# Astronomy (Geology 360, Physics 360) take-home test. There is no class on Monday March 16th

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1 Astronomy (Geology 360, Physics 360) take-home test. Reminder: Test must be answered on a ScanTron sheet. Be sure to use a No. 2 pencil. Be sure to "bubble in" your name and Student ID on the ScanTron sheet. If you do not have a ScanTron sheet they are available in the Physics Office (S-165). Test is to be returned at the beginning of Class on March 18th. There is no class on Monday March 16th since I will be away. You may keep this exam. It will also be posted on the Web Page. Questions 1-50 Multiple Choice. There is only one correct answer for each question. 1 pt apiece Questions Problems - Multiple Choice. 2 pts apiece.

2 1. What is the approximate critical mass of a rock to give itself a round shape eventually? a. 1 million kilometer b kilometer c. 350 kilometer d. 35 kilometer e. 5 kilometer 2. Why is the Earth's inner core solid? a. Due to extremely high temperature b. Due to tremendous pressure of overlying material c. Due to the spinning of the Earth d. Due to orbital motion of the Earth 3. What is the approximate age of the Earth? a years b years c. 1000,000 years d. 4.6 million years e. 4.6 billion years 4. Van Allen belts exist in the Earth's. a. Troposphere b. Core c. Mantle d. Magnetosphere 5. In about 14,000 A.D., the North Pole of the Earth will point at star. a. Polaris b. Antares c. Vega d. Thuban 6. Scientists refer to the Earth as a differentiated planet because. a. The temperature in the core is higher than the temperature on the surface b. The material in the interior of the Earth is separated by density c. Iron is more dense than silicate material d. The Earth's structure is different from the other planets 7. The shift of the Earth's plates due to tectonic motion is typically in the order of. a. A few hundred meters per year b. A few centimeters per year c. A few centimeters per century

3 8. The -type seismic waves can travel through liquids. The -type seismic waves can travel through solids only. a. S; P b. S; S c. P; S d. P; P 9. Which of the following statements about eclipses is true? a. A total solar eclipse is visible from any location on the day-side of the Earth b. A partial solar eclipse happens every month, but not the total solar eclipse c. A lunar eclipse is visible from any location on the night-side of the Earth d. All of the above 10. At totality during the lunar eclipse, the Moon generally appears in color. a. Bluish b. Yellowish c. Greenish d. Reddish 11. What is the maximum number of eclipses that can occur in a year? a. 2 (one solar and one lunar) b. 4 (two solar and two lunar) c. 7 (five solar and two lunar) d. 7 (four solar and three lunar) e. C or D. 12. Eclipses generally occur in pairs, with a solar eclipse about before or after a lunar eclipse. a. A day b. A week c. Two weeks d. A month e. Two months 13.. An annular solar eclipse occurs a. When the Moon in its orbit is farthest from the Earth, and, so not able to cover the complete disk of the Sun b. When the Moon in its orbit is closest to the Earth, and, so not able to cover the complete disk of the Sun c. Every year when the Sun is highest in the sky d. None of the above

4 14. When our Earth would become tidally locked with the Moon, which of the following statements will be true? a. The Moon will always be visible only from one side of the Earth b. There will be no eclipses c. The Moon will not go through phases d. An astronaut on the Moon would see only one side of the Earth e. Both A and D 15. The Moon rotates exactly once each time it orbits the Earth. Because of this a. The Moon does not have any atmosphere b. The Moon's magnetic field has vanished c. We always see only one side of the Moon d. You will always see only one side of the Earth if you stand on the Moon 16. The spring tides occur in spring seasons and the neap tides in autumn. a. True b. False 17. How many stars are there in our Solar System? a. One b. A few hundred c. About ten million d. About 200 billion 18. The farthest planet of our Solar System is. a. Mars b. Venus c. Jupiter d. Neptune e. Pluto 19. Which planets have density similar to that of the Earth's? a. Mars and Mercury b. Jupiter and Saturn c. Uranus and Neptune d. Both B and C 20. A spherical region that surrounds the Solar System and extends up to about 100,000 AU from the Sun is called a(n) a. Asteroid belt b. Kuiper belt c. Interstellar matter d. Oort cloud

