Lecture Presentation. Chapter 16. Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium. Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Pearson Education, Inc.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture Presentation. Chapter 16. Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium. Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University Pearson Education, Inc."

Transcription

1 Lecture Presentation Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium Sherril Soman Grand Valley State University

2 The Danger of Antifreeze Each year, thousands of pets and wildlife species die from consuming antifreeze. Most brands of antifreeze contain ethylene glycol. Sweet taste Initial effect drunkenness Metabolized in the liver to glycolic acid HOCH 2 COOH

3 Why Is Glycolic Acid Toxic? In high enough concentration in the bloodstream, glycolic acid overwhelms the buffering ability of the HCO 3 in the blood, causing the blood ph to drop. Low blood ph compromises its ability to carry O 2. Acidosis HbH + (aq) + O 2 (g) HbO 2 (aq) + H + (aq) One treatment is to give the patient ethyl alcohol, which has a higher affinity for the enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of ethylene glycol.

4 Buffer Solutions Resist changes in ph when an acid or base is added. Act by neutralizing acid or base that is added to the buffered solution. Contain either Significant amounts of a weak acid and its conjugate base Significant amounts of a weak base and its conjugate acid Blood has a mixture of H 2 CO 3 and HCO 3

5 Making an Acidic Buffer Solution It must contain significant amounts of both a weak acid and its conjugate base.

6 An Acidic Buffer Solution If a strong base is added, it is neutralized by the weak acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) in the buffer. NaOH(aq) + HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) H 2 O(l) + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) If the amount of NaOH added is less than the amount of acetic acid present, the ph change is small.

7 An Acidic Buffer Solution If a strong acid is added, it is neutralized by the conjugate base (NaC 2 H 3 O 2 ) in the buffer. HCl(aq) + NaC 2 H 3 O 2 HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + NaCl(aq) If the amount of HCl is less than the amount of NaC 2 H 3 O 2 present, the ph change is small.

8 How Acid Buffers Work: Addition of Base HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) A (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Buffers work by applying Le Châtelier s principle to weak acid equilibrium. Buffer solutions contain significant amounts of the weak acid molecules, HA. These molecules react with added base to neutralize it. HA(aq) + OH (aq) A (aq) + H 2 O(l) You can also think of the H 3 O + combining with the OH to make H 2 O; the H 3 O + is then replaced by the shifting equilibrium.

9 How Buffers Work new A H 2 O HA A HA A + H 3O + Added HO

10 How Acid Buffers Work: Addition of Acid HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) A (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) The buffer solution also contains significant amounts of the conjugate base anion, A. These ions combine with added acid to make more HA. H + (aq) + A (aq) HA(aq) After the equilibrium shifts, the concentration of H 3 O + is kept constant.

11 How Buffers Work new HA H 2 O A HA A + H 3O + Added H 3 O +

12 Common Ion Effect HA (aq) + H 2 O (l) A (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Adding a salt containing the anion NaA, which is the conjugate base of the acid (the common ion), shifts the position of equilibrium to the left. This causes the ph to be higher than the ph of the acid solution, lowering the H 3 O + ion concentration.

13 Common Ion Effect

14 Henderson Hasselbalch Equation An equation derived from the K a expression that allows us to calculate the ph of a buffer solution. The equation calculates the ph of a buffer from the pk a and initial concentrations of the weak acid and salt of the conjugate base, as long as the x is small approximation is valid.

15 Deriving the Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Consider the equilibrium expression for a generic acidic buffer: Solving for H 3 O + we have the following:

16 Deriving the Henderson Hasselbalch Equation Taking the logarithm of both sides and expanding since log (AB) = log A + log B

17 Deriving the Henderson Hasselbalch Equation HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A (aq) Multiplying both sides by 1 and rearranging we get the following: log[h 3 O + ] = logk a + log([a ]/[HA) (see page 758)

18 Deriving the Henderson Hasselbalch Equation HA(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + A - (aq) Since ph = log[h 3 O + ] and pk a = logk a ph = pk a + log([a ]/[HA) (see page 758) We can then generalize as follows:

19 Do I Use the Full Equilibrium Analysis or the Henderson Hasselbalch Equation? The Henderson Hasselbalch equation is generally good enough when the x is small approximation is applicable. Generally, the x is small approximation will work when both of the following are true: a) The initial concentrations of acid and salt are not very dilute. b) The K a is fairly small. For most problems, this means that the initial acid and salt concentrations should be over 100 to 1000 times larger than the value of K a.

20 How Much Does the ph of a Buffer Change When an Acid or Base Is Added? Calculating the new ph after adding acid or base requires breaking the problem into two parts: 1. A stoichiometry calculation for the reaction of the added chemical with one of the ingredients of the buffer to reduce its initial concentration and increase the concentration of the other. Added acid reacts with the A to make more HA Added base reacts with the HA to make more A 2. An equilibrium calculation of [H 3 O + ] using the new initial values of [HA] and [A ]

21 Action of a Buffer Figure 16.3 pg 762

22 Basic Buffers B: (aq) + H 2 O (l) H:B + (aq) + OH (aq) Buffers can also be made by mixing a weak base, (B:), with a soluble salt of its conjugate acid, H:B + Cl H 2 O (l) + NH 3(aq) NH 4 + (aq) + OH (aq)

23 Henderson Hasselbalch Equation for Basic Buffers The Henderson Hasselbalch equation is written for a chemical reaction with a weak acid reactant and its conjugate base as a product. The chemical equation of a basic buffer is written with a weak base as a reactant and its conjugate acid as a product. B: + H 2 O H:B + + OH To apply the Henderson Hasselbalch equation, the chemical equation of the basic buffer must be looked at like an acid reaction. H:B + + H 2 O B: + H 3 O + This does not affect the concentrations, just the way we are looking at the reaction.

