1 Name St.No. Date(YY/MM/DD) / / Section UNIT 1022: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL AND CAPACITANCE Approximate time two 100minute sessions I get a real charge out of capacitors. P. W. Laws OBJECTIVES 1. To understand the definition of electrical potential, or voltage. 2. To learn how to determine electric field lines from equipotential surfaces and vice versa. To learn how to map equipotentials in a plane resulting from two point charges and two line electrodes. 3. To define capacitance and learn how to measure it with a digital multimeter. 4. To discover how the capacitance of parallel plates is related to the area of the plates and the separation between the plates. 5. To determine how capacitance changes when capacitors are wired in parallel and when they are wired in series by using physical reasoning, mathematical reasoning, and direct measurements. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
2 Page 2 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU OVERVIEW 10 min The Coulomb force allows us to describe how one charge "falls" toward another or how an electron orbits a proton in a hydrogen atom. "falling" electron! attracted to! proton That both the Coulomb and the gravitational forces lead to objects falling and to objects orbiting around each other is due to the fact that these two forces have the same mathematical form. What you have already learned about the influence of the gravitational force on a mass and the concept of potential energy in a gravitational field can be applied to aid your understanding of the forces on charged particles. We will introduce the concept of electrical potential differences, which are analogous to gravitational potential energy differences. An understanding of electrical potential difference, commonly called voltage, is essential to understanding the electrical circuits which are used in physics research and which dominate this age of electronic technology. You will make actual measurements of electrical potential differences due to an electric field from two "line" conductors that lie in a plane and from two oppositely charged point charges. In session two we will define capacitance and study how a capacitor operates. We will also examine circuits containing combinations of capacitors. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
3 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 3 Author: Priscilla Laws SESSION ONE: ELECTRIC POTENTIAL 10 min Work in a Gravitational Field A Review As you recall, the work done by a constant force is the scalar (dot) product of the force and displacement vectors: W = F d Let's review the procedures for calculating work and for determining that the work done in a conservative force field is independent of path by taking some work measurements along two different paths, ac and adc, as shown in the diagram below. In order to take measurements you will need the following equipment: an inclined plane a cart a 5N spring scale a metre stick a protractor Set the inclined plane to an angle of about 30 o to the horizontal and take any necessary length measurements. Don't forget to list your units! and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
4 Page 4 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU Activity 21: Earthly Work (a) Use path ac to raise the cart up an inclined plane that makes an angle of about 30 degrees with the earth's surface (see diagram above). Use a spring balance to measure the force you are exerting, and calculate the work you performed using the definition of work given above. (b) Raise the cart directly to the same height as the top of the inclined plane along path ad and then move the cart horizontally from point d to point c. Again, use the definition of work to calculate the work done in raising the cart along path adc. (c) How does the work measured in (a) compare to that measured in (b)? Is this what you expected? Why or why not? Hint: Is the force field conservative? 15 min Work and the Electric Field It takes work to lift an object in the earth's gravitational field. Lowering the object releases the energy that was stored as potential energy when it was lifted. Physicists apply the term conservative to the gravitational force because it "releases" all of the stored energy. The work required to move a mass in the gravitational field is path independent. This is an important property of any conservative force. Given the mathematical similarity between the Coulomb force and the gravitational force, it should come as no surprise that experiments and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
5 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 5 Author: Priscilla Laws confirm that an electric field is also conservative. This means that the work needed to move a charge from point A to point B is independent of the path taken between points. A charge could be moved directly between two points or looped around and the work expended to take either path would be the same. Work done by a constant electric field on a test charge q t traveling a displacement d is given by: W = F d = q t E d Activity 22: Work Done on a Charge Traveling in a Uniform Electric Field (a) A charge q travels a distance d from point A to point B; the path is parallel to a uniform electric field of magnitude E. What is the work done by the field on the charge? How does the form of this equation compare to the work done on a mass m travelling a distance d in the almost uniform gravitational field near the surface of the earth? B E d A (b) The charge q travels a distance d from point A to point B in a uniform electric field of magnitude E, but this time the path is perpendicular to the field lines. What is the work done by the field on the charge? E A d B and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