5 21. Which property of the solar nebula was the most influential in giving the planets their characteristics? a. Mass b. Pressure c. Volume d. Temperature 22. Which of the following explains the rocky nature of the inner planets? a. The lighter elements (hydrogen and helium) were sucked in by the Sun's gravity b. The Sun's gravity attracted the rocks to the inner part of the solar system c. Only the rocky material could condense at the higher temperatures of the inner part of the solar nebula d. As the solar nebula was spinning, the light gasses were tossed to the outer parts of the disk 23. According to the nebular hypothesis, which of the following sequences of events are chronologically correct? a. Solar nebula, interstellar cloud, collisions between planetesimals, accretion, planets c. Interstellar cloud, solar nebula, accretion, collisions between planetesimals, planets c. Interstellar cloud, accretion, solar nebula, collisions between planetesimals, planets d. Accretion, solar nebula, interstellar cloud, collisions between planets, planetesimals 24. Why was the recent discovery that planets more massive than Jupiter orbit near-by stars in small orbits surprising? a. Because according to the nebular hypothesis, massive planets should only form away from their star b. The density of these planets is very high c. According to the nebular hypothesis, planets cannot be larger than Jupiter d. The orbits of these planets are very inclined 25. On which planet does plate tectonics take place? a. Mercury b. Venus c. Earth d. Mars 26. Which one is the hottest planet? a. Mercury, because it is closest to the Sun b. Venus, because of the strong greenhouse effect c. Earth, because of the global warming d. Mars, because of the thin atmosphere and volcanoes in the past 27. Which planet has the greenhouse effect? a. Mercury b. Venus c. Earth d. Mars e. Both B and C

6 28. What is the relation between the mass and surface activity of a terrestrial planet? a. The least massive planet is the least active planet b. The least massive planet is the most active planet c. The least massive planet has the oldest surface d. There is no relation between a planet's mass and activity e. Both A and C 29. Which planet shows the largest variation of day and night temperatures? a. Mercury b. Venus c. Earth d. Mars e. Both A and B 30. Which of the following statements correctly compares the terrestrial planets? a. Venus has the densest atmosphere and the highest average temperature b. Earth is the only planet that has active plate tectonics and surface water c. Mercury is the planet with the thinnest atmosphere and the smallest size d. All of the above e. A and C are correct 31. The Valles Marineris is. a. An old riverbed b. A 5000-km canyon c. A long scarp 32. The 2:3 resonance between the orbital and spin periods of Mercury implies that the planet completes 2 orbits around the Sun in 3 solar days. a. True b. False 33. In 2005, the Cassini spacecraft landed the probe named Huygens into Titan's atmosphere and found a. No oceans b. Lakes near the polar regions c. Dunes of ice crystals d. Ice volcano e. All of the above 34. What type of dunes exists on Titan? a. Sand dunes b. Dust dunes c. Ice crystal dunes d. We have not discovered any dunes on Titan

7 35. Of all the satellites (moons) in the Solar System, comes closest in size to its parent planet. a. Ganymede b. Charon c. The Moon d. Titan 36. Which satellite near its poles has lakes of liquid methane? a. Ganymede b. Io c. Miranda d. Triton e. Titan 37. Which of the following are dwarf planets? a. Uranus and Neptune b. Neptune and Pluto c. Pluto and Eris d. Eris and Uranus e. Mercury and Eris 38. The Voyager missions provided a wealth of information on the surface features of the major satellites of Saturn. Yet, the surface structure of Saturn's largest satellite, Titan, is not known. What is the reason? a. The Voyager missions did not photograph Titan b. Titan does not have any surface features c. Titan is covered by clouds that obstruct the view of the surface d. Titan is very far from the Sun, therefore the light is inadequate to distinguish any features 39. Uranus completes an orbit around the Sun every 84 years and spins once every 17 hours, approximately. Which of the following could be observed from the planet Uranus? a. Season cycle of 84 years near the poles b. One sunrise every 17 hours on the equator c. Days lasting several years near the pole tipped toward the Sun d. Nights lasting several years near the pole tipped away from the Sun e. All of the above 40. What was the significance of the discovery that Charon occasionally eclipses Pluto? a. It showed that eclipses occur in other parts of the solar system b. It allowed astronomers to determine size of Pluto and Charon more accurately c. It allowed astronomers to image surface features of Pluto d. Both B and C

