2 5.1 Basic Properties of Light and Matter Our goals for learning: What is light? What is matter? How do light and matter interact?
3 What is light?
5 Light is an electromagnetic wave.
6 Wavelength and Frequency wavelength frequency = speed of light = constant
7 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Electromagnetic Spectrum
8 Particles of Light Particles of light are called photons. Each photon has a wavelength and a frequency. The energy of a photon depends on its frequency.
9 Wavelength, Frequency, and Energy l f = c l = wavelength, f = frequency c = m/s = speed of light E = h f = photon energy h = joule s = photon energy
10 Thought Question The higher the photon energy, A. the longer its wavelength. B. the shorter its wavelength. C. Energy is independent of wavelength.
11 Thought Question The higher the photon energy, A. the longer its wavelength. B. the shorter its wavelength. C. Energy is independent of wavelength.
12 What is matter?
13 Atomic Terminology Atomic Number = # of protons in nucleus Atomic Mass Number = # of protons + # of neutrons
14 Atomic Terminology Isotope: same # of protons but different # of neutrons ( 4 He, 3 He) Molecules: consist of two or more atoms (H 2 O, CO 2 )
15 How do light and matter interact? Emission Absorption Transmission Transparent objects transmit light. Opaque objects block (absorb) light. Reflection or scattering
16 Reflection and Scattering Mirror reflects light in a particular direction. Movie screen scatters light in all directions.
17 Interactions of Light with Matter Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance of everything around us.
18 Thought Question Why is a rose red? A. The rose absorbs red light. B. The rose transmits red light. C. The rose emits red light. D. The rose reflects red light.
19 Thought Question Why is a rose red? A. The rose absorbs red light. B. The rose transmits red light. C. The rose emits red light. D. The rose reflects red light.
20 What have we learned? What is light? Light is a form of energy. Light comes in many colors that combine to form white light. Light is an electromagnetic wave that also comes in individual pieces called photons. Each photon has a precise wavelength, frequency, and energy. Forms of light are radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X rays, and gamma rays. What is matter? Ordinary matter is made of atoms, which are made of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
21 What have we learned? How do light and matter interact? Matter can emit light, absorb light, transmit light, and reflect (or scatter) light. Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance of everything we see.
22 5.2 Learning from Light Our goals for learning: What are the three basic types of spectra? How does light tell us what things are made of? How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars? How does light tell us the speed of a distant object?
23 What are the three basic types of spectra? Continuous Spectrum Emission Line Spectrum Absorption Line Spectrum Spectra of astrophysical objects are usually combinations of these three basic types.
24 Continuous Spectrum The spectrum of a common (incandescent) light bulb spans all visible wavelengths, without interruption.
25 Emission Line Spectrum A thin or low-density cloud of gas emits light only at specific wavelengths that depend on its composition and temperature, producing a spectrum with bright emission lines.
26 Absorption Line Spectrum A cloud of gas between us and a light bulb can absorb light of specific wavelengths, leaving dark absorption lines in the spectrum.
27 How does light tell us what things are made of? Spectrum of the Sun
28 Chemical Fingerprints Each type of atom has a unique set of energy levels. Energy levels of hydrogen Each transition corresponds to a unique photon energy, frequency, and wavelength.
29 Chemical Fingerprints Downward transitions produce a unique pattern of emission lines.
30 Production of Emission Lines
31 Chemical Fingerprints Because those atoms can absorb photons with those same energies, upward transitions produce a pattern of absorption lines at the same wavelengths.
32 Production of Absorption Lines
33 Chemical Fingerprints Each type of atom has a unique spectral fingerprint.
34 Chemical Fingerprints Observing the fingerprints in a spectrum tells us which kinds of atoms are present.
35 Example: Solar Spectrum
36 Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) absorption lines? A B C D E
37 Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) absorption lines? A B C D E
38 Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) the peak (greatest intensity) of infrared light? A B C D E
39 Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) the peak (greatest intensity) of infrared light? A B C D E
40 Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) emission lines? A B C D E
41 Thought Question Which letter(s) label(s) emission lines? A B C D E
42 How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars?
43 Thermal Radiation Nearly all large or dense objects emit thermal radiation, including stars, planets, and you. An object s thermal radiation spectrum depends on only one property: its temperature.
44 Properties of Thermal Radiation 1. Hotter objects emit more light at all frequencies per unit area. 2. Hotter objects emit photons with a higher average energy.
45 Wien s Law Wien s Law
46 Thought Question Which is hottest? A. A blue star B. A red star C. A planet that emits only infrared light
47 Thought Question Which is hotter? A. A blue star B. A red star C. A planet that emits only infrared light
48 Thought Question Why don t we glow in the dark? A. People do not emit any kind of light. B. People only emit light that is invisible to our eyes. C. People are too small to emit enough light for us to see. D. People do not contain enough radioactive material.
49 Thought Question Why don t we glow in the dark? A. People do not emit any kind of light. B. People only emit light that is invisible to our eyes. C. People are too small to emit enough light for us to see. D. People do not contain enough radioactive material.
50 Interpreting an Actual Spectrum By carefully studying the features in a spectrum, we can learn a great deal about the object that created it.
51 What is this object? Reflected sunlight: Continuous spectrum of visible light is like the Sun s except that some of the blue light has been absorbed the object must look red.