6 Page 6 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU (c) The charge q travels a distance d from point A to point B in a uniform electric field of magnitude E. The path lies at a 45 angle to the field lines. What is the work done by the field on the charge? A E d B Potential Energy and Potential Difference Recall that by definition the work done by a conservative force equals the negative of the change in potential energy, so that the change in potential energy of a charge moving from point A to point B under the influence of an electrical force is given by: U = U B U A = W = q t E d By analogy to the definition of the electric field, we are interested in defining the electric potential difference V = V B V A as the change in electrical potential energy U per unit charge. V = V B V A = 1 q (U B U A ) 20 min Formally, the potential difference is defined as the work per unit charge that an external agent must perform to move a test charge from A to B without changing its kinetic energy The potential difference has units of joules per coulomb. Since 1 J/ C is defined as one volt, the potential difference is often referred to as voltage. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
7 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 7 Author: Priscilla Laws The Potential Difference for a Point Charge The simplest charge configuration that can be used to consider how voltage changes between two points in space is a single point charge. We will start by considering a single point charge and then move on to more complicated configurations of charge. A point charge q produces an electric field that moves out radially in all directions. The line integral equation for the potential difference can be evaluated to find the potential difference between any two points in space A and B. It is common to choose the reference point for the determination of voltage to be at so that we are determining the work per unit charge that is required to bring a test charge from infinity to a certain point in space. (See figure below.) Let's choose a coordinate system so that the point charge is conveniently located at the origin. In this case we will be interested in the potential difference between infinity and some point which is a distance r from the point charge. Thus, we can write the equation for the potential difference, or voltage, as ΔV = V B V A = V r V = r r E d r s Often, when the reference point for the potential difference is at infinity, this difference is simply referred to as "the potential" and the symbol V is just replaced with the symbol V. If you evaluate the line integral shown above using the electric field for a point charge and assuming V =0: r V r = kq kq dr = r2 r you get an expression for the potential a distance r from a point charge q. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
8 Page 8 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU y q 0 r Test charge being pushed in from! to a distance r from charge q. q Charge at origin. x Problem Activity 23: Potential Due to Two Point Charges (a) Suppose two identical point charges ( q = 1.5 x 10 7 C) are placed 5.0 cm apart. Determine the electric potential at a point midway between the two charges using the expression for the potential due to a point charge given above. Hint: The total potential would be the sum of the potential due to each point charge individually. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
9 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 9 Author: Priscilla Laws (b) Now determine the electric potential at a point 1.0 cm closer to one of the two charges. (Does it matter which charge you choose?) (c) How much work would be required by an external force to move a test charge qt = 2.2 x 10 6 C from a point midway between the two charges to a point 1.0 cm closer to either one? 10 min and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
10 Page 10 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU Equipotential Surfaces Sometimes it is possible to move along a surface without doing any work. Thus, it is possible to remain at the same potential energy anywhere along such a surface. If an electric charge can travel along a surface without doing any work, the surface is called an equipotential surface. Consider the three different charge configurations shown below. Where are the equipotential surfaces? What shapes to they have? Activity 24: Sketches of Electric Field Lines and Equipotentials (a) Suppose that you are a test charge and you start moving at some distance from the charge below (such as 4 r cm). What path could you move along without doing any work, i.e. E d r s is always zero? What is the shape of the equipotential surface? Remember that in general you can move in three dimensions. (b) Find some equipotential surfaces for the charge configuration shown below, which consists of two charged metal plates placed parallel to each other. What is the shape of the equipotential surfaces? and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
