# CSC Design and Analysis of Algorithms. Lecture 1

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1 CSC Design and Analysis of Algorithms Lecture 1 Introduction Analysis framework and asymptotic notations What is an algorithm? An algorithm is a finite sequence of unambiguous instructions for solving a problem, i.e., for obtaining a required output for any legitimate input. The word algorithm stems from the Latin translation of the name of Muhammad ibn Musa al-khwarizmi the 9 th century Islamic mathematician who was principally responsible for spreading the Indian-Arabic numerals throughout Middle East and Europe and advocated systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations (see 1

2 What is an algorithm? (cont.) problem algorithm input computer output Knuth s 5 important features of an algorithm finiteness terminates after a finite number of steps definiteness must be precisely defined has 0 or more inputs from predefined sets of objects has 1 or more outputs effectiveness each operation can be executed exactly in a finite length of time using pencil and paper (Donald E. Knuth, The Art of Computer Programming, vol.1) 2

3 Euclid s algorithm Problem: Find gcd(m,n), the greatest common divisor of two nonnegative, not both zero integers m and n Euclid s algorithm is based on repeated application of equality gcd(m, n) = gcd(n, m mod n) Ex.: gcd(60,24) = while n 0 do r m mod n m n n r return m 5 Why study algorithms? Theoretical importance The cornerstone of computer science Practical importance a practitioner s toolkit of known algorithms frameworks for designing and analyzing algorithms for new problems 3

4 Two main issues related to algorithms How to design algorithms How to analyze algorithm efficiency Major Algorithm Design Techniques/Strategies Brute force Greedy approach Decrease and conquer Divide and conquer Transform and conquer Space-time tradeoff Dynamic programming Itera;ve improvement Backtracking Branch and Bound 4

5 Analysis of Algorithms How good is the algorithm? correctness (accuracy for approximation alg.) time efficiency space efficiency optimality Approaches: empirical (experimental) analysis theoretical (mathematical) analysis Theoretical analysis of time efficiency Time efficiency is analyzed by determining the number of times the algorithm s basic operation is executed as a function of input size Input size: number of input items or, if matters, their size Basic operation: the operation contributing the most toward the running time of the algorithm input size T(n) c op C(n) running time execution time for basic operation number of basic operation s executions 5

6 Example: Searching for a Key in a List Input Size? Basic Operation? Example: Multiplying two nxn Matrices Input Size? Basic Operation? 6

7 Input size and basic operation examples Problem Input size measure Basic operation Searching for key in a list of n items Number of list s items, i.e. n Key comparison Multiplication of two n n matrices Matrix order n or total number of elements N=2n 2 Multiplication of two numbers Typical graph problem #vertices (and edges) Visiting a vertex or traversing an edge Best-case, average-case, worst-case For some algorithms efficiency depends on form of input: Worst case: C worst (n) maximum over inputs of size n Best case: C best (n) minimum over inputs of size n Average case: C avg (n) average over inputs of size n Number of times the basic operation is executed on typical input NOT the average of worst and best case Expected number of basic operations considered as a random variable under some assumption about the probability distribution of all possible inputs 7

8 Example: Searching for a Key in a List Worst Case? Best Case? Average Case? (assuming probability of successful search is p and probability of the first match in each position i is same) Example: Multiplying two nxn Matrices Worst Case? Best Case? Average Case? 8

9 Types of formulas for basic operation count Exact formula e.g., C(n) = n(n-1)/2 Formula indicating order of growth with specific multiplicative constant e.g., C(n) 0.5 n 2 Formula indicating order of growth with unknown multiplicative constant e.g., C(n) cn 2 Order of growth Most important: Order of growth within a constant multiple as n Example: C(n) = 3n(n-1) Suppose we double the input size. How much longer will the algorithm take? 9

