# Knowledge base (KB) = set of sentences in a formal language Declarative approach to building an agent (or other system):

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1 Logic

2 Knowledge-based agents Inference engine Knowledge base Domain-independent algorithms Domain-specific content Knowledge base (KB) = set of sentences in a formal language Declarative approach to building an agent (or other system): Tell it what it needs to know Then it can ask itself what to do - answers should follow from the KB Distinction between data and program Fullest realization of this philosophy was in the field of expert systems or knowledge-based systems in the 1970s and 1980s

3 What is logic? Logic is a formal system for manipulating facts so that true conclusions may be drawn The tool for distinguishing between the true and the false Averroes (12 th cen.) Syntax: rules for constructing valid sentences E.g., x + 2 y is a valid arithmetic sentence, x2y + is not Semantics: meaning of sentences, or relationship between logical l sentences and the real world Specifically, semantics defines truth of sentences Eg E.g., x+2 y is true in a world where x=5and y=7

4 Overview Propositional logic Inference rules and theorem proving First order logic

5 Propositional logic: Syntax Atomic sentence: A proposition p symbol representing a true or false statement Negation: If P is a sentence, P is a sentence Conjunction: If P and Q are sentences, P Q is a sentence Disjunction: If P and Q are sentences, P Q is a sentence Implication: If P and Q are sentences, P Q is a sentence Biconditional: If P and Q are sentences, P Q is a sentence,,,, are called logical connectives

6 Propositional logic: Semantics A model specifies the true/false status of each proposition symbol in the knowledge base E.g., P is true, Q is true, R is false With three symbols, there are 8 possible models, and they can be enumerated exhaustively Rules for evaluating truth with respect to a model: P is true iff P is false P Q is true iff P is true and Q is true P Q is true iff P is true or Q is true P Q is true iff P is false or Q is true P Q is true iff P Q is true and Q P is true

7 Truth tables A truth table specifies the truth value of a composite sentence for each possible assignments of truth values to its atoms The truth value of a more complex sentence can The truth value of a more complex sentence can be evaluated recursively or compositionally

8 Logical equivalence Two sentences are logically equivalent iff they are true in g y q y same models

9 Validity, satisfiability A sentence is valid if it is true in all models, e.g., True, A A, A A, (A (A B)) B A sentence is satisfiable if it is true in some model e.g., A B, C A sentence is unsatisfiable if it is true in no models A sentence is unsatisfiable if it is true in no models e.g., A A

10 Entailment Entailment means that a sentence follows from the premises contained in the knowledge base: KB α Knowledge base KB entails sentence α if and only if α is true in all models where KB is true E.g., x = 0 entails x * y = 0 Can α be true when KB is false? KB α iff (KB α) is valid KB α iff (KB α) is unsatisfiable

11 Inference Logical inference: a procedure for generating sentences that follow from a knowledge base KB An inference procedure is sound if whenever it derives a sentence α, KB α A sound inference procedure can derive only true sentences An inference procedure is complete if whenever KB α, α can be derived d by the procedure A complete inference procedure can derive every entailed sentence

12 Inference How can we check whether a sentence α is entailed by KB? How about we enumerate all possible models of the KB (truth assignments of all its symbols), and check that α is true in every model in which h KB is true? Is this sound? Is this complete? Problem: if KB contains n symbols, the truth table will be of size 2 n Better idea: use inference rules, or sound procedures to generate new sentences or conclusions given the premises in the KB

13 Inference rules Modus Ponens α β, α β premises conclusion And-elimination α β α

14 Inference rules And-introduction α, β α β Or-introduction α α β

15 Inference rules Double negative elimination Unit resolution α α α β, β α

16 Resolution α β, β α γ γ or α β, α β γ γ Example: α: The weather is dry β: The weather is rainy γ: I carry an umbrella

17 Resolution is complete α β, β α γ To prove KB α, assume KB α and derive a contradiction Rewrite KB α as a conjunction of clauses, or disjunctions of literals Conjunctive normal form (CNF) Keep applying resolution to clauses that contain complementary literals and adding resulting clauses to the list If there are no new clauses to be added, then KB does not entail α If two clauses resolve to form an empty clause, we have a contradiction and KB α γ

18 Complexity of inference Propositional inference is co-np-complete Complement of the SAT problem: α β if and only if the sentence α β is unsatisfiable Every known inference algorithm has worst- case exponential running time Efficient inference possible for restricted cases

19 Definite clauses A definite clause is a disjunction with exactly one positive literal Equivalent to (P 1 P n n) Q premise or body conclusion or head Basis s of logic programming g (Prolog) og) Efficient (linear-time) complete inference through forward chaining and backward chaining

20 Forward chaining Idea: find any rule whose premises are satisfied in Idea: find any rule whose premises are satisfied in the KB, add its conclusion to the KB, and keep going until query is found

21 Forward chaining example

22 Forward chaining example

23 Forward chaining example

24 Forward chaining example

25 Forward chaining example

26 Forward chaining example

27 Forward chaining example

28 Forward chaining example

29 Backward chaining Idea: work backwards from the query q: to prove q by BC, check if q is known already, or prove by BC all premises of some rule concluding q

30 Backward chaining example

31 Backward chaining example

32 Backward chaining example

33 Backward chaining example

34 Backward chaining example

35 Backward chaining example

36 Backward chaining example

37 Backward chaining example

38 Backward chaining example

39 Backward chaining example

40 Forward vs. backward chaining Forward chaining is data-driven, driven, automatic processing May do lots of work that is irrelevant to the goal Backward chaining is goal-driven, appropriate p for problem-solving Complexity can be much less than linear in size of KB

41 Summary Logical agents apply ppy inference to a knowledge base to derive new information and make decisions Basic concepts of logic: syntax: formal structure of sentences semantics: truth of sentences wrt models entailment: necessary truth of one sentence given another inference: deriving sentences from other sentences soundness: derivations produce only entailed sentences completeness: derivations can produce all entailed sentences Resolution is complete for propositional logic Forward, backward chaining are linear-time, complete for definite clauses

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