11 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 11 Author: Priscilla Laws (c) Find some equipotential surfaces for the electric dipole charge configuration shown below. (d) In general, what is the relationship between the direction of the equipotential lines you have drawn (representing that part of the equipotential surface that lies in the plane of the paper) and the direction of the electric field lines? and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
12 Page 12 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU 30 min Experiment on Equipotential Plotting The purpose of this observation is to explore the pattern of potential differences in the space between conducting equipotential surfaces. This pattern of potential differences can be related to the electric field caused by the charges that lie on the conducting surfaces. You will be using pieces of carbonized paper with conductors painted on them in different shapes to simulate the pattern of equipotential lines associated with metal electrodes in air. (Warning: this is only a simulation of "reality"!) One of the papers has two small circular conductors painted on it and the other has two linear conductors. Circular! electrodes Line! electrodes Conducting! Paint Carbonized Paper Reference points for the potential.! Place the negative black probe at! the indicated points during all! measurements. You can use a battery to set up a voltage (i.e. a potential difference) across a paper with two electrodes painted on it. You can then use a digital voltmeter to trace several equipotential lines on it. To do this observation you will need the following equipment: and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
13 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 13 Author: Priscilla Laws Reference electrode equipotential plotting paper with line and circular electrodes foam board metal push pins a digital voltmeter with leads 4 Dcell batteries 2 alligator clip leads Pick a piece of carbonized paper with either the two circular electrodes or the line electrodes. Use the alligator clips to connect the terminals of the battery to each of the electrodes on the paper as shown below. Battery Batt. Blacḳ Red Digital Voltmeter Alligator clip Turn on the digital voltmeter. Set the tip of the black voltmeter probe (plugged into the COM input) on the centre of the negative circular electrode. Place the red probe (plugged into the VΩS input) on any location on the paper. The reading on the voltmeter will determine the potential difference between the two points. What happens when you reverse the probes? Why? After placing the black probe on the centre of an electrode, you will use the red probe to find the equipotential lines for potential differences of 1.5V, 3V, 4.5V and 6V. Activity 25: Mapping the Equipotentials (a) On the two sheets of grid paper provided draw diagrams of the two electrode sheets you are going to examine. (b) For both electrode sheets, sketch the equipotential lines you mapped to scale on the diagrams. Attach these sheets to one partner s Activity Guide when you hand it in. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
14 Page 14 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU (c) Compare the results to those you predicted in Activity 24. Is it what you expected? If not, explain how and why it differs. Make sketches in the space below, if that is helpful. NOTE: BE SURE TO TURN THE VOLTMETER OFF AND DISCONNECT THE BATTERIES WHEN FINISHED WITH OBSERVATIONS. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
15 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 15 Author: Priscilla Laws SESSION TWO: CAPACITANCE Overview Any two conductors separated by an insulator can be electrically charged so that one conductor has a positive charge and the other conductor has an equal amount of negative charge; such an arrangement is called a capacitor. A capacitor can be made up of two strange shaped blobs of metal or it can have any number of regular symmetric shapes such as that of one hollow sphere inside another, or one hollow rod inside another. Amorphous capacitor (blobs) with air as an insulator Cylindrical capacitor with air as an insulator Figure 21: Some Different Capacitor Geometries Parallel plate capacitor with paper as an insulator The type of capacitor that is of the most practical interest is the parallel plate capacitor. Thus, we will focus exclusively on the study of the properties of parallel plate capacitors. There are a couple of reasons why you will be studying parallel plate capacitors. First, the parallel plate capacitor is the easiest to use when making mathematical calculations or using physical reasoning. Second, it is relatively easy to construct. Third, parallel plate capacitors are used widely in electronic circuits to do such diverse things as defining the flashing rate of a neon tube, determining what radio station will be tuned in, and storing electrical energy to run an electronic flash unit. Materials other than conductors separated by an insulator can be used to make a system that behaves like a simple capacitor. Although many of the most interesting properties of capacitors come in the operation of alternating current circuits, for now we will limit our present study to the properties of the parallel plate capacitor and its behaviour in direct current circuits. The and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