8 41. Which of the following is a common characteristic of the Jovian planets? a. Mostly composed of hydrogen and helium b. Thick atmosphere c. Lack of solid surface d. Ring systems and satellites e. All of the above 42. Why do astronomers believe that the Jovian planets must contain rocky material in their cores? a. Because silicates and irons were part of the overall composition of the solar nebula b. Because the Jovian planets have large magnetic fields c. Because the Jovian planets have large gravity d. The statement of the question is incorrect. Astronomers believe that the Jovian planets consist exclusively of hydrogen and helium 43.. The fragments that do not completely burn in the atmosphere and eventually fall on the Earth are called a. Meteoroids b. Meteorites c. Meteors d. Asteroids e. Shooting stars 44. Comets belong to the a. Asteroid belt b. Kuiper belt c. Oort cloud d. Both A and B e. Both B and C 45. Planet creates the gaps in the asteroid belt called Kirkwood gaps. a. Jupiter b. Mars c. Earth d. Saturn 46. The short-period comets belong to and the long-period comets belong to. a. Kuiper belt; Oort cloud b. Oort cloud; Kuiper belt c. Kuiper belt; asteroid belt d. Asteroid belt; Kuiper belt 47. Meteor showers are generally named a. After the Greek Gods and Goddesses b. After the constellation from which they appear to diverge c. After the comet to which they belong d. After the planet from which they seem to come to the Earth

9 48. The Leonid meteor shower occurs in mid November. Which of the following statements regarding the Leonids is true? a. The radiant of the meteor shower is in the constellation of Leo b. The shower occurs when the Earth crosses the path of an old comet c. The particles of the shower originate from the breakup of comet Leon R d. Both B and C e. Both A and B 49. Halley's comet orbits the Sun approximately every 76 years. The planet Uranus orbits the Sun every 84 years at an average distance of 19 AU. Which of the statements regarding the orbit of Halley's comet is correct? a. According to Kepler's third law, the semi-major axis of Halley's comet is 18 AU b. Halley's comet remains within Uranus' orbit at all times c. The orbit of Halley's comet is very elliptical, therefore it can travel much farther from the Sun than Uranus, but on the average is closer to the Sun than Uranus d. Both A and C e. None of the above 50. Chondritic meteorites provide important clues because they are believed to. a. Contain grains from the first material that condensed out of the solar nebula b. Contain many rare metals c. Have come from the asteroids belt d. Have landed in the very distant past Problems (2 pts apiece) 51. A lunar crater has an angular diameter of 2 minutes of arc. What is its diameter in kilometers? (distance Earth Moon is x 10 3 km a. 112 km b. 112 m c. 223 km d km 52. Calculate the density of Venus given the following data: The mass and radius of Venus are 4.87 x g and 6051 kilometers, respectively. a. 5.2 g/cm 3 b g/km 3 c g/ cm 3 d g/km At what distance beyond Pluto does Bode's law predict the next planet should be. a AU b km c AU d parsecs

10 54. Pluto's orbital period is close to times Neptune's orbital period. a. 2 1/2 b. 3 c. 1 1/2 d Use Kepler's third law to find the semi-major axis of Halley's comet given that the orbital period is 76 years. a AU b. 7.6 AU c. 663 AU d. Insufficient Data

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