24 Relationship between pk a and pk b Just as there is a relationship between the K a of a weak acid and K b of its conjugate base, there is also a relationship between the pk a of a weak acid and the pk b of its conjugate base. K a K b = K w = 1.0 x log(k a K b ) = log(k w ) = 14 log(k a ) + log(k b ) = 14 pk a + pk b = 14

25 Henderson Hasselbalch Equation for Basic Buffers The Henderson Hasselbalch equation is written for a chemical reaction with a weak acid reactant and its conjugate base as a product. The chemical equation of a basic buffer is written with a weak base as a reactant and its conjugate acid as a product. B: + H 2 O H:B + + OH We can rewrite the Henderson Hasselbalch equation for the chemical equation of the basic buffer in terms of poh.

26 Buffering Effectiveness A good buffer should be able to neutralize moderate amounts of added acid or base. However, there is a limit to how much can be added before the ph changes significantly. The buffering capacity is the amount of acid or base a buffer can neutralize. The buffering range is the ph range the buffer can be effective. The effectiveness of a buffer depends on two factors (1) the relative amounts of acid and base, and (2) the absolute concentrations of acid and base.

27 Buffering Capacity A concentrated buffer can neutralize more added acid or base than a dilute buffer.

28 Effectiveness of Buffers A buffer will be most effective when the [base]:[acid] = 1. Equal concentrations of acid and base A buffer will be effective when 0.1 < [base]:[acid] < 10. A buffer will be most effective when the [acid] and the [base] are large.

29 Buffering Range We have said that a buffer will be effective when 0.1 < [base]:[acid] < 10. Substituting into the Henderson Hasselbalch equation we can calculate the maximum and minimum ph at which the buffer will be effective. Lowest ph Highest ph Therefore, the effective ph range of a buffer is pk a ± 1. When choosing an acid to make a buffer, choose one whose pk a is closest to the ph of the buffer.

30 Buffering Capacity Buffering capacity is the amount of acid or base that can be added to a buffer without causing a large change in ph. The buffering capacity increases with increasing absolute concentration of the buffer components.

31 Buffering Capacity As the [base]:[acid] ratio approaches 1, the ability of the buffer to neutralize both added acid and base improves. Buffers that need to work mainly with added acid generally have [base] > [acid]. Buffers that need to work mainly with added base generally have [acid] > [base].

32 Titration In an acid base titration, a solution of unknown concentration (titrant) is slowly added to a solution of known concentration from a burette until the reaction is complete. When the reaction is complete we have reached the endpoint of the titration. An indicator may be added to determine the endpoint. An indicator is a chemical that changes color when the ph changes. When the moles of H 3 O + = moles of OH, the titration has reached its equivalence point.

33 Titration

34 Titration Curve It is a plot of ph versus the amount of added titrant. The inflection point of the curve is the equivalence point of the titration. Prior to the equivalence point, the known solution in the flask is in excess, so the ph is closest to its ph. The ph of the equivalence point depends on the ph of the salt solution. Equivalence point of neutral salt, ph = 7 Equivalence point of acidic salt, ph < 7 Equivalence point of basic salt, ph > 7 Beyond the equivalence point, the unknown solution in the burette is in excess, so the ph approaches its ph.

35 Titration Curve: Strong Base Added to Strong Acid

36 Titration of a Strong Base with a Strong Acid If the titration is run so that the acid is in the burette and the base is in the flask, the titration curve will be the reflection of the one just shown.

37 Titration of a Weak Acid with a Strong Base Titrating a weak acid with a strong base results in differences in the titration curve at the equivalence point and excess acid region. The initial ph is determined using the K a of the weak acid. The ph in the excess acid region is determined as you would determine the ph of a buffer. The ph at the equivalence point is determined using the K b of the conjugate base of the weak acid. The ph after equivalence is dominated by the excess strong base. The basicity from the conjugate base anion is negligible.

38 Titrating Weak Acid with a Strong Base The initial ph is that of the weak acid solution. Calculate like a weak acid equilibrium problem For example, 15.5 and 15.6 Before the equivalence point, the solution becomes a buffer. Calculate mol HA init and mol A init using reaction stoichiometry Calculate ph with Henderson Hasselbalch using mol HA init and mol A init Half-neutralization ph = pk a

39 Titrating Weak Acid with a Strong Base At the equivalence point, the mole HA = mol Base, so the resulting solution has only the conjugate base anion in it before equilibrium is established. Mol A = original mole HA Calculate the volume of added base as you did in Example 4.8. [A ] init = mol A /total liters Calculate like a weak base equilibrium problem For example, Beyond equivalence point, the OH is in excess. [OH ] = mol MOH xs/total liters [H 3 O + ][OH ] =

40 Titration Curve of a Weak Base with a Strong Acid

41 Titration of a Polyprotic Acid If K a1 >> K a2, there will be two equivalence points in the titration. The closer the K a s are to each other, the less distinguishable the equivalence points are. Titration of 25.0 ml of M H 2 SO 3 with M NaOH

42 Monitoring ph During a Titration The general method for monitoring the ph during the course of a titration is to measure the conductivity of the solution due to the [H 3 O + ]. Using a probe that specifically measures just H 3 O + The endpoint of the titration is reached at the equivalence point in the titration at the inflection point of the titration curve. If you just need to know the amount of titrant added to reach the endpoint, we often monitor the titration with an indicator.

43 Monitoring ph During a Titration Figure pg 780

44 Indicators Many dyes change color depending on the ph of the solution. These dyes are weak acids, establishing an equilibrium with the H 2 O and H 3 O + in the solution. HInd (aq) + H 2 O (l) Ind (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) The color of the solution depends on the relative concentrations of Ind :Hind. When Ind :HInd 1, the color will be a mix of the colors of Ind and HInd. When Ind :HInd > 10, the color will be a mix of the colors of Ind. When Ind :HInd < 0.1, the color will be a mix of the colors of Hind.

45 Phenolphthalein

46 Methyl Red

47 Monitoring a Titration with an Indicator For most titrations, the titration curve shows a very large change in ph for very small additions of titrant near the equivalence point. An indicator can therefore be used to determine the endpoint of the titration if it changes color within the same range as the rapid change in ph. pk a of HInd ph at equivalence point

48 Acid Base Indicators Table 16.1 pg 783

49 Solubility Equilibria All ionic compounds dissolve in water to some degree. However, many compounds have such low solubility in water that we classify them as insoluble. We can apply the concepts of equilibrium to salts dissolving, and use the equilibrium constant for the process to measure relative solubilities in water.