16 Page 16 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU circuit symbol for a capacitor is a pair of lines as shown in the figure below. Figure 22: The Circuit Diagram Symbol for a Capacitor 15 min The Parallel Plate Capacitor The typical method for transferring equal and opposite charges to a capacitor is to use a voltage source such as a battery or power supply to impress a potential difference between the two conductors. Electrons will then flow off of one conductor (leaving positive charges) and on to the other until the potential difference between the two conductors is the same as that of the voltage source. In general, the amount of charge needed to reach the impressed potential difference will depend on the size, shape, and location of the conductors relative to each other. The capacitance of a given capacitor is defined mathematically as the ratio of the magnitude of the excess charge, q, on either one of the conductors to the size of the potential difference, V, across the two conductors so that C = q V Thus, capacitance is defined as a measure of the amount of net or excess charge on either one of the conductors per unit potential difference (coulombs per volt in SI units). You can draw on some of your experiences with electrostatics to think about what might happen to a parallel plate capacitor when it is hooked to a battery as shown in Figure 23. This thinking can give you an intuitive feeling for the meaning of capacitance. For a fixed voltage from a battery, the net charge found on either plate is proportional to the capacitance of the pair of conductors. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
17 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 17 Author: Priscilla Laws Figure 23: A parallel plate capacitor with a voltage V across it. Activity 26: Predicting How Capacitance Depends on Area and Separation. (a) Consider two identical metal plates of area A, separated by a nonconducting material which has a thickness d. They are connected in a circuit with a battery and a switch, as shown above. When the switch is open, there is no excess charge on either plate. The switch is then closed. What will happen to the amount of net excess charge on the metal plate that is attached to the negative terminal of the battery? What will happen to the amount of net excess charge on the plate that is connected to the positive terminal of the battery? Explain. (b) Can excess charges on one plate of a charged parallel plate capacitor interact with excess charges on the other plate? If so how? Note: To say that two charges interact is to say that they exert forces on each other from a distance. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
18 Page 18 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU (c) Is there any limit to the amount of charge that can be put on a plate? Explain. (d) Use qualitative reasoning to anticipate how the amount of charge a pair of parallel plate conductors can hold will change as the area of the plates increases. Explain your reasoning. (e) Do you think that the amount of net excess charge a given battery can store on the plates will increase or decrease as the spacing, d, between the plates of the capacitor increases? Explain. 30 min and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
19 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 19 Author: Priscilla Laws Capacitance Measurements for Parallel Plates The unit of capacitance is the farad, F, named after Michael Faraday. One farad is equal to one coulomb/volt. As you will demonstrate shortly, one farad is a very large capacitance. Thus, actual capacitances are often expressed in smaller units with alternate notation as shown below: Units of Capacitance microfarad: 10 6 F = 1 µf picofarad: F = 1 pf = 1 µµf nanofarad: 10 9 F = 1 nf = 1000µµF Figure 24: Units of Capacitance Note: Sometimes the symbol m is used instead of µ or U on capacitors to represent 10 6, despite the fact that in other situations m always represents 10 3! Typically, there are several types of capacitors used in electronic circuits, including disk capacitors, foil capacitors, electrolytic capacitors and so on. You might want to examine some typical capacitors. To do this you'll need: A collection of four assorted capacitors To complete the next few activities you will need to construct a parallel plate capacitor and use a multimeter to measure capacitance. Thus, you'll need the following items: 2 sheets of aluminum foil (12 cm x 12 cm) 1 "fat" textbook 1 digital multimeter (w/ a capacitance mode) 2 insulated wires, stripped at the ends, approx. 12" long 1 ruler 1 Vernier caliper You can make a parallel plate capacitor out of two rectangular sheets of aluminum foil separated by pieces of paper. A and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
20 Page 20 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU textbook works well as the separator for the foil as you can slip the two foil sheets between any number of sheets of paper and weight the book down with something heavy and nonconducting like another massive textbook. You can then use your digital multimeter in its capacitance mode for the measurements. When you measure the capacitance of your "parallel plates", be sure the aluminum foil pieces are arranged carefully so they don't touch each other and "short out". Activity 27: Measuring How Capacitance Depends on Area or on Separation (a) Devise a way to measure how the capacitance depends on either the foil area or on the separation between foil sheets. If you hold the area constant and vary separation, record the dimensions of the foil so you can calculate the area. Alternatively, if you hold the distance constant, record its value. Take at least five data points in either case. Use the space below to create a data table with proper units of the results. (b)make a graph of capacitance vs. the variable you varied. Is your graph a straight line? If not, you should make a guess at the functional relationship it represents and create a model that fits the data. Submit your overlay graph showing both the data and the model you fitted to the data to WebCT. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