10 Values of several functions important for analysis of algorithms n log 2 n n n log 2 n n² n³ 2ⁿ n! ¹² Example Order these functions according to their order of growth (from lowest to highest): 2 n n 4/3 n(lg n) 3 n lg n 10

11 Main Points of the Analysis Framework Both time and space efficiencies are measured as functions of the algorithm s input size. Time efficiency is measured by counting the number of times the algorithm s basic operation is executed. Space efficiency is measured by counting the number of extra memory units (beyond input and output) used by the algorithm. For some algorithms, one should distinguish among the worst, best and average case efficiencies. The main concern is the order of growth of the algorithm s running time and extra memory units consumed as input size goes to infinity. Asymptotic order of growth A way to classify functions according to their order of growth - practical way to deal with complexity functions Big-O O(g(n)): class of functions f(n) that grow no faster than g(n) Big-Theta Θ (g(n)): class of functions f(n) that grow at same rate as g(n) Big-Omega Ω(g(n)): class of functions f(n) that grow at least as fast as g(n) 11

12 Big-O (asymptotic ) Definition: f(n) is in O(g(n)) if order of growth of f(n) order of growth of g(n) (within constant multiple), i.e., there exist positive constant c and non-negative integer n 0 such that f(n) c g(n) for every n n 0 Examples: 10n 2 is O(n 2 ) 10n is O(n 2 ) 5n+20 is O(n) Ω (Omega, asymptotic ) Definition: f(n) is in Ω (g(n)) if there exist positive constant c and non-negative integer n 0 such that These are all Ω(n 2 ) : n 2 n n 1000n n n 3 These are not: n n lg n f(n) c g(n) for every n n 0 12

13 Θ (Theta, asymptotic =) Definition: f(n) is in Θ(g(n)) if there exist positive constants c 1, c 2 and non-negative integer n 0 such that Example: n 2-2n is Θ(n 2 ) c 1 g(n) f(n) c 2 g(n) for every n n 0 pick c 1 = 0.5, c 2 = 1, n 0 = 4 Find a tight Θ-bound for: 4n 3 4n 3 +2n Establishing order of growth High level idea: ignore: - constant factors (too system-dependent) - low-order terms (irrelevant for large inputs) For example, 6n log n + 2n becomes 26 13

14 Establishing order of growth using limits 0 order of growth of f(n) < order of growth of g(n) lim n f(n)/g(n) = c > 0 order of growth of f(n) = order of growth of g(n) order of growth of f(n) > order of growth of g(n) Examples: 10n vs. n 2 n(n+1)/2 vs. n 2 L Hôpital s Rule and Stirling s Formula L Hôpital s rule: If lim n f(n) = lim n g(n) = and the derivatives f, g exist, then lim n f(n) g(n) = lim n f (n) g (n) Example: log 2 n vs. n Stirling s formula: n! (2πn) 1/2 (n/e) n 14

15 Orders of growth of some important functions All logarithmic functions log a n belong to the same class Θ(log n) no matter what the logarithm s base a>1 is. All polynomials of the same degree k belong to the same class: a k n k + a k-1 n k a 0 Θ(n k ). Exponential functions a n have different orders of growth for different a. order log n < order n α (α>0) < order a n < order n! < order n n Some properties of asymptotic order of growth f(n) O(f(n)) f(n) O(g(n)) iff g(n) Ω(f(n)) If f (n) O(g (n)) and g(n) O(h(n)), then f(n) O(h(n)) Note similarity with a b If f 1 (n) O(g 1 (n)) and f 2 (n) O(g 2 (n)), then f 1 (n) + f 2 (n) O(max{g 1 (n), g 2 (n)}) 15

16 Homework Reading: Preface and Chapter 1 (Sections ) Exercises 1.1: 6, 9a, : 1, 2 1.3: 4, 5 Reading: Sections 2.1 and handout (Sec. 18.1) in Cormen et al. s book (1st ed.) Exercises 2.1: 3, 5a, 8, 9 2.2: 3, 5, 9, 12 16

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