50 Solubility Product The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a solid salt into its aqueous ions is called the solubility product, K sp. For an ionic solid M n X m, the dissociation reaction is M n X m (s) nm m+ (aq) + mx n (aq). The solubility product would be K sp = [M m+ ] n [X n ] m. For example, the dissociation reaction for PbCl 2 is PbCl 2 (s) Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq). And its equilibrium constant is K sp = [Pb 2+ ][Cl ] 2.

51

52 Molar Solubility Solubility is the amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solution at a particular temperature. The molar solubility is the number of moles of solute that will dissolve in a liter of solution. The molarity of the dissolved solute in a saturated solution For the general reaction M n X m (s) nm m+ (aq) + mx n (aq)

53 K sp and Relative Solubility Molar solubility is related to K sp. But you cannot always compare solubilities of compounds by comparing their K sp s. To compare K sp s, the compounds must have the same dissociation stoichiometry.

54 The Effect of Common Ion on Solubility Addition of a soluble salt that contains one of the ions of the insoluble salt, decreases the solubility of the insoluble salt. For example, addition of NaCl to the solubility equilibrium of solid PbCl 2 decreases the solubility of PbCl 2. PbCl 2 (s) Pb 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl (aq) Addition of Cl shifts the equilibrium to the left.

55 The Effect of ph on Solubility For insoluble ionic hydroxides, the higher the ph, the lower the solubility of the ionic hydroxide. And the lower the ph, the higher the solubility Higher ph = increased [OH ] M(OH) n (s) M n+ (aq) + noh (aq) For insoluble ionic compounds that contain anions of weak acids, the lower the ph, the higher the solubility. M 2 (CO 3 ) n (s) 2 M n+ (aq) + nco 2 3 (aq) H 3 O + (aq) + CO 2 3 (aq) HCO 3 (aq) + H 2 O(l)

56 Precipitation Precipitation will occur when the concentrations of the ions exceed the solubility of the ionic compound. If we compare the reaction quotient, Q, for the current solution concentrations to the value of K sp, we can determine if precipitation will occur. Q = K sp, the solution is saturated, no precipitation. Q < K sp, the solution is unsaturated, no precipitation. Q > K sp, the solution would be above saturation, the salt above saturation will precipitate. Some solutions with Q > K sp will not precipitate unless disturbed; these are called supersaturated solutions.

57 Precipitation Image top right of page 789 Precipitation occurs if Q > K sp. A supersaturated solution will precipitate if a seed crystal is added.

58 Selective Precipitation A solution containing several different cations can often be separated by addition of a reagent that will form an insoluble salt with one of the ions, but not the others. A successful reagent can precipitate with more than one of the cations, as long as their K sp values are significantly different.

59 Qualitative Analysis An analytical scheme that utilizes selective precipitation to identify the ions present in a solution is called a qualitative analysis scheme. Wet chemistry A sample containing several ions is subjected to the addition of several precipitating agents. Addition of each reagent causes one of the ions present to precipitate out.

60 Qualitative Analysis

61 A General Qualitative Analysis Scheme Figure pg 118

62 Group 1 Group one cations are Ag +, Pb 2+, and Hg All these cations form compounds with Cl that are insoluble in water. As long as the concentration is large enough PbCl 2 may be borderline Molar solubility of PbCl 2 = M Precipitated by the addition of HCl

63 Group 2 Group two cations are Cd 2+, Cu 2+, Bi 3+, Sn 4+, As 3+, Pb 2+, Sb 3+, and Hg 2+. All these cations form compounds with HS and S 2 that are insoluble in water at low ph. Precipitated by the addition of H 2 S in HCl.

64 Group 3 Group three cations are Fe 2+, Co 2+, Zn 2+, Mn 2+, Ni 2+ precipitated as sulfides, as well as Cr 3+, Fe 3+, and Al 3+ precipitated as hydroxides. All these cations form compounds with S 2 that are insoluble in water at high ph. Precipitated by the addition of H 2 S in NaOH.

65 Group 4 Group four cations are Mg 2+, Ca 2+, Ba 2+. All these cations form compounds with PO 3 4 that are insoluble in water at high ph. Precipitated by the addition of (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4.

66 Group 5 Group five cations are Na +, K +, NH 4+. All these cations form compounds that are soluble in water they do not precipitate. They are identified by the color of their flame.

67 Complex Ion Formation Transition metals tend to be good Lewis acids. They often bond to one or more H 2 O molecules to form a hydrated ion. H 2 O is the Lewis base, donating electron pairs to form coordinate covalent bonds. Ag + (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) Ag(H 2 O) 2+ (aq) Ions that form by combining a cation with several anions or neutral molecules are called complex ions. For example, Ag(H 2 O) 2 + The attached ions or molecules are called ligands. For example, H 2 O

68 Complex Ion Equilibria If a ligand is added to a solution that forms a stronger bond than the current ligand, it will replace the current ligand. Ag(H 2 O) + 2 (aq) + 2 NH 3(aq) Ag(NH 3 ) + 2 (aq) + 2 H 2 O (l) Generally, H 2 O is not included, because its complex ion is always present in aqueous solution. Ag + (aq) + 2 NH 3(aq) Ag(NH 3 ) + 2 (aq)

69 Formation Constant The reaction between an ion and ligands to form a complex ion is called a complex ion formation reaction. Ag + (aq) + 2 NH 3(aq) Ag(NH 3 ) + 2 (aq) The equilibrium constant for the formation reaction is called the formation constant, K f.

70 Formation Constants

71 The Effect of Complex Ion Formation on Solubility The solubility of an ionic compound that contains a metal cation that forms a complex ion increases in the presence of aqueous ligands. AgCl (s) Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq) K sp = Ag + (aq) + 2 NH 3(aq) Ag(NH 3 ) + 2 (aq) K f = Adding NH 3 to a solution in equilibrium with AgCl (s) increases the solubility of Ag +.

