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1 Appendix: Matrix Estimates and the Perron-Frobenius Theorem. This Appendix will first present some well known estimates. For any m n matrix A = [a ij ] over the real or complex numbers, it will be convenient to use the notation A = i,j For any product matrix AB, note that AB = a ij b jk i,k j i,j,j,k a ij. a ij b j k = A B. (A : 1) In particular, if A is a square matrix and λ is one of its eigenvalues, then we can find a non-zero column vector X with λx = AX, hence λ k X = A k X and λ k X A k X. Dividing by X, it follows that λ k A k. (Here λ and X may be complex, even if A is real.) Define the spectral radius λ max of an n n matrix A to be the largest of the absolute values λ 1,... λ n of its n eigenvalues. Then it follows that λ k max A k. (A : 2) Lemma A.1. The sequence of powers A k converges uniformly to zero if and only if the spectral radius satisfies λ max < 1. (However, examples such as A = show that the convergence may be very slow.) [ ] Proof of A.1. If λ max 1, then A k 1 for all k by (A : 2). The proof for the case λ max < 1 will be by induction on n. Evidently the statement is clear when n = 1. For n > 1, we can always find a non-singular complex matrix S so that SAS 1 has zeros below the diagonal. We can then write SAS 1 = [ ] P Q, 0 R where P and R are square matrices. Since each eigenvalue of P or R is also an eigenvalue of A, we may assume inductively that P k 0 and R k 0 as k. Now set where SA k S 1 = [ P Q 0 R ] k = [ P k ] Q(k) 0 R k Q(k + l) = P k Q(l) + Q(k)R l. Let q m be the maximum of Q(k) over the range 2 m k < 2 m+1. Choosing m large enough so that P k < 1/4 and R k < 1/4 for k 2 m, it follows easily that A-1,

2 APPENDIX q m+1 q m /2, and more generally, q m+r q m /2 r, tending to zero. It follows that Q(k) tends to zero as k, and hence that A k does also. Corollary A.2 Let f(z) = a 0 + a 1 z + a 2 z 2 + be a complex power series with radius of convergence 0 < r. If A is a real or complex n n matrix with spectral radius satisfying λ max < r, then the corresponding series converges absolutely. f(a) = a 0 I + a 1 A + a 2 A 2 +, Proof. Choose η with λ max < η < r. Then the powers of A/η converge to zero by A.1, and hence are bounded, A k /η k c for some uniform constant c. On the other hand, the series a k η k converges, and hence the series a k A k also converges. a k A k c a k η k, Example. If the spectral radius of A satisfies λ max < 1, then it follows that the series A k converges absolutely, and the identity (I A) 1 = I + A + A 2 + A 3 + (A : 3) can be verified by multiplying both sides of this equation by I A. We next prove two formulas for the spectral radius of a matrix A = [a ij ] in terms of the powers A k. We will also make use of the trace trace A = a 11 + a a nn of the matrix A, as well as the traces of its powers A k. Theorem A.3. The spectral radius of any real or complex n n matrix A is given by λ max = lim k Ak 1/k = lim sup trace (A k ) 1/k. k Here it is essential to work with the lim sup, since the limit may not exist. For example, if { A = then trace(a k 3 if k 0 (mod 3) ) = 0 otherwise, so that lim sup trace A k 1/k = +1 but lim inf trace A k 1/k = 0. (The eigenvalues of this matrix are the three cube roots of unity.) Proof of A.3. Since A k λ k max by (A : 2), it certainly follows that A k 1/k λ max. On the other hand, if c = λ max + ɛ, then it follows from A.1 that the powers of A/c converge to zero. Hence we can choose some constant c so that A k c k c for all k. It follows that A k 1/k c k c which converges to c = λ max + ɛ as k. A-2

