# Propositional Logic: Models and Proofs

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1 Propositional Logic: Models and Proofs C. R. Ramakrishnan CSE Syntax 2 Model Theory 3 Proof Theory and Resolution Compiled at 11:51 on 2016/11/02 Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

2 Propositional logic Alphabet A: Propositional symbols (identifiers) Connectives: (conjunction), (disjunction), (negation), (logical equivalence), (implication). Well-formed formulas (wffs, denoted by F) over alphabet A is the smallest set such that: If p is a predicate symbol in A then p F. If F, G F then so are ( F ), (F G), (F G), (F G) and (F G). Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

3 Interpretation An interpretation I is a subset of propositions in an alphabet A. Alternatively, you can view I as a mapping from the set of all propositions in A to a 2-values Boolean domain {true, false}. This name, interpretation, is more commonly used for predicate logic; in the propositional case, this is sometimes called a substitution or truth assignment. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

4 Semantics of Well-Formed Formulae A formula s meaning is given w.r.t. an interpretation I. I = p iff p I. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

5 Semantics of Well-Formed Formulae A formula s meaning is given w.r.t. an interpretation I. I = p iff p I. I = F iff I = F Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

6 Semantics of Well-Formed Formulae A formula s meaning is given w.r.t. an interpretation I. I = p iff p I. I = F iff I = F I = F G iff I = F and I = G Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

7 Semantics of Well-Formed Formulae A formula s meaning is given w.r.t. an interpretation I. I = p iff p I. I = F iff I = F I = F G iff I = F and I = G I = F G iff I = F or I = G (or both) Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

8 Semantics of Well-Formed Formulae A formula s meaning is given w.r.t. an interpretation I. I = p iff p I. I = F iff I = F I = F G iff I = F and I = G I = F G iff I = F or I = G (or both) I = F G iff I = G whenever I = F Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

9 Semantics of Well-Formed Formulae A formula s meaning is given w.r.t. an interpretation I. I = p iff p I. I = F iff I = F I = F G iff I = F and I = G I = F G iff I = F or I = G (or both) I = F G iff I = G whenever I = F I = F G iff I = F G and I = G F Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

10 Models An interpretation I such that I = F is called a model of F. G is a logical consequence of F (denoted by F = G) iff every model of F is also a model of G. (in other words, G holds in every model of F ; or G is true in every interpretation that makes F true) Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

11 Models (contd.) A formula that has at least one model is said to be satisfiable. A formula for which every interpretation is a model is called a tautology. A formula is inconsistent if it has no models. Checking whether or not a formula is satisfiable is NP-Complete. (There are exponentially many interpretations) Many interesting combinatorial problems can be reduced to checking satisfiability: hence there is a significant interest in efficient algorithms/heuristics/systems for solving the SAT problem. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

12 Logical Consequence Let P be a set of clauses {C 1, C 2,... C n }, where each clause C i is of the form (L 1 L 2 L k ), and where each L j is a literal: i.e. a possibly negated proposition A model for P makes every one of C i s in P true. Let G be a literal (called Goal ) Consider the question: P? = G We can use a proof procedure, based on resolution to answer this question. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

13 Proof System for Resolution {C} P C P (A C 1 ) P ( A C 2 ) P (C 1 C 2 ) ( P) Res The above notation is of inference rules where each rule is of the form Antecedent(s). Conclusion P C is called as a sequent. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

14 Proof System for Resolution (Contd.) Given a sequent, a derivation of a sequent (sometimes called its proof ) is a tree with that sequent as the root, empty leaves, and each internal node is an instance of an inference rule. A proof system based on Resolution is Sound: i.e. if F G then F = G. not Complete: i.e. there are F, G s.t. F = G but F G. E.g., p = (p q) but there is no way to derive p (p q). Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

15 Resolution Proof (in pictures) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} (p q) Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

16 Resolution Proof (in pictures) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} (p q) ( p r) Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

