# COORDINATE GEOMETRY BASIC CONCEPTS AND FORMULAE. To find the length of a line segment joining two points A(x 1, y 1 ) and B(x 2, y 2 ), use

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1 COORDINATE GEOMETRY BASIC CONCEPTS AND FORMULAE I. Length of a Line Segment: The distance between two points A ( x1, 1 ) B ( x, ) is given b A B = ( x x1) ( 1) To find the length of a line segment joining two points A(x 1, 1 ) and B(x, ), use the formula: B(x 1, 1 ) AB = (x x ) + ( ) A (x 1, 1 ) II. Gradient of a Straight Line: 1. The gradient of a straight line is a measure of its steepness or slope.. The gradient is the ratio of the vertical distance (the rise) to the horizontal distance (the run). Gradient = 3.To find the gradient m, of the line passing through two points. A (x 1, 1 ) and B (x, ), use the formula: m = ( ) ( )

2 4. The gradients of some straight lines are given below. (a) (b) 0 x 0 x A line sloping upwards to the right has a positive gradient A line sloping upwards to the left has a negative gradient. (c) (d) 0 x 0 x The gradient of a horizontal line parallel to the x-axis is zero. The gradient of a horizontal line parallel to the -axis is undefined. 5. When three or more points lie on the same straight line, the are collinear. Three points A, B and C are collinear if Gradient of AB = Gradient of BC = Gradient of AC 0 x

3 III. EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE 1. To find the equation of a straight line, using the formula: = mx + c.the equation of a straight line that is parallel to the x-axis is given b = a where a is the - intercept. = a = 0 is the equation of the x-axis. a 0 x 3.The equation of a straight line that is parallel to eh -axis is given b x = a where a is the x- intercept. x = 0 is the equation of the -axis x = a 0 x 4. The distance of a point ( x, ) from the origin ( 0, 0 ) is ( x ). 5. The coordinates of a point on x axis is taken as ( x, 0 ) while on axis it is taken as ( 0, ) respectivel.

4 6. SECTION FORMULA: The coordinates of the point P ( x, ) which divides the line segment joining A (x1, 1 ) and B ( x, ) internall in the ratio m : n are given b x = mx nx m n 1 m n m n 1 7. MID POINT FORMULA: Coordinates of mid point of A B, where A ( x1, 1 ) and B ( x, ) are x1 x, 1 8. CENTROID OF A TRIANGLE AND ITS COORDINATES: The medians of a triangle are concurrent. Their point of concurrence is called the centroid. It divides each median in the ratio : 1. The coordinates of centroid of a triangle with vertices A ( x1, 1 ),B ( x, ) and C ( x3, 3 ) are given b x x 3 1 x3, The area of the triangle formed b the points ( x1, 1 ),( x, ) and ( x3, 3 )is given Δ = [ x1 ( 3 ) +x ( 3 1 ) + x3 ( 1 ) ] Example1: Find the distance between the points (a) P (,5) and Q (6, 8) (b) R (-1, 3) and S (7, -4)

5 Solution: (a) PQ = (6 ) + (8 5 ) (4 ) + (3 ) 5 5 units (b) RS = [7 ( 1)] + ( 4 3 ) (8) + ( 3 ) units Example: The distance between the points A (0a,-3) and B (a+1, -1) is units. Find the possible values of a. Solution: AB = 13 units [(a+ 1) 0a)] + [ 1 ( 3)] = 13 (1-a) + = a + a + 4 = 13 a a 8 = 0 (a+) (a 4) = 0 a + = 0 or a 4= 0 a = - or a = 4 Example3: (a) Find the gradient of the line joining the points P(, 5) and Q(4, 9)

6 (b) Find the value of p if te line joining the points R(-3, p) and S(p, 8) has a gradient of. Solution: (a) Gradient of PQ = (b) Gradient of RS = Example4: = ( = ) = = 8 - p = (p + 3) 8 - p = 4p + 6 5p = P = Find the gradient of the line joining the points (a) A (5, 9) and B(5, -4), (b) C(10, -3) and D(18, -3) Solution: Multipl both sides b p + 3 (a) (b) Gradient of AB = = - = undefined Gradient of CD = = = 0 ( )