3 PERRON-FROBENIUS THEOREM Since ɛ can be arbitrarily small, this proves that A k 1/k λ max as k. The inequality lim sup trace(a k ) 1/k λ max k follows immediately, since trace(a k ) A k. To obtain a lower bound for this lim sup, let λ 1,..., λ n be the eigenvalues of A, and note that trace(a k ) = λ k λ k n. For each non-zero λ j, let µ j = λ j / λ j. We will need the following. Lemma A.4. Let µ 1,..., µ q ɛ > 0 there exist infinitely many values of k such that µ j k Re (µ k j ) > 1 ɛ for every µ j. be complex numbers with µ j = 1. For any 1 < ɛ and hence Proof. If p > 2π/ɛ, then we can cover the unit circle by p intervals J 1,..., J p of length less than ɛ. Hence we can cover the torus T q = S 1 S 1 q by p q boxes J i(1) J i(q). Consider the sequence of points µ h = (µ 1 h,..., µ q h ) on the torus T q. Given any p q + 1 of these points, there must be at least two, say µ h and µ l, belonging to the same box. Setting k = h l, it follows that µ j k 1 = µ h j µ j l < ɛ for all j, as required. Since ɛ can be arbitrarily small, we can construct infinitely many such integers k by this procedure. The proof of A.3 continues as follows. Taking ɛ = 1/2, we can choose k as above, and conclude that the real part satisfies Re ((λ j / λ j ) k ) > 1/2 whenever λ j 0. Multiplying by λ j k, it follows that Re (λj k ) 1 2 λ j k for every eigenvalue λ j. Thus trace(a k ) Re (trace(a k )) = j for infinitely many values of k. The required inequality follows immediately. lim sup trace(a k ) 1/k k Re (λj k ) 1 2 λ j k 1 2 λ max k j λ max The Perron-Frobenius Theorem. We say that an m n matrix is non-negative if all of its entries are real and non-negative, and strictly positive if all of the entries are strictly greater than zero. The following helps to show the special properties of such matrices. Lemma A.5. If the non-negative n n matrix A has an eigenvector X which is strictly positive, then the corresponding eigenvalue λ ( where AX = λx ) is equal to the spectral radius λ max. Furthermore λ > 0 unless A is the zero matrix. Proof. If A is not the zero matrix, then since X is strictly positive, it follows that the vector AX has at least one strictly positive component. The equation AX = λx then implies that λ > 0. A-3

4 APPENDIX Now since A k X = λ k X, it follows that A k X = λ k X. If X has components x j c > 0, then A k X c A k, hence λ k X c A k. Taking the k-th root and passing to the limit as k, using A.3, we get as required. λ lim A k 1/k = λ max, and hence λ = λ max, Definition. We will say that a non-negative n n matrix A is transitive if for every i and j there exists an integer k > 0 so that the ij -th entry a (k) ij of the k-th power matrix A k is non-zero. (Some authors use the term irreducible for such matrices.) We can interpret this condition graphically as follows. Let G(A) be the graph with one vertex v i for eacch integer between 1 and n, and with a directed edge from v i to v j if and only if a ij > 0. Then A is transitive if and only if we can get from any vertex to any other vertex by following these directed edges. Since such a path can always be chosen so as to pass through each vertex at most once, we may assume that its length is strictly less than n. Hence a completely equivalent condition would be that the matrix sum is strictly positive. A + A 2 + A A n 1 Theorem A.6. (O. Perron and G. Frobenius). Every non-negative n n matrix A has a non-negative eigenvector, AY = λy, with the property that the associated eigenvalue λ is equal to the spectral radius λ max. If the matrix A is transitive, then there is only one non-negative eigenvector Y up to multiplication by a positive constant, and this eigenvector is strictly positive: y i > 0 for all i. Proof in the transitive case. We will make use of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem, which asserts that any continuous mapping f : from a closed simplex to itself must have at least one fixed point, X = f(x). In fact let be the standard (n 1)-dimensional simplex consisting of all non-negative column vectors Y with Y = y y n = 1. If A is transitive and Y, note that AY 0. For if AY were the zero vector, then A k Y would be zero for all k > 0. But choosing some component y j > 0, for any i we can choose some power of A k so that the (i, j)-th component of A k is non-zero, and hence so that the i-th component of A k Y is non-zero. A similar argument shows that any eigenvalue AY = λy must be strictly positive. We can now define the required map f : by the formula Thus there exists at least one fixed point f(y ) = AY/ AY. Y = f(y ) = AY/ AY. Taking λ = AY > 0, it follows that AY = λy where, as noted above, Y must be strictly positive, with λ > 0. It then follows from A.5 that λ = λ max. A-4