72 Figure 16.18

73 Solubility of Amphoteric Metal Hydroxides Many metal hydroxides are insoluble. All metal hydroxides become more soluble in acidic solution. Shifting the equilibrium to the right by removing OH Some metal hydroxides also become more soluble in basic solution. Acting as a Lewis base forming a complex ion Substances that behave as both an acid and base are said to be amphoteric. Some cations that form amphoteric hydroxides include Al 3+, Cr 3+, Zn 2+, Pb 2+, and Sb 2+.

74 Al 3+ Al 3+ is hydrated in water to form an acidic solution. Al(H 2 O) 3+ 6 (aq) + H 2 O (l) Al(H 2 O) 5 (OH) 2+ (aq) + H 3 O + (aq) Addition of OH drives the equilibrium to the right and continues to remove H from the molecules. Al(H 2 O) 5 (OH) 2+ (aq) + OH (aq) Al(H 2 O) 4 (OH) 2 + (aq) + H 2 O (l) Al(H 2 O) 4 (OH) 2 + (aq) + OH (aq) Al(H 2 O) 3 (OH) 3(s) + H 2 O (l)

75 Solubility of an Amphoteric Hydroxide

Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium

Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium Chemistry: A Molecular Approach, 1 st Ed. Nivaldo Tro Chapter 16 Aqueous Ionic Equilibrium Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, MA 2008, Prentice Hall The Danger of Antifreeze

More information

Chapter 16. The Danger of Antifreeze. Buffers. Aqueous Equilibrium

Chapter 16. The Danger of Antifreeze. Buffers. Aqueous Equilibrium hapter 16 Aqueous Equilibrium The Danger of Antifreeze Each year, thousands of pets and wildlife die from consuming antifreeze Most brands of antifreeze contain ethylene glycol sweet taste and initial

More information

Aqueous Equilibria Pearson Education, Inc. Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School AP Chemistry

Aqueous Equilibria Pearson Education, Inc. Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School AP Chemistry 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Mr. Matthew Totaro Legacy High School AP Chemistry The Common-Ion Effect Consider a solution of acetic acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + C 2 H 3 O 2 (aq) If

More information

Chapter 16. Equilibria in Aqueous Systems

Chapter 16. Equilibria in Aqueous Systems Chapter 16 Equilibria in Aqueous Systems Buffers! buffers are solutions that resist changes in ph when an acid or base is added! they act by neutralizing the added acid or base! but just like everything

More information

Chap 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria. Hsu Fu Yin

Chap 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria. Hsu Fu Yin Chap 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Hsu Fu Yin 1 17.1 The Common-Ion Effect Acetic acid is a weak acid: CH 3 COOH(aq) H + (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) Sodium acetate is a strong electrolyte: NaCH

More information

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria 蘇正寬 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria 蘇正寬 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria 蘇正寬 chengkuan@mail.ntou.edu.tw Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria 17.1 The Common-Ion Effect 17.2 Buffers 17.3 Acid Base Titrations 17.4 Solubility

More information

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium 17.1 The Common Ion Effect The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak

More information

AP Chemistry. CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect Buffered Solutions. Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions

AP Chemistry. CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect Buffered Solutions. Composition and Action of Buffered Solutions AP Chemistry CHAPTER 17- Buffers and Ksp 17.1 The Common Ion Effect The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak electrolyte.

More information

Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous equilibria. Common-ion effect

Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous equilibria. Common-ion effect Chapter 17: Additional Aspects of Aqueous equilibria Learning goals and key skills: Describe the common ion effect. Explain how a buffer functions. Calculate the ph of a buffer solution. Calculate the

More information

Aqueous Equilibria, Part 2 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline

Aqueous Equilibria, Part 2 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline Aqueous Equilibria, Part 2 AP Chemistry Lecture Outline Name: The Common-Ion Effect Suppose we have a weak acid and a soluble salt of that acid. CH 3 COOH NaCH 3 COO CH 3 COOH CH 3 COO + H + Since NaCH

More information

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Lecture Presentation Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Effect of Acetate on the Acetic Acid Equilibrium Acetic acid is a weak acid: CH 3 COOH(aq) H + (aq)

More information

Chemistry 102 Chapter 17 COMMON ION EFFECT

Chemistry 102 Chapter 17 COMMON ION EFFECT COMMON ION EFFECT Common ion effect is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of an ion that takes part in the equilibrium. For example, consider the effect of adding HCl to a solution of acetic

More information

Operational Skills. Operational Skills. The Common Ion Effect. A Problem To Consider. A Problem To Consider APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA

Operational Skills. Operational Skills. The Common Ion Effect. A Problem To Consider. A Problem To Consider APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA Operational Skills Calculating the common-ion effect on acid ionization Calculating the ph of a buffer from given volumes of solution Calculating the ph of a solution

More information

Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College

Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria David A. Katz Department of Chemistry Pima Community College The Common Ion Effect Consider a solution of acetic acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) + H 2 O (l) H 3 O + (aq)

More information

Try this one Calculate the ph of a solution containing M nitrous acid (Ka = 4.5 E -4) and 0.10 M potassium nitrite.

Try this one Calculate the ph of a solution containing M nitrous acid (Ka = 4.5 E -4) and 0.10 M potassium nitrite. Chapter 17 Applying equilibrium 17.1 The Common Ion Effect When the salt with the anion of a is added to that acid, it reverses the dissociation of the acid. Lowers the of the acid. The same principle

More information

Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters Syllabus

Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters Syllabus As you work through the chapter, you should be able to: Advanced Placement Chemistry Chapters 14 16 Syllabus Chapter 14 Acids and Bases 1. Describe acid and bases using the Bronsted-Lowry, Arrhenius, and

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (Part A)

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (Part A) Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (Part A) Often, there are many equilibria going on in an aqueous solution. So, we must determine the dominant equilibrium (i.e. the equilibrium reaction

More information

Lecture #11-Buffers and Titrations The Common Ion Effect

Lecture #11-Buffers and Titrations The Common Ion Effect Lecture #11-Buffers and Titrations The Common Ion Effect The Common Ion Effect Shift in position of an equilibrium caused by the addition of an ion taking part in the reaction HA(aq) + H2O(l) A - (aq)

