How can you use addition or subtraction to solve an equation?


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1 7.2 Solving Equations Using Addition or Subtraction How can you use addition or subtraction to solve an equation? When two sides of a scale weigh the same, the scale will balance. When you add or subtract the same amount on each side of the scale, it will still balance. 1 ACTIVITY: Solving an Equation Work with a partner. a. Use a model to solve n + 3 = 7. Explain how the model represents the equation n + 3 = 7. How much does one weigh? How do you know? The solution is n =. COMMON CORE Solving Equations In this lesson, you will use addition or subtraction to solve equations. use substitution to check answers. solve reallife problems. Learning Standards 6.EE.5 6.EE.7 b. Describe how you could check your answer in part (a). c. Which model below represents the solution of n + 1 = 9? How do you know? 300 Chapter 7 Equations and Inequalities
2 2 ACTIVITY: Solving Equations Math Practice Understand Quantities What does the variable represent in the equation? Work with a partner. Solve the equation using the method in Activity 1. a. n 5 10 b. x 2 11 c. 6 y 3 d. 8 m 8 3 ACTIVITY: Solving Equations Using Mental Math Work with a partner. Write a question that represents the equation. Use mental math to answer the question. Then check your solution. Equation Question Solution Check a. x + 1 = 5 b. 4 + m = 11 c. 8 = a + 3 d. x 9 = 21 e. 13 = p 4 4. REPEATED REASONING In Activity 3, how are parts (d) and (e) different from parts (a) (c)? Did your process to find the solution change? Explain. 5. Decide whether the statement is true or false. If false, explain your reasoning. a. In an equation, you can use any letter as a variable. b. The goal in solving an equation is to get the variable by itself. c. In the solution, the variable must always be on the left side of the equal sign. d. If you add a number to one side, you should subtract it from the other side. 6. IN YOUR OWN WORDS How can you use addition or subtraction to solve an equation? Give two examples to show how your procedure works. 7. Are the following equations equivalent? Explain your reasoning. x 5 = 12 and 12 = x 5 Use what you learned about solving equations to complete Exercises on page 305. Section 7.2 Solving Equations Using Addition or Subtraction 301
3 7.2 Lesson Lesson Tutorials Key Vocabulary solution, p. 302 inverse operations, p. 303 Equations may be true for some values and false for others. A solution of an equation is a value that makes the equation true. Value of x x + 3 = 7 Are both sides equal? =? no Reading The symbol means is not equal to =? 7 7 = 7 yes =? no So, the value x = 4 is a solution of the equation x + 3 = 7. EXAMPLE 1 Checking Solutions Tell whether the given value is a solution of the equation. a. p + 10 = 38; p = =? 38 Substitute 18 for p Sides are not equal So, p = 18 is not a solution. b. 4y = 56; y = 14 4(14) =? 56 Substitute 14 for y. 56 = 56 Sides are equal So, y = 14 is a solution. Exercises 6 11 Tell whether the given value is a solution of the equation. 1. a + 6 = 17; a = g = 5; g = = 7n; n = 5 4. q = 28; q = Chapter 7 Equations and Inequalities
4 You can use inverse operations to solve equations. Inverse operations undo each other. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations. Addition Property of Equality Words When you add the same number to each side of an equation, the two sides remain equal. Numbers 8 = 8 Algebra x 4 = = 13 x = 9 Subtraction Property of Equality Words When you subtract the same number from each side of an equation, the two sides remain equal. Numbers 8 = 8 Algebra x + 4 = = 3 x = 1 EXAMPLE 2 Solving Equations Using Addition a. Solve x 2 = 6. x 2 = 6 Write the equation. Undo the subtraction Addition Property of Equality x = 8 Simplify. The solution is x = 8. Check x 2 = =? 6 6 = 6 Study Tip You can check your solution by substituting it for the variable in the original equation. b. Solve 18 = x = x 7 Write the equation Addition Property of Equality 25 = x Simplify. The solution is x = 25. Check 18 = x 7 18 =? = 18 Exercises Solve the equation. Check your solution. 5. k 3 = 1 6. n 10 = = r 6 Section 7.2 Solving Equations Using Addition or Subtraction 303
