Antigone A Greek Tragedy by Sophocles

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1 Antigone A Greek Tragedy by Sophocles

2 The etymology of the word "tragedy" is "tragos"+"ode", which means the hymn of goats. Tragoi (the goats) were the priests of god Dionysus.

3 The formation of tragedy was the synthesis of lyrical and epic poetry combined with ritual dancing.

4 Greek Theater came out of festivals that were given to honor the Greek God Dionysus Developed over several hundred years, evolved into modern theater Sophocles introduced a changes to the theater. Celebrations honored Dionysus, the god of wine, he is the half mortal, half god son of Zeus. The cult of Dionysos celebrated the cycle of death and rebirth; they believed he inspired poets and artists to divine creativity

5 Dithyramb A special kind of lyric choric poetry Dithyramb is an hymn to god Dionysus song accompanied by flute At first in dithyrambous, there were no actors The leader of the the dithyramb was the EXCHARON

6 Chorus The chorus was considered to be the mouthpiece of society (in its humble form) and morality and suffered along with the heroes. After Sophocles, the chorus had 15 members and stood in a circle

7 Thespis Greek poet who reputedly originated Greek tragedy Modified the dithyramb (which had been, in effect, exchanges between the leader and the chorus) by introducing an actor separate from the chorus. This actor was called the hypocrit or responder. Thus there developed a spoken dialogue.

8 Architecture of Ancient Greek Theater Greek theatre buildings were called a theatron ('seeing place') The theatres were large, open-air structures constructed on the slopes of hills.

9 The centerpiece of the theatre was the orchestra, or "dancing place", a large circular or rectangular area. Site of the choral performances, the religious rites, and, possibly, the acting. An altar was located in the middle of the orchestra; in Athens, the altar was dedicated to Dionysus.

10 SKENE-Behind the orchestra used as a "backstage" area where actors could change their costumes and mask, Sophocles first started painting scenery to the façade of the skene.

11 Paraskenia

12 Ancient Greek Masks The use of masks in ancient greek theater draw their origin from the ancient dionysiac cult. The members of the chorus wore masks, usually similar to each other but completely different from the leading actors Because the number of actors varied from one to three, they had to put on different masks, in order to play more roles. The actors were all men. The mask was therefore necessary to let them play the female roles.

13 Tragedy A drama or literary work in which the main character is brought to ruin or suffers extreme sorrow, especially as a consequence of a tragic flaw, moral weakness, or inability to cope with unfavorable circumstances.

14 Sophocles Greek dramatist. Together with Euripides and Aeschylus, he is considered one of the greatest dramatists of ancient Greece. His surviving plays include Ajax, Oedipus Rex, Antigone, and Oedipus at Colonus A man of wealth, charm, and genius, Sophocles was given posts of responsibility in peace and in war by the Athenians. He was a general and a priest; after his death he was worshiped as a hero he composed about 123 dramas, winning first place about 20 times and never falling lower than second A definitive innovator in the drama, he added a third actor thereby tremendously increasing the dramatic possibilities of the medium increased the size of the chorus, abandoned the trilogy of plays for the self-contained tragedy, and introduced scene painting.

15 Antigone a tragedy written in 442 BC by Sophocles chronologically the third of the three Theban plays but was written first Oedipus the King Oedipus at Colonus Antigone

16 Oedipus Rex Oedipus prophecy at birth: Jocasta and Laius s child would kill his father and marry his mother. Parents: Sent the child with a shepherd to be killed Shepherd: Takes the child to a nearby kingdom where he is raised by the king and queen Oedipus grown up: Oedipus hears of the prophecy and runs away to protect his father and mother. Prophecy comes true: Oedipus fights with a man in a carriage who angers him (it s his father, the king of Thebes) Meets the Sphinx: Oedipus solves the riddle of the sphinx: What walks on four legs in the morning, two at noon, and three at night? Greeted as a hero in Thebes: marries Jocasta (his mother) Secrets revealed: Jocasta kills herself, Oedipus gouges out his eyes.

17 After Oedipus is exiled, he leaves the ruling rights of Thebes to his two sons, Eteocles and Polynices who must take it in turns to rule. Eteocles rules first but the two becomes enemies after Eteocles refues to give up the throne, and Polynieces is exiled. At the beginning of the play, both brothers are dead, apparently slain by the other's hand.

18 The current ruler, Creon, has made a decree: Since Polynices fought against Thebes, he shall not be buried. Meanwhile, Eteocles is to be buried with full military honors.

19 Antigone, the daughter of Oedipus and the sister of the dead brothers, believes this proclamation to be against the gods' orders. She confides her plan to bury Polynices herself to her sister Ismene. The more timid of the two, Ismene refuses to take part out of fear, but agrees with her motive.

20 Why study Antigone? Ancient Greek Drama is the basis for all modern drama and film The story gives many important clues to the Ancient Greek culture and character Tragedies still contain the basic elements that they originated with

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