7 Example5: Given the gradient,m and the -intercept, c. Find the equation of the straight line (a) That passes through the point (0, 8) and has a gradient of 3. (b) That passes through the origin and has a gradient of - Solution: (a) m = 3, c = 8 (b) m = -, c= 0 Equation of line: = 3x + 8 Equation of line = -x + 0 Y = -x Use = mx + c Use = mx + c Example6: Given the gradient, m and a point (x 1, 1 ) Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the point (4, 6) and has a gradient of 3. Solution: m = 3, (4, 6) equation of line : = 3x + c at (4, 6), 6 = 3 (4) + c 6 = 1 + c C = -6 = 3x 6

8 Example7: Given two points, (x 1, 1 ) and (x, ) Find the equation of the straight line that passes through the points A(3, -1) and B (5, 7). Solution: A (3, -1), B (5, 7) m = = = 4 ( ) Equation of line: = 4x + c At (3, -1), -1 = 4(3) + c -1 = 1 + c C = -13 = 4x - 13 Example8: In the diagram, A is the point (0, 6) and D is the point (1, -4). The point B lies on the x-axis. The straight line AB produced meets the horizontal line CD at C. (a) Find the equation of AD (b) Find the equation of CD. (c) Given the equation of the line AB is - 3x = 1 i) Find the gradient of the line AB, ii) The coordinates of B and C iii) The length of BC iv) The equation of the straight line l which has the same gradient as the line AB and passes through the point D.

9 A (0,6) B 0 x C D (1, -4) Solution: (a) A = (0, 6), D = (1, -4) Gradient of AD = = = Equation of AD: = x + 6 (b) Equation of CD : = -4 Tip for Students: The equation of a straight line that is parallel to the x-axis is in the form where a is the - intercept.

10 = a = a a 0 x (c) (i) x = 1 = 3x + 1 = x + 6 = 1 x + 6 gradient of AB = 1 (ii) = 1 x + 6 At the x- axis, = 0 0 = 1 x x = - 6 x = = x = - 4 B = (- 4, 0) At the point C, = -4-4 = 1 x x = - 10 x = = - 6 C = (- 6, - 4)

11 (iii) B = (- 4, 0), C = (- 6,- 4) BC = [ 6, ( 4)] + ( 4 0 ) = ( ) + ( 4 ) = 3 = 4.81 units (iv) Gradient of l = Gradient of AB = 1 Equation of l : = 1 x + c At the point D (1, -4), - 4 = 1 (1) + c Example10: - 4 = 18 + c C = - = 1 x - A straight line l passes through the point (1, 10) and has gradient. (a) Write down the equation of the line l. (b) Given that the straight line l also passes through the point (k, 3k + 3), find the value of k. (c) The straight line l intersects the x-axis at the point P and the -axis at the point Q. find the coordinates of P and Q. (d) Find the length of PQ. (e) Find the perpendicular distance from the origin to the line l. Solution: (a) Equation of l: = x + c

12 At (1, 10), 10 = (1) + c C = 8 = x + 8 (b) Since the point (k, 3k + 3) lies on the line = x + 8, the coordinates (k, 3k + 3) must satisf the equation. Substitute (k, 3k + 3) into = x + 8, 3k + 3 = (k) + 8 3k - k = 8 3 k = 5 (c) = x + 8 At the x-axis, = 0, 0 = x + 8 x = -8 x = -4 P = (-4, 0) = x + 8 intercept = 8 Q = (0, 8) Use = mx + c Where m = gradient (d) P = (-4, 0), Q (0, 8) PQ = [0 ( 4)] + (8 0) = (4) + (8) = 80 = 8.94 units And c = intercept. EXAMPLE11: 1. Show that points A(-3, 5) B(3, 1), C (0, 3) and D (-1, -4) do not form a quadrilateral.

