# UNIT 4 FORCES ON IMMERSED BODIES. Lecture-01

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1 1 UNIT 4 FORCES ON IMMERSED BODIES Lecture-01 Forces on immersed bodies When a body is immersed in a real fluid, which is flowing at a uniform velocity U, the fluid will exert a force on the body. The total force (FR) can be resolved in two components: 1. Drag (FD): Component of the total force in the direction of motion of fluid. 2. Lift (FL): Component of the total force in the perpendicular direction of the motion of fluid. It occurs only when the axis of the body is inclined to the direction of fluid flow. If the axis of the body is parallel to the fluid flow, lift force will be zero. Expression for Drag & Lift Forces acting on the small elemental area da are: i. Pressure force acting perpendicular to the surface i.e. p da ii. Shear force acting along the tangential direction to the surface i.e. τ0da (a) Drag force (FD) : Drag force on elemental area = p dacosθ + τ0 dacos(90 θ = p da osθ + τ0dasinθ Hence Total drag (or profile drag) is given by, Where = cos + 0 sin cos = pressure drag or form drag, and 0 sin = shear drag or friction drag or skin drag (b) Lift force (FL) : Lift force on the elemental area = p dasinθ + τ0 da sin(90 θ = p dasi θ + τ0dacosθ Hence, total lift is given by = 0 cos p sin

2 2 The drag & lift for a body moving in a fluid of density at a uniform velocity U are calculated mathematically as And = = 2 2 Where A = projected area of the body or largest project area of the immersed body. CD & CL = coefficient of drag & lift respectively. The equations for FD & FL are derived using dimensional analysis. Then the resultant force is given by = Drag Coefficient (CD) It is a dimensionless quantity used to quantify the drag or the resistance of an object in a fluid environment. Lower the CD lesser will be the drag force. It is not an absolute constant for a given body shape. It varies with the speed of air flow (or more ge erally with the Rey old s u er. e.g. a s ooth sphere has a CD that varies from high values for laminar flow to 0.47 for turbulent flow. Although the CD de reases with i rease i Rey old s u er, the drag for e i reases. Lift Coefficient (CL) It is a dimensionless coefficient that relates the lift generated by a lifting body to the fluid density around the body, the fluid velocity and the associated projected area. It is a function of angle of attack (i.e. the angle between the axis of the body and the dire tio of flow, Rey old s u S.No. Q.1 Q.2 er of the flow a d Ma h o. RGPV questions Define total drag & Lift. Define coefficient of drag & lift. Year June 2015, Dec 2012 Dec 2014 Marks 2, 2 2

3 3 Unit-04/Lecture-02 Types of drag 1. Pressure drag: It is the drag which acts perpendicular to the surface of a body which is immersed in a fluid. When a fluid flows through a bluff body whose surface is no-where parallel to the main stream flow, the fluid starts to leave the body surface & separation of flow occurs, due to which, a region of low pressure is developed on the downstream side of the body. This regio is alled wake. The flow i this regio for s a series of eddies. The pressure difference produces a drag on the body, known as pressure drag or form drag. For a sphere, the pressure drag is one third of the total drag. 2. Friction drag: It is the shear force acting along the tangential direction to the surface of a body immersed in a fluid. When a fluid flows through a submerged body, a layer of fluid comes in contact with the surface of the body& a region of velocity gradient is formed, called boundary layer. This layer produces a shear stress on the surface of the body tangentially, which is called friction drag or shear drag or surface drag. For a sphere, the friction drag is two-third of the total drag. 3. Deformation drag: It occurs when viscous forces are more predominant than inertia forces or when Rey old s u er is less tha.. Due to viscosity of fluid, deformation of fluid particles is caused and certain forces are necessarily developed, which offer additional resistance to the motion of fluid. The component of the forces in the direction of the motion is called deformation drag. It is usually egligi le at higher rey old s u er. Streamlined body A body whose surface coincides with the streamlines, when the body is placed in a flow. E.g. airfoil. Behind a streamlined body, wake formation is very less & consequently, the pressure drag will be small. Then the total drag on the streamlined body will be due to friction drag only. A body may be streamlined when placed at low velocity but may not be streamlined at higher