More information

Homework: 14, 16, 21, 23, 27, 29, 39, 43, 48, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 67, 69, 71, 77, 81, 85, 91, 93, 97, 99, 104b, 105, 107

Homework: 14, 16, 21, 23, 27, 29, 39, 43, 48, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 67, 69, 71, 77, 81, 85, 91, 93, 97, 99, 104b, 105, 107 Homework: 14, 16, 21, 23, 27, 29, 39, 43, 48, 49, 51, 53, 55, 57, 59, 67, 69, 71, 77, 81, 85, 91, 93, 97, 99, 104b, 105, 107 Chapter 15 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria (mainly acid/base & solubility)

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (Part A)

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (Part A) Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria (Part A) What is a dominant equilibrium? How do we define major species? Reactions between acids and bases 1. Strong Acids + Strong Base The reaction

More information

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium 17.1 The Common Ion Effect The dissociation of a weak electrolyte is decreased by the addition of a strong electrolyte that has an ion in common with the weak

More information

Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Neutralization: Strong Acid-Strong Base Chapter 15 - Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Molecular: HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) SA-SB rxn goes to completion (one-way ) Write ionic and net ionic

More information

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria. Lecture Presentation. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria. Lecture Presentation. John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO Lecture Presentation Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville, MO The Common-Ion Effect Consider a solution of acetic acid: CH 3 COOH(aq) + H 2 O(l)

More information

CHM 112 Dr. Kevin Moore

CHM 112 Dr. Kevin Moore CHM 112 Dr. Kevin Moore Reaction of an acid with a known concentration of base to determine the exact amount of the acid Requires that the equilibrium of the reaction be significantly to the right Determination

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville,

More information

Ch. 14/15: Acid-Base Equilibria Sections 14.6, 14.7, 15.1, 15.2

Ch. 14/15: Acid-Base Equilibria Sections 14.6, 14.7, 15.1, 15.2 Ch. 14/15: Acid-Base Equilibria Sections 14.6, 14.7, 15.1, 15.2 Creative Commons License Images and tables in this file have been used from the following sources: OpenStax: Creative Commons Attribution

More information

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Contents and Concepts Solubility Equilibria 1. The Solubility Product Constant 2. Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect 3. Precipitation Calculations 4. Effect of ph

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Homogeneous versus Heterogeneous Solution Equilibria (17.1) Buffer Solutions (17.2) A Closer Look at Acid-Base

More information

Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 15 Outline Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 15 Outline Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Name AP CHEM / / Chapter 15 Outline Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion A common ion often refers to an ion that is added by two or more species. For

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of AP Chemistry 2014-15 North Nova Education Centre Mr. Gauthier

More information

Equilibri acido-base ed equilibri di solubilità. Capitolo 16

Equilibri acido-base ed equilibri di solubilità. Capitolo 16 Equilibri acido-base ed equilibri di solubilità Capitolo 16 The common ion effect is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substance.

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of John D. Bookstaver St. Charles Community College Cottleville,

More information

Solubility Equilibria

Solubility Equilibria Solubility Equilibria Heretofore, we have investigated gas pressure, solution, acidbase equilibriums. Another important equilibrium that is used in the chemistry lab is that of solubility equilibrium.

More information

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria

Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Chapter 17 Additional Aspects of Aqueous Equilibria Water is a common solvent. Dissolved materials can be involved in different types of chemical equilibria. 17.1 The Common Ion Effect Metal ions or salts

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 17

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 17 PowerPoint Lecture Presentation by J. David Robertson University of Missouri Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 17 The common ion effect is the shift in equilibrium caused by the addition

More information

Chapter 15. Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 15. Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 15 Acid-Base Equilibria The Common Ion Effect The common-ion effect is the shift in an ionic equilibrium caused by the addition of a solute that provides an ion already involved in the equilibrium

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria ACIDS-BASES COMMON ION EFFECT SOLUBILITY OF SALTS Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2 The common

More information

ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA

ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA ADVANCED PLACEMENT CHEMISTRY ACIDS, BASES, AND AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA Acids- taste sour Bases(alkali)- taste bitter and feel slippery Arrhenius concept- acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution while

More information

The ph of aqueous salt solutions

The ph of aqueous salt solutions The ph of aqueous salt solutions Sometimes (most times), the salt of an acid-base neutralization reaction can influence the acid/base properties of water. NaCl dissolved in water: ph = 7 NaC 2 H 3 O 2

More information

Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Many reactions are reversible, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B The point reached in a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction (product

More information

Chapter 15 Acid Base Equilibria

Chapter 15 Acid Base Equilibria Buffer Solutions The ph changes by a large amount even when a small amount of acid or base is added to pure water: Chapter 15 Acid Base Equilibria A buffer solution is a solution which resists a change

More information

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 10. Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 10 Acids, Bases, and Salts Topics we ll be looking at in this chapter Arrhenius theory of acids and bases Bronsted-Lowry acid-base theory Mono-, di- and tri-protic acids Strengths of acids and

More information

[H + ] OH - Base contains more OH - than H + [OH - ] Neutral solutions contain equal amounts of OH - and H + Self-ionization of Water

[H + ] OH - Base contains more OH - than H + [OH - ] Neutral solutions contain equal amounts of OH - and H + Self-ionization of Water 19.1 Acids & Bases 1. Compare and contrast the properties of acids & bases. 2. Describe the self-ionization of water & the concept of K w. 3. Differentiate between the Arhennius & Bronsted-Lowry models

More information

2/4/2016. Chapter 15. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria The Common Ion Effect

2/4/2016. Chapter 15. Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby. Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria The Common Ion Effect Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason Overby 17 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Chapter 15 Acid-Base Equilibria and Solubility Equilibria Kent L. McCorkle Cosumnes River College Sacramento,

More information

Consider a normal weak acid equilibrium: Which direction will the reaction shift if more A is added? What happens to the % ionization of HA?