13 Solution: AB = (3 + 3) + (1 5) = 5 = 13 BC = (0 3) + (3 1) = = 13 CA = ( 3 0) + (5 3) = = 13 Then, AB = BC + CA = + The points A, B, C lie on a line. It means collinear and hence A, B,C,D do not form a quadrilateral. EXAMPLE1:. The vertices of a triangle are (1, k) (4, -3) and (-9,7), if the area of the triangle is 4 sq. units then find value of k. Solution: B given data: Area of triangle = 4 Sq. units 1 k 4-3 = k

14 (-3-4k) + (8 7) + (-9k 7) = k + 1 9k 7 = 48-13k 9 = 30-13k 9 = ±48-13 k 9 = 48 or -13 k 9 = k = 57 or -13k = - 39 k = or k = 3 EXAMPLE13: 3. Points P, Q, R and S in that order divides line segment joining points A(, 5) and B(7, -5) in five equal parts. Find the co-ordinates of P, Q, R, and S. Solution: Clearl, point Q(x, ) divide the line segment AB in ratio : 3 x = and = ( ) x = = 4 and = = 1 Coordinates of point Q are (4, 1) Point R divides AB in ratio 3 : B section formula, x = = = = 5 = ( ) Coordinates of point R are (5, -1) = = = -1 Now, P is mid point of line segment AQ

15 Coordinates of point P are (, ) i.e., P( 3, 3) S is the mid point of the line segment RB Coordinates of point S are (, ) i.e., S (6, -3) EXAMPLE14: 4. Find the coordinates of point P on AB such that = where A (3, 1) and B (-, 5) Solution: B given data = PA : PB = 3 : 4 Let P (x, ) divide the line segment AB. B section formula, x = ( ) and = i.e., x = = and = = co-ordinates of point P are (, )

16 TYPICAL PROBLEMS TYPE A : PROBLEMS BASED ON DISTANCE FORMULA: 1. Find the distance between the following pairs of points : i) ( - 5, 7 ), ( -1, 3 ) ii) (a, b ), ( -a, -b ) i) Let two given points be A ( - 5, 7 ) and B ( -1, 3 ). Thus, we have x1 = -5 and x = -1 1 = 7, and = 3 A B = ( x x1) ( 1) A B = ( 1 5) (3 7) = ( 4) ( 4) = = 3 = 4 ii) Let two given points be A ( a, b ) and B ( -a, -b ) Hear, x1 = a and x = -a 1 = b, and = -b A B = ( x x1) ( 1)

17 A B = = ( a a) ( b b ( a) ( b ) ) = 4 b a 4 = a b.. Determine the points ( 1,5 ), (, 3 ) and ( -, -11 ) are collinear. Let A ( 1, 5 ), B (, 3 ) C ( -, -11 ) be given points. then, we have A B = BC = A C = Clearl, ( 1) (3 5) = 4 ( 1 = 5 ) ( 11 3) = 196 ( 1) ( 11 5) = 56 AB + BC AC 16 = 4X 53 = 53 9 = 65 A, B and C are not collinear. 3. Check whether ( 5, - ), ( 6, 4 ) and ( 7, - ) are the vertices of an isosceles triangle. Let A ( 5, - ), B ( 6, 4 ) and C ( 7, - ) be the vertices of a triangle. Then, we have

18 A B = BC = A C = ( 6 5) (4 ) = 36 ( 7 6) ( 4) = 36 ( 1 = 37 A ( 5, - ) 1 = 37 1) ( 11 5) = 4 = Here, AB = BC B ( 6, 4 ) C ( 7, - ) Δ ABC is an isosceles triangle. 4. Name the tpe of quadrilateral formed, if an, b the following points, and give reasons for our answer : i) ( -1, -), (1, 0 ), ( -1, ), ( -3,0 ) ii) ( 4, 5 ), ( 7, 6 ), ( 4, 3 ), ( 1, ) i) Let A( -1, -), B(1, 0 ), C( -1, ), D( -3,0 ) be the four given points. Then, using distance formula, we have A B = ( 1 1) (0 ) = 4 4 = 8 = B C = ( 11) (0 ) = 4 4 = 8 = C D = ( 31) (0 ) = 4 4 = 8 =

19 D A = ( 1 3) ( 0) = 4 4 = 8 = AC = And B D = ( 11) ( ) = 16 ( 0 = 4 31) (0 0) = 16 = 4 Hence, four sides of quadrilateral are equal and diagonal AC and BD are also equal. Quadrilateral ABCD is square. ii) Let A ( 4, 5 ), B ( 7, 6 ), C ( 4, 3 ), and D ( 1, ) be the four given points. Then, using distance formula, we have A B = B C = C D = ( 7 4) (6 5) = 1 ( 4 7) (3 6) = 9 ( 1 4) ( 3) = 1 9 = 10 9 = 18 = 3 9 = 10 D A = AC = And B D = ( 4 1) (5 ) = 9 ( 4 4) (3 5) = 4 ( 1 9 = 18 = 0 = 7) ( 6) = = 5 = 13 Clearl, AB = CD, BC = DA and AC BD