5 PERRON-FROBENIUS THEOREM Now suppose that there were two distinct eigenvectors Y and Y in, both necessarily with eigenvalue equal to λ max. Then every point on the straight line joining Y and Y would also be an eigenvector. But such a line would contain boundary points of, contradicting the assertion that any such eigenvector must be strictly positive. This proves A.6 in the transitive case. Proof in the non-transitive case. We will give a constructive procedure for reducing the non-transitive case to the transitive one. The statement of A.6 is trivially true when n = 1, so we may assume that A is a non-transitive n n matrix with n 2. Then there exist indices i j so that the (i, j)-th entry a (k) ij of A k is zero for all k. Let us say that the index j is accessible from i if a (k) > 0 for some k > 0. Evidently this is a transitive relation between indices. After conjugating A by a permutation matrix, we may assume that i = 1, and that all of the indices which are accessible from i are listed first, with all of the remaining indices at the end. It follows that A can be written as a block matrix of the form [ P ] 0 Q R where P and R are square matrices. Here we may assume by induction on n that Theorem A.5 is true for P and R. Since the eigenvalues of such a block matrix are just the eigenvalues of P together with the eigenvalues of R, it certainly follows that the spectral radius λ max is itself an eigenvalue. To complete the proof, we must solve the equation [ ] [ ] [ ] P 0 Y Y Q R Y = λ Y, with λ = λ max, and with Y and Y non-negative. If λ is an eigenvalue of R, we can simply take Y to be the appropriate eigenvector for R, with Y = 0. Otherwise, we can assume that the spectral radius of R is strictly less than λ = λ max. Let P Y = λy be a non-negative eigenvalue for P. Then we must find a non-negative vector Y which satisfies the equation QY + RY = λy, or in other words (λi R)Y = QY or Y = (I R/λ) 1 QY/λ where I is the identity matrix of appropriate size. Since QY is certainly non-negative, it only remains to show that (I R/λ) 1 is non-negative. But according to (A : 3) this inverse matrix can be expressed as the sum of a convergentpower series (I R/λ) 1 = I + (R/λ) + (R/λ) 2 +, where all summands on the right are non-negative. This completes the proof of A.6. We conclude with two problems. Problem A-a. Iteration of Y AY. For any real or complex n n matrix A, show that there is a lower dimensional subspace V in the vector space of n 1 column vectors so that, for any fixed Y V. we have λ max = lim k Ak Y 1/k. (To prove this in the complex case, it is convenient to conjugate A to an appropriate normal form. It is then necessary to check that the real case follows.) A-5 ij,

6 APPENDIX Problem A-b. Simplicity of the largest eigenvector, and computation. Suppose that A is an n n matrix with a left eigenvector ˆXA = λ ˆX and a right eigenvector AŶ = µŷ such that ˆXŶ = 1. Show that λ = µ. If λ 0, then setting B = A/λ we have ˆXB = ˆX and BŶ = Ŷ with ˆXŶ = 1. If ˆX is the hyperplane consisting of all column vectors Y with ˆXY = 0, show that the space of all column vectors splits as a dirct sum n = ˆX Ŷ. Show that the linear map Y BY carries the hyperplane ˆX into itself and fixes each point of the eigenspace Ŷ. Show that every orbit under this map Y BY converges towards some vector in Ŷ if and only if all but one of the n eigenvalues of B belong to the open unit disk, λ j < 1. Now suppose that A is strictly positive. Let be the simplex consisting of all nonnegative Y with ˆXY = 1 Show that the associated transformation Y BY = AY/ λ max carries into its interior. Conclude that all orbits in converge to Ŷ. For example we can prove this by constructing a kind of norm function N on which is linear on each line segment joining Ŷ to the boundary of, taking the value 0 at Ŷ and the value +1 on. It is then easy to check that N(BY ) cn(y ) for some constant c < 1. Conclude that all but one of the n eigenvalues of A must satisfy λ j < λ max. Next suppose only that T is a non-negative transitive matrix. Applying the discussion above to the strictly positive matrix A = T + T T n 1, we see that all but one of the eigenvalues of A satisfies λ j < λ max. Conclude that the spectral radius of T must be a simple eigenvalue. That is, all but one of the eigenvalues of T must be different from the spectral radius of T. Show that the positive eigenvector for a transitive matrix T can always be located by iterating the associated map Y AY/ AY, or even the map Y (I + T )Y/ (I + T )Y. A-6

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