Consider a normal weak acid equilibrium: Which direction will the reaction shift if more A is added? What happens to the % ionization of HA? ch16blank Page 1 Chapter 16: Aqueous ionic equilibrium Topics in this chapter: 1. Buffers 2. Titrations and ph curves 3. Solubility equilibria Buffersresist changes to the ph of a solution. Consider a

More information

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria

Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria Solubility Equilibria Many natural processes depend on the precipitation or dissolving of a slightly soluble salt. In the next section, we look at the equilibria of

More information

CHAPTER 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA

CHAPTER 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA CHAPTER 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA 16.5 (a) This is a weak acid problem. Setting up the standard equilibrium table: CH 3 COOH(aq) H (aq) CH 3 COO (aq) Initial (): 0.40 0.00 0.00

More information

SOLUBILITY PRODUCT (K sp ) Slightly Soluble Salts & ph AND BUFFERS (Part Two)

SOLUBILITY PRODUCT (K sp ) Slightly Soluble Salts & ph AND BUFFERS (Part Two) SOLUBILITY PRODUCT (K sp ) Slightly Soluble Salts & ph AND BUFFERS (Part Two) ADEng. PRGORAMME Chemistry for Engineers Prepared by M. J. McNeil, MPhil. Department of Pure and Applied Sciences Portmore

More information

CHAPTER FIFTEEN APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA. For Review

CHAPTER FIFTEEN APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA. For Review CHAPTER FIFTEEN APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA For Review 1. A common ion is an ion that appears in an equilibrium reaction but came from a source other than that reaction. Addition of a common ion

More information

More About Chemical Equilibria

More About Chemical Equilibria 1 More About Chemical Equilibria Acid-Base & Precipitation Reactions Chapter 15 & 16 1 Objectives Chapter 15 Define the Common Ion Effect (15.1) Define buffer and show how a buffer controls ph of a solution

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base Acid-Base Equilibria 1 Will the following salts be acidic, basic or neutral in aqueous solution? 1.NH 4 Cl.NaCl.KC H O 4.NaNO A = acidic B = basic C = neutral Solutions of a Weak Acid or Base The simplest

More information

Chapter 15 Additional Aspects of

Chapter 15 Additional Aspects of Chemistry, The Central Science Chapter 15 Additional Aspects of Buffers: Solution that resists change in ph when a small amount of acid or base is added or when the solution is diluted. A buffer solution

More information

Applications of Aqueous Equilibria. Chapter 18

Applications of Aqueous Equilibria. Chapter 18 Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Chapter 18 What we learn from Chap 18 This chapter is the third in the three-chapter sequence about equilibrium, this one building upon the core principles raised in

More information

APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA REACTIONS AND EQUILIBRIA INVOLVING ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS

APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA REACTIONS AND EQUILIBRIA INVOLVING ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS APPLICATIONS OF AQUEOUS EQUILIBRIA REACTIONS AND EQUILIBRIA INVOLVING ACIDS, BASES, AND SALTS COMMON IONS Common ion effect- The addition of an ion already present(common) in a system causes equilibrium

More information

Quiz #5. Lecture 14. Professor Hicks General Chemistry (CHE132) Spring Copyright 2009 Charles Hicks. Copyright 2009 Charles Hicks

Quiz #5. Lecture 14. Professor Hicks General Chemistry (CHE132) Spring Copyright 2009 Charles Hicks. Copyright 2009 Charles Hicks Quiz #5 Lecture 14 Professor Hicks General Chemistry (CHE132) Spring 2009 1 Making a Buffer Buffers buffers = solutions that resist ph changes act by neutralizing added acid or base made by preparing a

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Acid-Ionization Equilibria. Acid-Ionization Equilibria

Acid-Base Equilibria. 1.NH 4 Cl 2.NaCl 3.KC 2 H 3 O 2 4.NaNO 2. Acid-Ionization Equilibria. Acid-Ionization Equilibria Acid-Ionization Equilibria Acid-Base Equilibria Acid ionization (or acid dissociation) is the reaction of an acid with water to produce hydronium ion (hydrogen ion) and the conjugate base anion. (See Animation:

More information

Acid Base Equilibria

Acid Base Equilibria Acid Base Equilibria Acid Ionization, also known as acid dissociation, is the process in where an acid reacts with water to produce a hydrogen ion and the conjugate base ion. HC 2 H 3 O 2(aq) H + (aq)

More information

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY

ACIDS AND BASES. HCl(g) = hydrogen chloride HCl(aq) = hydrochloric acid HCl(g) H + (aq) + Cl (aq) ARRHENIUS THEORY ACIDS AND BASES A. CHARACTERISTICS OF ACIDS AND BASES 1. Acids and bases are both ionic compounds that are dissolved in water. Since acids and bases both form ionic solutions, their solutions conduct electricity

More information

Learning Objectives. Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria. Contents and Concepts. 3. Precipitation Calculations. 4. Effect of ph on Solubility

Learning Objectives. Solubility and Complex-ion Equilibria. Contents and Concepts. 3. Precipitation Calculations. 4. Effect of ph on Solubility Solubility and Comple-ion Equilibria. Solubility and the Common-Ion Effect a. Eplain how the solubility of a salt is affected by another salt that has the same cation or anion. (common ion) b. Calculate

More information

Chapter 18. Solubility and Complex- Ionic Equilibria

Chapter 18. Solubility and Complex- Ionic Equilibria Chapter 18 Solubility and Complex- Ionic Equilibria 1 The common ion effect Le Chatelier Why is AgCl less soluble in sea water than in fresh water? AgCl(s) Ag + + Cl Seawater contains NaCl 2 Problem: The

More information

CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA

CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA Acids and Bases 1 CHAPTER 7.0: IONIC EQUILIBRIA 7.1: Acids and bases Learning outcomes: At the end of this lesson, students should be able to: Define acid and base according to Arrhenius, Bronsted- Lowry

More information

Saturated vs. Unsaturated

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Solubility Equilibria in Aqueous Systems K sp (Equilibria of Slightly Soluble Salts, Ionic Compounds) Factors that Affect Solubility (Common Ion Effect, AcidBase Chemistry) Applications of Ionic Equilibria

More information

Homework #7 Chapter 8 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium

Homework #7 Chapter 8 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium Homework #7 Chapter 8 Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium 15. solution: A solution that resists change in ph when a small amount of acid or base is added. solutions contain a weak acid and its conjugate