52 What is this object? Thermal radiation: Infrared spectrum peaks at a wavelength corresponding to a temperature of 225 K.
53 What is this object? Carbon dioxide: Absorption lines are the fingerprint of CO 2 in the atmosphere.
54 What is this object? Ultraviolet emission lines: Indicate a hot upper atmosphere
55 What is this object? Mars!
56 How does light tell us the speed of a distant object? The Doppler Effect
57 Same for light The Doppler Effect for Visible Light
58 Measuring the Shift Stationary Moving Away Away Faster Moving Toward Toward Faster We generally measure the Doppler effect from shifts in the wavelengths of spectral lines.
59 The amount of blue or red shift tells us an object s speed toward or away from us. The Doppler Shift of an Emission Line Spectrum
60 Doppler shift tells us ONLY about the part of an object s motion toward or away from us.
61 Thought Question I measure a line in the lab at nm. The same line in a star has wavelength nm. What can I say about this star? A. It is moving away from me. B. It is moving toward me. C. It has unusually long spectral lines.
62 Thought Question I measure a line in the lab at nm. The same line in a star has wavelength nm. What can I say about this star? A. It is moving away from me. B. It is moving toward me. C. It has unusually long spectral lines.
63 Measuring Redshift Doppler Shift of Absorption Lines
64 Measuring Velocity Determining the Velocity of a Gas Cloud
65 What have we learned? What are the three basic types of spectra? Continuous spectrum, emission line spectrum, absorption line spectrum How does light tell us what things are made of? Each atom has a unique fingerprint. We can determine which atoms something is made of by looking for their fingerprints in the spectrum.
66 What have we learned? How does light tell us the temperatures of planets and stars? Nearly all large or dense objects emit a continuous spectrum that depends on temperature. The spectrum of that thermal radiation tells us the object s temperature.
67 What have we learned? How does light tell us the speed of a distant object? The Doppler effect tells us how fast an object is moving toward or away from us. Blueshift: objects moving toward us Redshift: objects moving away from us
68 5.3 Collecting Light with Telescopes Our goals for learning: How do telescopes help us learn about the universe? Why do we put telescopes into space? How is technology revolutionizing astronomy?
69 How do telescopes help us learn about the universe? Telescopes collect more light than our eyes light-collecting area Telescopes can see more detail than our eyes angular resolution Telescopes/instruments can detect light that is invisible to our eyes (e.g., infrared, ultraviolet)
70 Bigger is better 1. Larger light-collecting area 2. Better angular resolution
71 Bigger is better Light Collecting Area of a Reflector
72 Angular Resolution The minimum angular separation that the telescope can distinguish Angular Resolution Explained Using Approaching Car Lights
73 Angular Resolution: Smaller Is Better Effect of Mirror Size on Angular Resolution
75 Basic Telescope Design Reflecting: mirrors Most research telescopes today are reflecting Reflecting telescope Gemini North 8-m
76 Keck I and Keck II Mauna Kea, Hawaii
77 Mauna Kea, Hawaii
78 Different designs for different wavelengths of light Radio telescope (Arecibo, Puerto Rico)
79 X-ray Telescope: grazing incidence optics
80 Want to buy your own telescope? Buy binoculars first (e.g., 7 35) you get much more for the same amount of money. Ignore magnification (sales pitch!). Notice: aperture size, optical quality, portability. Consumer research: Astronomy, Sky & Telescope, Mercury magazines; astronomy clubs.
81 Why do we put telescopes into space? It is NOT because they are closer to the stars! Recall our 1-to-10 billion scale: Sun size of grapefruit Earth size of a tip of a ballpoint pen, 15 m from Sun Nearest stars 4000 km away Hubble orbit microscopically above tip of a ballpoint pen-size Earth
82 Observing problems due to Earth s atmosphere 1. Light pollution
83 2. Turbulence causes twinkling blurs images Star viewed with ground-based telescope View from Hubble Space Telescope
84 3. Atmosphere absorbs most of EM spectrum, including all UV and X ray and most infrared.
85 Telescopes in space solve all three problems. Location/technology can help overcome light pollution and turbulence. Nothing short of going to space can solve the problem of atmospheric absorption of light. Chandra X-Ray Observatory
86 How is technology revolutionizing astronomy? Adaptive optics Rapid changes in mirror shape compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Without adaptive optics With adaptive optics
88 Adaptive Optics Jupiter s moon Io observed with the Keck telescope without adaptive optics with adaptive optics
89 Interferometry This technique allows two or more small telescopes to work together to obtain the angular resolution of a larger telescope. Very Large Array (VLA), New Mexico
90 The Moon would be a great spot for an observatory (but at what price?).
91 What have we learned? How do telescopes help us learn about the universe? We can see fainter objects and more detail than we can see by eye. Specialized telescopes allow us to learn more than we could from visible light alone. Why do we put telescopes into space? They are above Earth s atmosphere and therefore not subject to light pollution, atmospheric distortion, or atmospheric absorption of light.
92 What have we learned? How is technology revolutionizing astronomy? Technology greatly expands the capabilities of telescopes. Adaptive optics can overcome the distorting effects of Earth s atmosphere. Interferometry allows us to link many telescopes so that they act like a much larger telescope.
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