20 ABCD is a parallelogram. 5. Find the point on the x axis which is equidistant from (,-5 ) and ( -, 9 ). Let P ( x, 0 ) be an point on x - axis. Now, P ( x, 0 ) is equidistant from point A (, -5 ) and B ( -, 9 ) AP = BP ( x ) (0 5) = ( x ) (0 9) Squaring both sides, we have ( x ) + 5 = ( x + ) + 81 x + 4 4x + 5 = x x x = 56 x = = -7 The point on the x axis equidistant from given point is ( - 7, 0) 6. Find the relation between x and such that the point ( x, ) is equidistant from the point ( 3, 6 ) and ( -3, 4 ) Let P ( x, ) be equidistant from the points A ( 3, 6 ) and B ( -3, 4 ) i.e., PA = PB

21 Squaring both sides, we get AP = BP ( x - 3 ) + ( 6 ) = ( x + 3 ) + ( 4 ) x 6x = x + 6x x = 0 3x + 5 = 0 7. Find the relation between x and if the point ( x, ), ( 1, ) and ( 7, 0 ) are collinear. Given points are A ( x, ), B ( 1, ) and C ( 7, 0 ) These points will be collinear onl if the area of the triangle formed b them is zero, i.e. Area of ( Δ ABC ) = [ x1 ( 3 ) + x ( 3 1 ) + x3 ( 1 ) 1 ] 0 = [ x ( 0 ) + 1 ( 0 ) + 7 ( ) ] x = 0 x + 3 = 7 TYPE B : PROBLEMS BASED ON DISTANCE FORMULA: 1. Find the coordinates of the point which divides the join of ( -1, 7 ) and ( 4, -3 ) in the ratio : 3.

22 Let ( x, ) be the required point. Thus, we have x = m1x mx m m 1 1 Therefore, x = ( ) = = = 1 P ( x, ) 3 A (-1, 7) B (4,-3) And, = = m1 m m m 1 ( ) 1 = = = 3 So, the coordinates of Pare (1, 3).. Find the coordinates of the points of trisection of the line segment joining ( 4, -1 ) and (-, -3). Let the given points A ( 4, -1 ) and B ( -, -3 ) and points of trisection be P and Q. Let AP = PQ = QB = k PB = PQ + QB = k + k = k AP : PB = k : k = 1 : Therefore, coordinates of P are, =,

23 Now AQ = AP + PQ = k + k = k AQ : QB = k : k = : 1 And, coordinates of Q are Therefore, coordinates of P are, =, Hence, points of trisection are =, and 3. Find the ratio in which the line segment joining A ( 1, -5 ) and B ( - 4, 5 ) is divided b the x - axis. Also find the coordinates of the point of division. Let the required ratio be k : 1. Then co-ordinates of the point of division is P =, Since, this point lies on x-axis. Then, its -coordinate is zero. i.e. = 0 5k 5 = 0 5k = 5 k = = 0

24 Thus, the required ratio is 1 : 1 and the point of division is P =, ie., P =, 0 4. If ( 1, ), ( 4, ), ( x, 6 ) and ( 3, 5 ) are the vertices of a parallelogram taken in order. Find x and. Let A( 1, ), B ( 4, ),C ( x, 6 ) and D( 3, 5 )be the vertices of a parallelogram ABCD. Since, the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other. D (3,5) C (x,6), =, A (1,) P B (4,) = x + 1 = 7 x = 6 And, 4 = 5 + = 8 = 8-5 = 3 Hence, x = 6 and = 8-5 = 3 5. Find the coordinates of a point A, where AB is the diameter of a circle whose