21 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 21 Author: Priscilla Laws (c) What is the function that best describes the relationship between spacing and capacitance or between area and capacitance? How do the results compare with the predictions you made earlier based on physical reasoning? Deriving a Mathematical Expression for Capacitance We can use the relationship between potential difference, V, and electric field to derive an expression for the capacitance, C, of a parallel plate capacitor in terms of the area, A, and separation, d, of the aluminum plates. Activity 28: Derivation of Capacitance vs. A and d (a) Write down the expression for the magnitude of the electric field between two oppositely charged parallel plates of area A, Assume the size of the charge on each plate is q. (b) Write down the expression for the size of the potential difference between two oppositely charged plates with in terms of the magnitude of the electric field and the separation distance d. and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
22 Page 22 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU (c) Using the results above and the fact that C = q/v, write down an expression for the capacitance in terms of the area of the plates A and the separation distance d. (d) The expression you just found is for a capacitor with nothing between the plates. If you add a dielectric material between the two plates then you must multiply this expression by the dielectric constant. Use one of your actual areas and spacings from the measurements you made in Activity 27 (a) above to calculate a value of C. Assume that the dielectric constant for paper is about 3.5. How does the calculated value of C compare with the directly measured value? (e) Now for an unusual question. If you have two square foil sheets, separated by paper which is 1 mm thick, how long (in miles) would each side of the sheets have to be in order to have C = 1 F? Hint: Miles are not meters. L = miles and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
23 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 23 Author: Priscilla Laws (f) Your capacitor would make a mighty large circuit element! How could it be made smaller physically and yet still have the same value of capacitance? You may want to examine the collection of sample capacitors for some ideas. 25 min Capacitors in Series and Parallel You can observe and measure the equivalent capacitance for series and parallel combinations. For this study you can use two identical capacitors. You'll need: 2 capacitors (about 0.1 µf) Capacitance meter (CircuitTest multimeter) C 1 C 2 Figure 25: Capacitors wired in parallel. Activity 29: Capacitance for a Parallel Arrangement (a) Use direct physical reasoning and the result: C = κεoa/d to predict the equivalent capacitance of a pair of identical capacitors wired in parallel. Explain your reasoning below. Hint: What is the effective area A of two parallel plate capacitors wired in parallel? Does the effective spacing between plates change? and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
24 Page 24 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU (b) What is the equivalent capacitance when your two capacitors are wired in parallel? Summarize your actual data! Is the result compatible with the predicted value? (c) Guess a general equation for the equivalent capacitance of a parallel network as a function of the two capacitances C1 and C2. Ceq = Next, consider how capacitors that are wired in series, as shown in the diagram below, behave. C 1 C 2 Figure 26: Capacitors wired in series. Activity 210: Capacitance for a Series Arrangement (a) Use direct physical reasoning and the result: C = κεoa/d to predict the equivalent capacitance of a pair of capacitors wired in series. Explain your reasoning below. Hint: If you connect two capacitors in series what will happen to the charges along the conductor between them? What will the effective separation d of the "plates" be? Will the effective area A change? and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
25 Physics for Life Sciences II: Unit 1022 Electrical Potential and Capacitance Page 25 Author: Priscilla Laws (b) Measure the equivalent capacitance when your two capacitors are wired in series. Report your actual data. Is the result compatible with the predicted value? (c) Guess a general equation for the equivalent capacitance of a series network as a function of C1 and C2. Ceq = A Capacitance Puzzler Suppose two identical 0.1 µf capacitors are hooked up to 3.0 V and 4.5 V batteries in two separate circuits. What would the final voltage across them be if they were each unhooked from their batteries and hooked to each other without being discharged? This situation is shown in the diagram below. Figure 29: A capacitor circuit Activity 211: Solution of the Puzzler (a) What do you predict will happen to the voltage across each of the two capacitors when they are connected in parallel? Why? and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson, 2009.
