28 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Waning Phases: Less of the illuminated half of Moon is visible after a full moon waning gibbous starts after a full moon when more than half of bright side of moon is still visible on left Third or last quarter only half the moon s lighted side on left is visible waning crescent last visible slice on the left before a new moon
29 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Eclipse: When Earth or the Moon casts a shadow on the other solar eclipse when Moon s shadow appears on Earth s surface Moon appears to block the Sun
30 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon moves into Earth s shadow Earth appears to darken the Moon
31 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Tide: The rising and falling water levels on Earth caused primarily by the moon s gravity and usually found in large bodies of water - Video Explanation
32 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite High Tide Higher water levels Spring Tide: Higher than normal high tides Neap Tide: Lower than normal high tides Low tide Lower water levels
33 Topic 2: The Moon Earth s Satellite Features of Moon s surface maria dark, flat areas formed from lava 3-4 billion years ago crater large, round pits caused by impacts of meteoroids highlands oldest, most highly-cratered regions on the Moon These features are easier to see because the Moon has no atmosphere to protect it or erode away the features.
35 Topic 3: Solar System Essential Question: How did the solar system form?
36 Topic 3: Solar System Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Models of the Solar System
37 Topic 3: Solar System Geocentric (Earth-centered) model: early Greeks thought planets, the Sun, Moon and stars revolved around the earth Heliocentric (Sun-centered) model: Nicholas Copernicus and Galileo Galilei observed that the Moon revolved around the Earth and that Earth and the other planets revolved around the Sun
38 Topic 3: Solar System Astronomical units (AUs): Measures distances among the objects in the solar system: 1 AU = 150 million km, the average distance from Earth to the Sun
39 Topic 3: Solar System Astronomers believe the solar system began 4.6 billion years ago. A cloud of gas, ice and dust formed slowly. Shock waves (possibly from a supernova, or exploding star) might have caused the cloud to compress. Cloud became more dense, rotated faster, heated up, and flattened to form a disc
40 Topic 3: Solar System Heated material from the contracting cloud triggered nuclear fusion, forming the Sun Material left behind became objects in the solar system, including the planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, and meteoroids
41 Topic 3: Solar System Objects that orbit the Sun planets a planet must orbit the Sun, have a nearly spherical shape and have a much larger mass than the total mass of all other objects dwarf planets spherical-shaped object that orbits the Sun but has less mass than the objects in nearby orbits asteroid millions of small, rocky objects that orbit the Sun in an asteroid belt; range in size from < 1 meter to several hundred km
42 Topic 3: Solar System Objects that orbit the Sun comet made of gas, dust and ice and moves around the Sun in an elliptical orbit meteoroids debris left by colliding asteroids or comets
44 Topic 4: The Planets Essential Question: Why are planets classified as either inner or outer planets?
45 Topic 4: The Planets Planets are classified according to their location in the solar system. Inner (terrestrial) planets are those with orbits between the Sun and asteroid belt. They are made mainly of rocky material. Outer (Jovian or gas giants) planets orbit outside the asteroid belt. They are giant, gaseous planets made mainly of ice and gas.
46 Topic 4: The Planets Mercury Planet closest to Sun has no true atmosphere; surface temperatures are extreme has many craters and long, steep cliffs
47 Topic 4: The Planets Venus Second from Sun and similar to Earth in size and mass extremely dense atmosphere of clouds causing intense greenhouse effect resulting in surface temps between 450ᵒC and 475ᵒC
48 Topic 4: The Planets Earth Third planet from the Sun water exists on Earth as solid, liquid and gas atmosphere protects surface from meteors and Sun s radiation
49 Topic 4: The Planets Mars Fourth planet from the Sun called the red planet because of the iron oxide that is present in the surface rocks giving them reddish color thin atmosphere causing extreme temperatures, strong winds and global dust storms has polar ice caps, seasons, and other evidence that water is or was once present
50 Topic 4: The Planets Jupiter Largest planet in solar system; fifth from Sun atmosphere mostly hydrogen and helium; many high pressure gas storms with the most notable being the Great Red Spot has at least 60 moons with four having their own atmosphere
51 Topic 4: The Planets Saturn Sixth planet from Sun, second largest in solar system thick outer rings of hydrogen, helium, ammonia, methane and water vapor 31 moons, with largest moon, Titan, being larger than Mercury
52 Topic 4: The Planets Uranus Seventh planet from Sun; large and gaseous methane in atmosphere gives planet it bluegreen color has tilted axis of rotation moving around Sun like a rolling ball
53 Topic 4: The Planets Neptune Eighth planet from Sun has surface of frozen nitrogen and geysers that erupt nitrogen gas
55 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Take out your science notebook and turn to the Table of Contents. Fill in the following information: (today s date) Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies 45
56 Topic 5: Stars and Galaxies Essential Question: What does the life cycle of a star depend on?
57 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Ancient Greeks, Romans and other early cultures observed patterns of stars in the night sky called constellations. Stars in the sky can be found at specific locations within a constellation. Characteristics used to classify stars include color, temperature, size, composition and brightness.
58 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Life of a Star A star is born when the contracting gas and dust from a nebula, or large cloud, become so dense and hot that nuclear fusion starts.
59 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Life of a Star A star is born when the contracting gas and dust from a nebula, or large cloud, become so dense and hot that nuclear fusion starts. After a star runs out of fuel, it becomes a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole. What it becomes depends on its mass
60 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Star systems Most stars are members of groups of two (binary) or more stars called star systems. galaxy huge group of single stars, star systems, star clusters, dust and gas bound together by gravity
61 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Types of galaxies spiral has bulge in middle and arms spiral outward; Milky Way elliptical round or flattened balls; contain only old stars irregular no regular shapes; generally bright, young stars quasars active young galaxies with black holes at their centers In the space in your notes, draw a picture of a quasar.
63 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-Topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe Essential Question: What evidence exists that supports the Big Bang Theory?
64 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe Measuring Light: absolute magnitude measure of the amount of light a star gives off apparent magnitude measure of the amount of light received on Earth light-year distance that light travels in one year; light travels at 300,000 km/s or about 9.5 trillion km in one year.
65 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe Electromagnetic (E/M) Spectrum Includes all electromagnetic waves (Gamma rays, X rays, UV rays, visible light, infrared energy, microwaves, and radio waves) Waves are organized according to frequency (how many waves pass a point over a certain length of time) and wavelength (the distance between or how long the waves are) ESRT page 14:
66 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe Electromagnetic (E/M) Spectrum Scientists study the spectra, or range of wavelengths of light, stars emit using an instrument called a spectroscope which can spread the light into different wavelengths. If the stars are moving, their emitted wavelengths move as well Red Shift = Moving Away Blue Shift = Moving Towards
67 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe The Big Bang Theory Universe probably began about 13.7 billion years ago with an enormous explosion called the Big Bang. Universe is believed to still be expanding from this explosion.
68 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe The Big Bang Theory Expanding Universe/Big Bang Theory Evidence: Evidence #1: Cosmic (Microwave) Background Radiation Energy leftover from the Big Bang explosion
69 Topic 5: Stars & Galaxies Sub-topic: Measuring Light & the Origin of the Universe The Big Bang Theory Expanding Universe/Big Bang Theory Evidence: Evidence #2: The Red Shift Almost everything in the universe appears to be red-shifted (moving away from each other)
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