25 center is (, -3 ) and B is ( 1, 4 ). C.(,-3) Let the coordinates of A be ( x, ). Now, C is the center of circle therefore, the coordinates of C =, but coordinates of C are given (, -3 ). A(x,) C (,-3) B(1,4) = x + 1 = 4 x = 3 And, = = = - 6 = - 10 Hence, coordinates of A ( 3, -10 ). 6. If A and B are ( -, - ) and (, -4 ), respectivel, find the coordinates of P such that AP = AB and P lies on the line segment AB. We have, AP = AB A ( -, - ) P B (, -4 )

26 = = = + = 1 + = = - 1 = = AP : PB = 3 : 4 Let P ( x, ) be the point which divides the join of (-, -) and B(, -4 ) in the ratio 3 : 4 x = = = = = = Hence, the coordinates of the point P are, 7. Find the coordinates of the points which divide the line segment joining A (-, ) and B (, 8 ) into four equal parts.

27 Let P, Q, R be the points hat divide the line segment joining A ( -, ) and B (, 8 ) into four equal parts. Since, Q divides the line segment AB into two equal parts i.e., Q is mid-point of AB. Coordinates of Q are, i.e., ( 0, 5 ) Now, P divides AQ into two equal parts i.e., P is the mid-point of AQ. Coordinates of P are, i.e., A (-, ) P Q R B (, 8) Again, R is the mid point of QB. Coordinates of R are, i.e., Find the area of a rhombus if its vertices are ( 3, 0 ), ( 4, 5 ), ( -1, 4 ) and ( -, -1 )

28 taken in order. Let A ( 3, 0 ), B ( 4, 5 ), C ( -1, 4 ) and D ( -, -1 ) be the vertices of a rhombus, Therefore, its diagonals AC = ( 13) (4 0) = = 3 = 4 BD = ( 4) ( 1 5) = = 7 = 6 Area of rhombus ABCD = X ( Product of length of diagonals ) = X AC X BD = X 4 X 6 = 4 sq.units. TYPE C : PROBLEMS BASED ON AREA OF TRIANGLE: 1. Find the area of the triangle whose vertices are : ( -5,-1 ), ( 3, -5 ), ( 5, ) Let A ( x1, 1 ) = ( -5, -1 )

29 B ( x, ) = ( 3, -5 ) C ( x3, 3 ) = ( 5, ) Area of Δ ABCD = X [x1( 3 ) +x ( 3 1 ) + x3 ( 1 ) ] = X [ -5 ( -5 - ) + 3 ( + 1 ) + 5 ( ) ] = X ( ) = X 64 = 3 sq. units.. Find the value of k, for which the points are collinear ( 7, - ), ( 5, 1 ), ( 3, k ). Let the given points be A ( x1, 1 ) = ( 7, - ) B ( x, ) = ( 5, 1 ) C ( x3, 3 ) = ( 3, k ) Since these points are collinear therefore area (Δ ABC ) [ x1 ( 3 ) +x ( 3 1 ) + x3 ( 1 ) ] = 0 x1 ( 3 ) +x ( 3 1 ) + x3 ( 1 ) = 0 7 ( 1 k ) + 5 ( k + ) + 3 ( - -1 ) = k = 0

30 - k + 8 = 0 k = 8 k = 4 Hence, given points are collinear for k = 4 3. Find the area of the triangle formed b joining the mid-points of the sides of the triangle whose vertices are ( 0, -1 ), (,1 ) and ( 0,3 ). Find the ratio of this area of the given triangle. Let A ( x1, 1 ) = ( 0, -1 ) B ( x, ) = (, 1 ) C ( x3, 3 ) = ( 0, 3 ) Be the vertices of Δ ABC. Now, let P, Q, R be the mid-points of BC, CA and AB respectivel. So coordinates of P, Q, R are A ( 0, -1 ) R (1,0) Q(0,1) P =, = ( 1, ) Q =, = (0, 1 ) ) B(,1) P(1,) C (0,3)

31 R =, = (1, 0 ) Therefore, Area of ( Δ PQR ) = [ 1 ( 1 0 ) + 0 ( 0 ) + 1 ( 1 ) ] = 0 = ( 1 + 1) = 1 sq. units Now, Area of ( Δ ABC ) = [ 0 ( 1 3 ) + ( ) + 0 ( ) ] = [ 0 X ] = =4 sq. units Ratio of area ( Δ PQR ) to the area ( Δ ABC ) = 1 : A median of a triangle divides it into two triangles of equal areas. Verif this results for Δ ABC whose vertices are A ( 4, -6 ), B ( 3,- ) and C ( 5, ). Since AD is the median of Δ ABC, therefore, D is the mid-point of BC. Coordinates of D are, i.e., ( 4, 0 ) Now, Area of ( Δ ABD ) = [4 ( - 0 ) + 3 ( ) + 4 ( )] = ( ) = X ( - 6 ) = - 3