More information

CH 4 AP. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions

CH 4 AP. Reactions in Aqueous Solutions CH 4 AP Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Water Aqueous means dissolved in H 2 O Moderates the Earth s temperature because of high specific heat H-bonds cause strong cohesive and adhesive properties Polar,

More information

Chapter 8: Applications of Aqueous Equilibria

Chapter 8: Applications of Aqueous Equilibria Chapter 8: Applications of Aqueous Equilibria 8.1 Solutions of Acids or Bases Containing a Common Ion 8.2 Buffered Solutions 8.3 Exact Treatment of Buffered Solutions 8.4 Buffer Capacity 8.5 Titrations

More information

LECTURE #25 Wed. April 9, 2008

LECTURE #25 Wed. April 9, 2008 CHEM 206 section 01 LECTURE #25 Wed. April 9, 2008 LECTURE TOPICS: TODAY S CLASS: 18.1-18.2 NEXT CLASS: finish Ch.18 (up to 18.5) (1) 18.1 The Common Ion Effect basis of all Ch.18 = shift in eqm position

More information

K w. Acids and bases 8/24/2009. Acids and Bases 9 / 03 / Ionization of water. Proton Jumping Large proton and hydroxide mobility

K w. Acids and bases 8/24/2009. Acids and Bases 9 / 03 / Ionization of water. Proton Jumping Large proton and hydroxide mobility Chapter 2 Water Acids and Bases 9 / 03 / 2009 1. How is the molecular structure of water related to physical and chemical behavior? 2. What is a Hydrogen Bond? 3Wh 3. What are Acids Aid and db Bases? 4.

More information

AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name

AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. AP Chapter 15 & 16: Acid-Base Equilibria 2 Warm-Ups (Show

More information

Chemistry 201: General Chemistry II - Lecture

Chemistry 201: General Chemistry II - Lecture Chemistry 201: General Chemistry II - Lecture Dr. Namphol Sinkaset Chapter 18 Study Guide Concepts 1. A buffer is a solution that resists changes in ph by neutralizing added acid or base. 2. Buffers are

More information

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium

Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium Chapter 17. Additional Aspects of Equilibrium Sample Exercise 17.1 (p. 726) What is the ph of a 0.30 M solution of acetic acid? Be sure to use a RICE table, even though you may not need it. (2.63) What

More information

Lecture #12 Complex Ions and Solubility

Lecture #12 Complex Ions and Solubility Lecture #12 Complex Ions and Solubility Stepwise exchange of NH 3 for H 2 O in M(H 2 O) 4 2+ M(H 2 O) 2 (NH 3 ) 2 2+ M(H 2 O) 4 2+ M(NH 3 ) 4 2+ M(H 2 O) 3 (NH 3 ) 2+ M(H 2 O)(NH 3 ) 3 2+ Formation Constants

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria. And the beat goes on Buffer solutions Titrations

Acid-Base Equilibria. And the beat goes on Buffer solutions Titrations Acid-Base Equilibria And the beat goes on Buffer solutions Titrations 1 Common Ion Effect The shift in equilibrium due to addition of a compound having an ion in common with the dissolved substance. 2

More information

Chemical Equilibrium. Many reactions are, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B

Chemical Equilibrium. Many reactions are, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B Chemical Equilibrium Many reactions are, i.e. they can occur in either direction. A + B AB or AB A + B The point reached in a reversible reaction where the rate of the forward reaction (product formation,

More information

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 17

REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 17 Chemistry 102 REVIEW QUESTIONS Chapter 17 1. A buffer is prepared by adding 20.0 g of acetic acid (HC 2 H 3 O 2 ) and 20.0 g of sodium acetate (NaC 2 H 3 O 2 ) in enough water to prepare 2.00 L of solution.

More information

Chemistry I Notes Unit 10: Acids and Bases

Chemistry I Notes Unit 10: Acids and Bases Chemistry I Notes Unit 10: Acids and Bases Acids 1. Sour taste. 2. Acids change the color of acid- base indicators (turn blue litmus red). 3. Some acids react with active metals and release hydrogen gas,

More information

SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA (THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT)

SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA (THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT) SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA (THE SOLUBILITY PRODUCT) Saturated solutions of salts are another type of chemical equilibria. Slightly soluble salts establish a dynamic equilibrium with the hydrated cations and

More information

Lecture 12. Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions.

Lecture 12. Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. Lecture 12 Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. Titrations Kotz 7 th ed. Section 18.3, pp.821-832. In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added

More information

Example 15.1 Identifying Brønsted Lowry Acids and Bases and Their Conjugates

Example 15.1 Identifying Brønsted Lowry Acids and Bases and Their Conjugates Example 15.1 Identifying Brønsted Lowry Acids and Bases and Their Conjugates For Practice 15.1 In each reaction, identify the Brønsted Lowry acid, the Brønsted Lowry base, the conjugate acid, and the conjugate

More information

Acids, Bases and Buffers

Acids, Bases and Buffers 1 Acids, Bases and Buffers Strong vs weak acids and bases Equilibrium as it relates to acids and bases ph scale: [H+(aq)] to ph, poh, etc ph of weak acids ph of strong acids Conceptual about oxides (for

More information

Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts

Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts Chapter 9: Acids, Bases, and Salts 1 ARRHENIUS ACID An Arrhenius acid is any substance that provides hydrogen ions, H +, when dissolved in water. ARRHENIUS BASE An Arrhenius base is any substance that

More information

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases

Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Properties of Acids and Bases Chapter 14 Acids and Bases Svante Arrhenius (1859-1927) First to develop a theory for acids and bases in aqueous solution Arrhenius Acids Compounds which dissolve (dissociate)

More information

IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water.

IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water. IB Chemistry ABS Introduction An acid was initially considered a substance that would produce H + ions in water. The Brønsted-Lowry definition of an acid is a species that can donate an H + ion to any

More information

Equation Writing for a Neutralization Reaction

Equation Writing for a Neutralization Reaction Equation Writing for a Neutralization Reaction An Acid-Base reaction is also called a Neutralization reaction because the acid (generates H + or H 3 O + ) and base (generates OH ) properties of the reactants

More information

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solution Homework Chapter 4 11, 15, 21, 23, 27, 29, 35, 41, 45, 47, 51, 55, 57, 61, 63, 73, 75, 81, 85 1 2 Chapter Objectives Solution To understand the nature of ionic substances

More information

SOLUBILITY AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA

SOLUBILITY AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA 16 CHAPTER SOLUBILITY AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA 16.1 The Nature of Solubility Equilibria 16.2 Ionic Equilibria between Solids and Solutions 16.3 Precipitation and the Solubility Product 16.4 The Effects

More information

SOLUBILITY AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA

SOLUBILITY AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA 16 CHAPTER SOLUBILITY AND PRECIPITATION EQUILIBRIA 16.1 The Nature of Solubility Equilibria 16.2 Ionic Equilibria between Solids and Solutions 16.3 Precipitation and the Solubility Product 16.4 The Effects

More information

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change CHEMISTRY Matter and Change UNIT 18 Table Of Contents Section 18.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases Unit 18: Acids and Bases Section 18.2 Section 18.3 Section 18.4 Strengths of Acids and Bases Hydrogen

More information

11/14/10. Properties of Acids! CHAPTER 15 Acids and Bases. Table 18.1

11/14/10. Properties of Acids! CHAPTER 15 Acids and Bases. Table 18.1 11/14/10 CHAPTER 15 Acids and Bases 15-1 Properties of Acids! Sour taste React with active metals i.e., Al, Zn, Fe, but not Cu, Ag, or Au 2 Al + 6 HCl 2 AlCl3 + 3 H2 corrosive React with carbonates, producing

More information

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Copyright McGraw-Hill

Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions. Copyright McGraw-Hill Chapter 4 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 4.1 General Properties of Aqueous Solutions Solution - a homogeneous mixture Solute: the component that is dissolved Solvent: the component

More information

Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions

Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions Chapter 4 Three Major Classes of Chemical Reactions Solution Stoichiometry Many reactions (biochemical, marine, etc.) take place in solution. We need to be able to express the number of moles of particles

More information

Kotz 7 th ed. Section 18.3, pp

Kotz 7 th ed. Section 18.3, pp Lecture 15 Acid/base reactions. Equilibria in aqueous solutions. Titrations Kotz 7 th ed. Section 18.3, pp.821-832. In a titration a solution of accurately known concentration is added gradually added

More information

E09. Exp 09 - Solubility. Solubility. Using Q. Solubility Equilibrium. This Weeks Experiment. Factors Effecting Solubility.

E09. Exp 09 - Solubility. Solubility. Using Q. Solubility Equilibrium. This Weeks Experiment. Factors Effecting Solubility. E09 Exp 09 - Solubility Solubility Solvation The reaction coefficient Precipitating Insoluble Substances Comparing Q to Ksp Solubility Equilibrium Solubility Product, Ksp Relating Molar Solubility Factors

More information

Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems. Dr.ssa Rossana Galassi

Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems. Dr.ssa Rossana Galassi Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems Dr.ssa Rossana Galassi 320 4381420 rossana.galassi@unicam.it Ionic Equilibria in Aqueous Systems 19.1 Equilibria of Acid-Base Buffer Systems 19.2 Acid-Base Titration

More information

Acid-Base Equilibria (Chapter 10.) Problems: 2,3,6,13,16,18,21,30,31,33

Acid-Base Equilibria (Chapter 10.) Problems: 2,3,6,13,16,18,21,30,31,33 Acid-Base Equilibria (Chapter 10.) Problems: 2,3,6,13,16,18,21,30,31,33 Review acid-base theory and titrations. For all titrations, at the equivalence point, the two reactants have completely reacted with

More information

Chapter 8 Acid-Base Equilibria

Chapter 8 Acid-Base Equilibria Chapter 8 Acid-Base Equilibria 8-1 Brønsted-Lowry Acids and Bases 8-2 Water and the ph Scale 8-3 The Strengths of Acids and Bases 8-4 Equilibria Involving Weak Acids and Bases 8-5 Buffer Solutions 8-6

More information

CHAPTER 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA

CHAPTER 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA CHAPTER 16 ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIA AND SOLUBILITY EQUILIBRIA 16.3 (a) This is a weak acid problem. Setting up the standard equilibrium table: CH 3 COOH(aq) H + (aq) + CH 3 COO (aq) Initial (M): 0.40 0.00

More information

Chapter 16. Solubility and Complex Ion Equilibria

Chapter 16. Solubility and Complex Ion Equilibria Chapter 16 Solubility and Complex Ion Equilibria Section 16.1 Solubility Equilibria and the Solubility Product Solubility Equilibria Solubility product (K sp ) equilibrium constant; has only one value

More information

HW 16-10: Review from textbook (p.725 #84, 87, 88(mod), 89, 95, 98, 101, 102, 110, 113, 115, 118, 120, SG#23,A)

HW 16-10: Review from textbook (p.725 #84, 87, 88(mod), 89, 95, 98, 101, 102, 110, 113, 115, 118, 120, SG#23,A) HW 6: Review from textbook (p.75 #84, 87, 88(mod), 89, 95, 98,,,, 3, 5, 8,, SG#3,A) 6.84 The pk a of the indicator methyl orange is 3.46. Over what ph range does this indicator change from 9 percent HIn

More information

ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor

ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor ph calculations MUDr. Jan Pláteník, PhD Brønsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases Acid is a proton donor Base is a proton acceptor HCl(aq) + H 2 O(l) H 3 O + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Acid Base Conjugate acid Conjugate

More information

CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY: Electrolyte-a compound that conducts electricity in the melt or in solution (water)

CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY: Electrolyte-a compound that conducts electricity in the melt or in solution (water) CHAPTER 4 AQUEOUS REACTIONS AND SOLUTION STOICHIOMETRY: Electrolyte-a compound that conducts electricity in the melt or in solution (water) STRONG ELEC. 100% Dissoc. WEAK ELEC..1-10% Dissoc. NON ELEC 0%

More information