Mythology, Epic, and Epic Hero. Mr. Pettine English 9 7 August 2015

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1 Mythology, Epic, and Epic Hero Mr. Pettine English 9 7 August 2015

2 Legend A traditional story sometimes popularly regarded as historical, but unauthenticated.

3 Folktale A tale circulated by word of mouth among the common folk.

4 Fairy Tale A children s story about magical and imaginary beings and lands.

5 Myths Myths are stories which are usually religious in nature. They often include gods and other supernatural beings, and sometimes attempt to explain natural forces. Often, myths were passed by word of mouth. Myths often explain underlying biases and emphases of a culture.

6 Purposes of Myths Most cultures have myths that explain natural phenomena: Seasonal Changes Fire Lightning Drought Floods Death

7 Purposes of Myths Teach moral lessons Explain History Express the deepest fears and hopes of human race Explain national origin Example: The Trojan Aeneas is purported to be the founder of the Roman people. Brute of Troy was the mythical first king of Britain. The myths gave legitimacy and ancient history to the new nations.

8 Purposes of Myths Some myths describe rivalry among the gods. They also describe the consequences of disobeying higher powers.

9 Mythic Characters In some myths, the characters have notable characteristics. For example, in Native American myths, the Coyote is often a trickster type who causes trouble. Some myths feature horrible animals and monsters with terrifying strength. Example: Theseus and the Minotaur

10 Comparison with Epic Myth A myth is a fictional tale that describes the actions of gods and heroes or explains the causes of natural phenomenon. Unlike legends, myths emphasize supernatural rather than historical elements. While most cultures have myths, the most famous are those of Greece and Rome.

11 Comparison with Epic An epic is a long narrative poem about the deeds of gods or heroes. An epic is elevated in style and usually follows certain patterns. The poet begins by announcing the subject and asking a muse one of the goddesses of the arts for help. This is called the invocation

12 Medieval / Christian: Divine Comedy (Dante) Epics Sumerian: Epic of Gilgamesh Greek: Illiad and Odyssey (Homer) Roman: The Aeneid (Virgil) Early Medieval: Beowulf

13 EPIC HERO An epic hero is the larger-than-life central character in an epic. Through behavior and deeds, the epic hero displays qualities that are valued by the society in which the epic originated.

14 Turn to page 757. Assignment Listen as I read the seventeen lines of the introduction. Paying close attention to lines 1-9, what are some of the conventions of the epic and epic hero which are seen. Write them down in your notebook.

15 The Greek Gods The Ancient Greeks were polytheists. They believed in many gods some of them personified, some of them spiritualized. Polytheism is opposed to monotheism (belief in one god Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Zoroastrianism) The Greeks and Romans tended to be syncretistic. They accepted new gods into their pantheon of gods as they met new cultures. EXAMPLE: Romans accepted Greek gods and elevated them. They simply changed their names. Their religion gave them a history, a calendar, and a tradition. By 4 th century BC, a rationalized pantheon (continued public belief, private doubt and trust in philosophical endeavors)

16 The gods of Mt. Olympus Quick recap of how the gods became the gods: The origin myths of the Greeks come from Hesiod, a poet working around the same time as Homer ( BC) His stories in Works and Days and Theogony describe the creation of the world by a male sky god and female earth god. They are overthrown by their children, the Titans. The Titans are cruel, unnaturally large gods who roam the earth. The head Titan is Kronos (or Chronos). Kronos hears a prophecy that one of his children will overthrow him

17 Cronos So he does the natural thing and eats his children. Rhea, his wife, hides one child Zeus. Zeus grows up and either through a medical or surgical procedure, forces Cronos to vomit up his brothers and sisters. Zeus and his newly free siblings defeat the Titans (Titanomachy) and imprison the Titans in Hades.

18 Important Gods in the Odyssey Athena Zeus Poseidon

19 Journal Explain the difference between a legend, folktale, fairy tale, epic, and myth. Give an example of each. I will check these as you leave.

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