32 Since area is a measure, which cannot be negative. Therefore, ar ( Δ ABD ) = 3 sq. units And, Area of ( Δ ADC ) = [ 4 ( 0 ) + 4 ( + 6 ) + 5 ( ) ] = ( ) = X ( - 6 ) = - 3 area of ( Δ ADC ) = 3 sq. units A (4, -6) Hence, area (Δ ABD ) = area ( Δ ADC ) B (3,-) C (5,) Hence, the median divides it into two triangles of equal areas. (HIGHER ORDER THINKING SKILLS PROBLEMS) 1. Prove that the diagonals of a rectangle bisect each other and are equal. Let OACB be a rectangle such that OA is along x - axis and ob is along - axis. Let OA = a and OB =b Then, the coordinates of A and B are ( a, 0 ) and ( 0, b ) respectivel.

33 Since, OACB is a rectangle. Therefore, AC = 0B AC = b B(0,b) C(a,b) Thus, we have x' ' x OA = a O (0,0) A(a,0) BC = a So, the coordinates of C are ( a, b ). The coordinates of the mid-points of OC are, =, Also, the coordinates of the mid-points of AB are, =, Clearl, coordinates of the mid-points of AB are same. Hence, OC and AB bisect each other. Also, OC = a b and BD = ( a b 0) (0 ) = a b OC = AB. In what ratio does the - axis divide the line segment joining the point P ( -4, 5 ) and Q ( 3, - 7)? Also, find the coordinates of the point of intersection.

34 Suppose - axis divides PQ in the ratio k : 1. P (-4,5) Y Then, the coordinates of the point of division are R =, k O Since, R lies on - axis and x - coordinate of ever X' X Point on - axis is zero. R = 0 1 3k 4 = 0 k = Y' Q(3,- 7) Hence, the required ratio is : 1 i.e. 4 : 3. Putting k = 4/3 in the coordinates of R, we find its coordinates are 0,. 3. The line joining the points (, 1 ) and ( 5, -8 ) is trisected b the points P and Q. If the point P lies on the line x + k = 0, find the value of k.

35 As line segment AB is trisected b the points P and Q. Therefore, Case I : When AP : PB = 1 :. Coordinates of P are 1X 5 X 1X 8 1X, 1 1 P ( 3, - ) Since the point P ( 3,- ) lies on the line 1 X 4 - ( -5 ) + k = 0 A(,1) P Q B(5,-8) k = - 13 x + k = 0 x + k = 0 X 3 - ( - ) + k = 0 k = - 8 Case II : When AP : PB = : 1. Coordinates of point P are X 5 1X X 8 1X1, 1 1 Since the point P ( 4,-5 ) lies on the line x + k = 0 1 X 4 - ( -5 ) + k = 0 A(,1) Q P B(5,-8) k = - 13 x + k = 0

36 4. If the coordinates of the mid-points of the sides of the triangle are ( 1, 1 ), (, -3 ) and ( 3, 4 ). Find the Centroid of the triangle. Let P ( 1, 1 ), Q (, -3 ), R ( 3, 4 ) be the mid-points of sides A(x1, 1) AB, BC and CA respectivel of rectangle ABC. P(1,1) R(3,4) Let A ( x1, 1 ), B ( x, ) and C ( x3, 3 ) be the vertices of triangle ABC. B(x, ) Q(,-3), C(x3, 3) Then, P is the mid-point of AB. x1 x = 1, 1 = 1 x1 + x = and ( i ) Q is the mid-point of BC. x x 3 = 1, 3 = - 3 x + x3 = 4 and + 3 = ( ii ) R is the mid-point of AC. x1 + x3 = 6 and = ( iii )