17 Resolution Proof (in pictures) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} (p q) ( p r) (q r) ( q r) Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

18 Resolution Proof (in pictures) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} (p q) ( p r) (q r) ( q r) r Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

19 Resolution Proof (An Alternative View) The clauses of P are all in a soup. Resolution rule picks two clauses from the soup, of the form A C 1 and A C 2. and adds C 1 C 2 to the soup. The newly added clause can now interact with other clauses and produce yet more clauses. Ultimately, the soup consists of all clauses C such that P C. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

20 Resolution Proof (An Example) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} Here is a proof for P = r: Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P 2 p r P 3 q r P Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

21 Resolution Proof (An Example) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} Here is a proof for P = r: Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P 2 p r P 3 q r P 4 q r Res. 1 & 2 Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

22 Resolution Proof (An Example) P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r)} Here is a proof for P = r: Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P 2 p r P 3 q r P 4 q r Res. 1 & 2 5 r Res. 3 & 4 Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

23 Refutation Proofs While resolution alone is incomplete for determining logical consequence, resolution is sufficient to show inconsistency i.e. show when P has no model. This leads to Refutation proofs for showing logical consequence. Say we want to determine P? = r, where r is a proposition. This is equivalent to checking if P { r} has an empty model. This we can check by constructing a resolution proof for P { r} where denotes the unsatisfiable empty clause. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

24 Refutation Proofs: An Example Let P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r), (p s)}, and G = (r s) Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P G 2 p r P G 3 q r P G Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

25 Refutation Proofs: An Example Let P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r), (p s)}, and G = (r s) Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P G 2 p r P G 3 q r P G 4 r P G Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

26 Refutation Proofs: An Example Let P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r), (p s)}, and G = (r s) Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P G 2 p r P G 3 q r P G 4 r P G 5 s P G Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

27 Refutation Proofs: An Example Let P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r), (p s)}, and G = (r s) Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P G 2 p r P G 3 q r P G 4 r P G 5 s P G 6 q r Res. 1 & 2 Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

28 Refutation Proofs: An Example Let P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r), (p s)}, and G = (r s) Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P G 2 p r P G 3 q r P G 4 r P G 5 s P G 6 q r Res. 1 & 2 7 r Res. 3 & 6 Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

29 Refutation Proofs: An Example Let P = {(p q), ( p r), ( q r), (p s)}, and G = (r s) Clause Number Clause How Derived 1 p q P G 2 p r P G 3 q r P G 4 r P G 5 s P G 6 q r Res. 1 & 2 7 r Res. 3 & 6 8 Res. 4 & 7 Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

30 Soundness of Resolution If F G then F = G: For F G, we will have a derivation (aka proof ) of finite length. We can show that F = G by induction on the length of derivation. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

31 Refutation-Completeness of Resolution If F is inconsistent, then F : Note that F is a set of clauses. A clause is called an unit clause if it consists of a single literal. If all clauses in F are unit clauses, then for F to be inconsistent, clearly a literal and its negation will be two of the clauses in F. Then resolving those two will generate the empty clause. A clause with n + 1 literals has n excess literals. The proof of refutation-completeness is by induction on the total number of excess literals in F. Assume refutation completeness holds for programs with a total of n excess literals; show that it holds for programs with a total of n + 1 excess literals. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

32 Refutation-Completeness of Resolution (contd.) If F is inconsistent, then F : From F, pick some clause α with excess literals. Pick some literal, say A from α. Consider α = α {A}. Both F 1 = (F {α}) {α } and F 2 = (F {α}) {A} have at most n excess literals. If F is inconsistent, then both F 1 and F 2 are inconsistent as well. By ind. hyp., both F 1 and F 2 have refutations. If there is a refutation of F 1 not using α, then that is a refutation for F as well. If refutation of F 1 uses α, then construct a resolution of F by adding A to the first occurrence of α (and its descendants); that will end with {A}. From here on, follow the refutation of F 2. This constructs a refutation of F. Computing with Logic Propositional Logic CSE / 17

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