5 EXAMPLE 3 Solving Equations Using Subtraction a. Solve x + 2 = 9. x + 2 = 9 Write the equation. Undo the addition. 2 2 Subtraction Property of Equality x = 7 Simplify. The solution is x = 7. Check x + 2 = =? 9 9 = 9 b. Solve 26 = 11 + x. 26 = 11 + x Write the equation Subtraction Property of Equality 15 = x Simplify. The solution is x = 15. Check 26 = 11 + x 26 =? = 26 EXAMPLE 4 RealLife Application Your parents give you $20 to help buy the new pair of shoes shown. After you buy the shoes, you have $5.50 left. Write and solve an equation to find how much money you had before your parents gave you $20. Words The starting amount plus the amount your parents gave you minus the cost of the shoes is the amount left. Study Tip In Example 4, you can solve the problem arithmetically by working backwards from $ = So, your answer is reasonable. Variable Let s be the starting amount. Equation s = 5.50 s = 5.50 Write the equation. s = Addition Property of Equality s + 20 = Simplify. s = Subtraction Property of Equality s = Simplify. You had $45.45 before your parents gave you money. Exercises Solve the equation. Check your solution. 8. s + 8 = = y m = You eat 8 blueberries and your friend eats 11 blueberries from a package. There are 23 blueberries left. Write and solve an equation to find the number of blueberries in a full package. 304 Chapter 7 Equations and Inequalities
6 7.2 Exercises Help with Homework 1. WRITING How can you check the solution of an equation? Name the inverse operation you can use to solve the equation. 2. x 8 = n + 3 = b + 14 = WRITING When solving x + 5 = 16, why do you subtract 5 from the left side of the equation? Why do you subtract 5 from the right side of the equation? 9+(6)=3 3+(3)= 4+(9)= 9+(1)= 1 Tell whether the given value is a solution of the equation. 6. x + 42 = 85; x = b = 48; b = g = 7; g = m 4 = 16; m = w + 23 = 41; w = s 68 = 11; s = 79 Use a scale to model and solve the equation. 12. n + 7 = t + 4 = c + 2 = 8 Write a question that represents the equation. Use mental math to answer the question. Then check your solution. 15. a + 5 = v + 9 = = d 6 Solve the equation. Check your solution y 7 = z 3 = = r p + 5 = k + 6 = = h f 27 = = q = j x = = m a = 17.3 ERROR ANALYSIS Describe and correct the error in solving the equation. 30. x + 7 = x = = y = y Section 7.2 Solving Equations Using Addition or Subtraction 305
7 24 in. 32. PENGUINS An emperor penguin is 45 inches tall. It is 24 inches taller than a rockhopper penguin. Write and solve an equation to find the height of a rockhopper penguin. Is your answer reasonable? Explain. 33. ELEVATOR You get in an elevator and go down 8 floors. You exit on the 16th floor. Write and solve an equation to find what floor you got on the elevator. 34. AREA The area of Jamaica is 6460 square miles less than the area of Haiti. Write and solve an equation to find the area of Haiti. JAMAICA Kingston Area = 4181 mi 2 HAITI Portau Prince DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Santo Domingo 35. REASONING The solution of the equation x + 3 = 12 is shown. Explain each step. Use a property, if possible. x + 3 = 12 x = 12 3 x + 0 = 9 x = 9 Write the equation. Write the word sentence as an equation. Then solve the equation subtracted from a number w is A number k increased by 7 is is the difference of a number n and is the sum of a number g and 58. Solve the equation. Check your solution. 40. b = y = m = v 7 = = 2 + r = d 17 GEOMETRY Write and solve an addition equation to find x. 46. Perimeter = 48 ft 47. Perimeter = 132 in. 48. Perimeter = 93 ft 16 in. 18 ft 18 ft x 20 ft 34 in. 34 in. 15 ft 15 ft 12 ft x x 49. REASONING Explain why the equations x + 4 = 13 and 4 + x = 13 have the same solution. 50. REASONING Explain why the equations x 13 = 4 and 13 x = 4 do not have the same solution. 306 Chapter 7 Equations and Inequalities
8 51. SIMPLIFYING AND SOLVING Compare and contrast the two problems. Simplify the expression 2(x + 3) 4. 2(x + 3) 4 = 2x = 2x + 2 Solve the equation x + 3 = 4. x + 3 = x = PUZZLE In a magic square, the sum of the numbers in each row, column, and diagonal is the same. Write and solve equations to find the values of a, b, and c. 53. FUNDRAISER You participate in a danceathon fundraiser. After your parents pledge $15.50 and your neighbor pledges $8.75, you have $ Write and solve an equation to find how much money you had before your parents and neighbor pledged. a b 34 c MONEY On Saturday, you spend $33, give $15 to a friend, and receive $20 for mowing your neighbor s lawn. You have $21 left. Use two methods to find how much money you started with that day. Bumper Cars: Roller Coaster: Giant Slide: Ferris Wheel: $1.75 $1.25 more than Ferris Wheel $0.50 less than Bumper Cars $1.50 more than Giant Slide 55. AMUSEMENT PARK You have $15. a. How much money do you have left if you ride each ride once? b. Do you have enough money to ride each ride twice? Explain. 56. Consider the equation x + y = 15. The value of x increases by 3. What has to happen to the value of y so that x + y = 15 remains true? Find the value of the expression. Use estimation to check your answer. (Section 1.1) MULTIPLE CHOICE What is the area of the parallelogram? (Section 4.1) A 25 in. 2 B 30 in. 2 C 50 in. 2 D 100 in. 2 5 in. 10 in. Section 7.2 Solving Equations Using Addition or Subtraction 307
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