37 x1 x 3 = 3, 1 3 = 4 From ( i ), ( ii ) and( iii ), we get x1 + x + x + x3 + x1 + x3 = and = x 1 x x3, ( iv) The coordinates of the centroid of ABC are x 1 x x3, 1 3 =, =, [ Using equation ( iv ) 5.Find the center of a circle passing through the points ( 6, -6 ), ( 3, -7 ) and ( 3, 3 ). Let O ( x, ) be the center of circle. Given points are A ( 6, -6 ), B ( 3, -7 ) and C ( 3, 3 ). Then, O A = O B = And, O A = ( x 6) ( ( x 3) ( ( x 3) ( 6) 7) 3)

38 Since each point on the circle is equidistant from center. OA = OB = OC = Radius Since OA = OB ( x 6) ( 6) = ( x 3) ( 7) Squaring both side ( x 6 ) + ( + 6 ) = ( x - 3 ) + ( + 7 ) x 1x = x 6x Or - 6x = -14 Or 3x + = 7 Similarl, OB = OC ( x 3) ( 7) = ( x 3) ( 3) Squaring both side, we get ( x 3 ) + ( + 7 ) = ( x - 3 ) + ( 3 ) ( + 7 ) = ( - 3 )

39 = = - Hence, the coordinates of the center of circle are ( 3, - ) 6. Determine the ratio in which the line x + 4 = 0 divides the line segment joining the points A (, - ) and B ( 3, 7 ) Let P ( x1, 1 ) is common point of both lines and divides the line segment joining A(, - ) and B ( 3, 7 ) in ratio k : 1. x1 =, And, 1 = ( ) = Since, point ( x1, 1 ) lies on the line x + = 4 + = 4 = 4 Or 13k + = 4k + 4

40 Or 9k = Or k = So, Required ratio is : 1 Or : 9 SUMMARY AND KEY POINTS 1. The distance between two points A ( x1, 1 ) B ( x, ) is given b A B = ( x x1) ( 1). The gradient of a straight line is a measure of its steepness or slope. 3. The gradient is the ratio of the vertical distance (the rise) to the horizontal distance (the run). Gradient = 3. To find the gradient m, of the line passing through two points. A (x 1, 1 ) and B (x, ), use the formula: m = ( ) ( ) 4. When three or more points lie on the same straight line, the are collinear. Three points A, B and C are collinear if Gradient of AB = Gradient of BC = Gradient of AC 0 x

41 5. The gradients of some straight lines are given below. (a) (b) 0 x 0 x A line sloping upwards to the right has a positive gradient A line sloping upwards to the left has a negative gradient. (c) (d) 0 x 0 x The gradient of a horizontal line parallel to the x-axis is zero. The gradient of a horizontal line parallel to the -axis is undefined. 6. EQUATION OF A STRAIGHT LINE a.) To find the equation of a straight line, using the formula: = mx + c b.) The equation of a straight line that is parallel to the x-axis is given b

42 = a where a is the - intercept. = a = 0 is the equation of the x-axis. a 0 x c.) The equation of a straight line that is parallel to the -axis is given b x = a where a is the x- intercept. x = 0 is the equation of the -axis x = a 0 x 7. The distance of a point ( x, ) from the origin ( 0, 0 ) is ( x ). 8. The coordinates of a point on x axis is taken as ( x, 0 ) while on axis it is taken as ( 0, ) respectivel. 9. SECTION FORMULA: The coordinates of the point P ( x, ) which divides the line segment joining A (x1, 1 ) and B ( x, ) internall in the ratio m : n are given b x = mx nx m n 1 m n m n 1 10.MID POINT FORMULA:

43 Coordinates of mid point of A B, where A ( x1, 1 ) and B ( x, ) are x1 x, CENTROID OF A TRIANGLE AND ITS COORDINATES: The medians of a triangle are concurrent. Their point of concurrence is called the centroid. It divides each median in the ratio : 1. The coordinates of centroid of a triangle with vertices A ( x1, 1 ),B ( x, ) and C ( x3, 3 ) are given b x x 3 1 x3, The area of the triangle formed b the points ( x1, 1 ),( x, ) and ( x3, 3 )is given Δ = [ x1( 3 ) +x ( 3 1 ) + x3 ( 1 ) ] 13. Tip for Students: The equation of a straight line that is parallel to the x-axis is in the form where a is the - intercept. = a = a a 0 x

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### Coordinate Geometry. Exercise 13.1

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