4 4 velocity. Bluff body A body whose surface does not coincide with the streamlines, when placed in a flow, called bluff body or blunt body. E.g. a flat plate placed perpendicular to the direction of flow. Formation of large wake zone (or eddies) occurs when a fluid flows through a bluff body, due to separation of flow. S.No. Q.1 Q.2 Pressure drag is very large as compared to friction drag in case of bluff bodies. RGPV questions Differentiate between streamlined body & bluff body. Q.5 What is streamlining? What is its effect on the different types of drag? Distinguish between the friction drag & pressure drag. Define: (i) pressure drag, (ii) profile drag, (iii) Airfoil, (iv) wake or eddies What are different types of drag? Q.6 Differentiate between form & surface drags. Q.3 Q.4 Year June 2015, Dec 2013 Dec 2014, Dec 2011 Dec 2013 Dec 2012 Marks 2, 4 Dec 2011, June 2009 Dec , 5 2,

5 5 Unit-04/Lecture-03 Drag on a sphere A ordi g to G.G. toke, up to Rey old s u er., total drag o a smooth sphere is FD = 3 π µ D U Where µ = dynamic viscosity of fluid, D = diameter of sphere & U = velocity of flow. Also, Skin friction drag is two-third of the total drag & Pressure drag is one-third of the total drag. Expressions for CD of a sphere: 1. When Re< 0.2 For sphere, FD = 3 µdu i But Equating (i) & (ii), we get = 2 2 = or µ = Above equation is known as Stoke s law. = 2. When Re is between 0.2& 5 = ( When Reis between 5 & 1000 CD = 0.4 ) ii

6 6 4. When Re is between 1000 & 105 CD = When Re> 105 CD = 0.2 S.NO Q.1 Q.2 RGPV QUESTIONS Prove that the value of CD for sphere for Rey old s u er less than 0.2 is given by CD = 24/Re. Explain with neat sketch the relationship between drag oeffi ie t &rey old s u er for smooth spheres. Year June 2015 Marks 7 Dec

7 7 Unit-04/Lecture-04 Drag on a cylinder When a cylinder is placed in a fluid such that its length is perpendicular to the direction of flow, the drag force (FD depe ds upo the Rey old s u er Re) of the flow. From experiments, it has been observed that 1. When Re < 1, FD is directly proportional to the velocity & hence CD is inversely proportional to Re. 2. With i rease of Rey old s u er fro to, CD decreases & reaches a minimum value of 0.95 at Re = With further increase of Re from 2000 to 3 104, CD increases & attains a maximum value of 1.2 at Re = When Re is increased from to 3 105, CD further decreases. At 3 105, CD = If Re is increased beyond 3 106, CD increases & it becomes equal to 0.7 in the end. Drag on a flat plate: 1. When plate is placed parallel to the direction of flow cos = total drag is equal to friction drag.

8 8 2. When plate is placed perpendicular to the direction of flow 0 sin = Total drag is equal to pressure drag. 3. When plate is placed at an angle with the direction of flow other than 0o& 90o Total drag = pressure drag + shear drag

9 9 Unit-04/Lecture-05 Development of Lift of an airfoil An airfoil or aerofoil is the shape of a wing or blade(of a propeller, rotor, orturbine) or sail as seen in cross-section. An airfoil-shaped body moved through a fluid produces an aerodynamic force. The component of this force perpendicular to the direction of motion is called lift. Airfoils are the streamlined bodies which may be symmetrical or unsymmetrical in shapes. The airfoil is characterized by its chord length C, angle of attack α (which is the angle between the direction of the fluid flowing & chord line) & span L of the airfoil. The lift of an airfoil is developed due to negative pressure created on the upper part of the airfoil. The drag force on an airfoil is always small due to the streamlined shape of it.