26 Page 26 Physics for Life Sciences II Activity Guide SFU (b) Use equations about capacitors that you ve learned to calculate what will happen. Hint: What do you know about the initial charge on each capacitor? What do you know about the final sum of the charges on the two capacitors, if there is no discharge? How will the charges move when the two capacitors are connected together? and NSF. Modified at SFU by S. Johnson 2009.
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Physics 196 Final Test - 120 Point Name You need to complete six 5-point problems and six 10-point problems. Cross off one 5-point problem and one 10-point problem. 1. Two small silver spheres, each with
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Capacitors INTRODUCTION The basic function of a capacitor 1 is to store charge and thereby electrical energy. This energy can be retrieved at a later time for a variety of uses. Often, multiple capacitors
Lecture 7 Potential from a distribution of charges V = 1 4 0 X Smooth distribution i q i r i V = 1 4 0 X i q i r i = 1 4 0 Z r dv Calculating the electric potential from a group of point charges is usually
2014 F 1. Why must electrostatic field at the surface of a charged conductor be normal to the surface at every point? Give reason. 2. Figure shows the field lines on a positive charge. Is the work done
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Use the following to answer question 1. Two point charges, A and B, lie along a line separated by a distance L. The point x is the midpoint of their separation. 1. Which combination of charges would yield
Name: Lab 10: DC RC circuits Group Members: Date: TA s Name: Objectives: 1. To understand current and voltage characteristics of a DC RC circuit 2. To understand the effect of the RC time constant Apparatus:
Electrostatics Object: This experiment allows you to investigate the production of static charge, conservation of charge and the behavior of charges on conductors, which are interacting via Coulomb forces.
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Chapter 10 Electrostatics 3 4 AP Physics Multiple Choice Practice Electrostatics 1. The electron volt is a measure of (A) charge (B) energy (C) impulse (D) momentum (E) velocity. A solid conducting sphere
1 Part 1: Electric Force Review of Vectors Review your vectors! You should know how to convert from polar form to component form and vice versa add and subtract vectors multiply vectors by scalars Find
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PHY222 Lab 7 RC Circuits: Charge Changing in Time Observing the way capacitors in RC circuits charge and discharge. Print Your Name Print Your Partners' Names You will return this handout to the instructor
Chapter 26 Capacitance and Dielectrics Capacitors Capacitors are devices that store electric charge Examples of where capacitors are used include: radio receivers filters in power supplies to eliminate
AP Physics C Magnetism - Term 4 Interest Packet Term Introduction: AP Physics has been specifically designed to build on physics knowledge previously acquired for a more in depth understanding of the world
Name: Partners: PHYSICS 221 LAB #3: ELECTROSTATICS The picture above shows several lines that each have a constant electric potential (equipotential lines) due to a person s beating heart. At the instant
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Name Section Question Sheet for Laboratory 4: EC-2: Electric Fields and Potentials OBJECTIVE: To understand the relation between electric fields and electric potential, and how conducting objects can influence
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Physics 0 Fall 010 George Williams SECOND MIDTERM - REVIEW PROBLEMS The last four problems are from last years second midterm. Solutions are available on the class web site.. There are no solutions for,
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AP Physics C 1998 Multiple Choice Questions Electricity and Magnetism The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP teachers for course and exam preparation in the classroom; permission