10 10 S.NO Q.1 RGPV QUESTIONS Year What is an airfoil? On what factors does the total drag on an airfoil June depends? 2015 Marks 3 Q.2 Define: (i) pressure drag, (ii) profile drag, (iii) Airfoil, (iv) wake or Dec eddies

11 11 UNIT 04/LECTURE 06 Magnus effect When a cylinder is rotated in a uniform flow, a lift force is produced on the cylinder. This phenomenon is called Magnus effect. This fact was investigated by a German physicist H.G. Magnus. Due to circulation, the flow is unsymmetrical on a cylinder as shown in the following figure. The velocity on the upper half is increased & on the lower half is decreased. Hence pressure on the upper half is decreased & on the lower half is increased. Hence, the lift force on the cylinder is produced when rotated in a uniform flow field. S.No. Q.1 Q.2 RGPV questions What is magnus effect? Explain clearly. Define Magnus effect. Year Dec 2014, June 2009 Dec 2012 Marks 3, 5 2

12 12 UNIT 4/ LECTURE 7

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14 14 Q.5: A kite 0.8 m 0.8 m weighing 0.4 kgf assumes an angle of 12o to the horizontal. The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 45o to the horizontal. The pull on the string is 2.5 kgf when the wind is flowing at a speed of 30 km/h. Find the corresponding coefficient of drag and lift. Density of air is 1.25 kg/m3. Soln Projected area of kite, A = = 0.64 m2 Weight of kite, W = 0.4 kgf = = N Pull on the string, P = 2.5 kgf = = N Angle made by kite with horizontal, θ1 = 12o Angle made by stri ng with horizontal, θ2 = 45o Speed of wind, U = 30 km/h = m/s Density of air, = 1.25 kg/m3 Drag force, FD = Force exerted by wind in the direction of motion (X-X direction) = component of pull, P along X-X direction = P cos45o = cos 45o = N Lift force, FL = Force exerted by wind on the kite perpendicular to the direction of motion (Y-Y direction) = component of P in vertically downward direction + Weight of kite (W) = P sin45o + W = sin45o N = N Hence, Coefficient of drag, CD = (2 FD) / (A U2) = ( ) / ( ) = And Similarly, Coefficient of lift, CL = (2 FL) / (A U2) = ( ) / ( ) = Assignment: Q.6 A kite weighing 0.8 kgf has an effective area of 0.8 m2. It is maintained in air at an angle of 10o to the horizontal. The string attached to the kite makes an angle of 45o to the horizontal and at this position the value of CD and CL are 0.6 and 0.8 respectively. Find the speed of the wind and tension in the string. Take density of air as 1.25 kg/m3. Terminal Velocity of a body It is defined as the maximum constant velocity of a falling body (such as sphere or a composite body such as parachute together with man) with which the body will be travelling. When the body is allowed to fall from rest in the atmosphere, the velocity of the body increases due to acceleration of gravity. With increase of the velocity, the drag force, opposing the motion of the body, also increases. A stage is reached when the upward drag force acting on the body will be equal to the weight of the body. Then the net external force acting on the body will be zero and the body will be travelling at constant speed. This constant speed is called terminal velocity of the falling body. If the body drops in a fluid, at the instant it has acquired terminal velocity; the net force acting on the

15 15 body will be zero. The forces acting on the body at this state will be (1) weight of the body (W) acting downward, (2) Drag force (FD) acting vertically upward and (3) Buoyant force (FB) acting vertically upward. The net force on the body should be zero, i.e. W = FD + FB Q.7 A metallic ball of diameter m drops in a fluid of specific gravity 0.95 and viscosity 15 poise. The density of the metallic ball is kg/m3. Find (i) the drag force exerted by the fluid on the ball, (ii) the pressure drag and skin drag, (iii) the terminal velocity of the ball in the fluid. Soln: Diameter of metallic ball, D = m Density of ball = kg/m3 Density of fluid = sp. gr. of fluid 1000 = = 950 kg/m3 Viscosity of the ball, µ = 15 poise = 1.5 Ns/m2 Weight of the ball, W = density of ball g volume of ball = ( D3)/6 = N Buoyant force, FB = density of fluid g volume of ball = ( ) 9.81 ( D3)/6 = N When metallic ball reaches the terminal velocity, W = FD + FB Or (i) Drag force, FD = W FB = = N (ii) Pressure drag = (1/3) FD = N Skin drag = (2/3) FD = N (iii) Terminal velocity of the ball, U = FD / (3 µd) = / ( ) = m/s Now he ki g the Rey old s u er, Re = ( U D)/ µ = ( ) / 1.5 = 0.02 Hence, since Re < 0.2, then the expression FD = 3 µdu for calculating terminal velocity of a sphere is valid.

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