# Digging into the Past Pre-Visit Materials

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1 Digging into the Past Pre-Visit Materials Pre-Visit Activities Howard B. Owens Science Center

2 Digging into the Past Pre-Visit The Pre-visit activities are linked to the pre-requisite skills and knowledge that each student arriving for this particular program, should have experienced at their home school. An Introduction to the Program: Digging into the Past is designed as an enrichment program for third grade students. It supports the county curriculum and third grade Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Overall, the program will allow students to Observe fossils and animals to explore how Some kinds of plants and animals that once lived on Earth are no longer found anywhere. Fossils provide evidence about the types of organisms that lived long ago and also about the nature of their environments.

3 Activity 1: Measuring Fossil Length Suggested Time: minutes Teacher Materials: 1 dual scale ruler or single-sided ruler with centimeters (if the ruler is clear you can use it on an overhead projector) 1 Copy of Measuring Fossil Length(the teacher may wish to make this into an overhead or use it on a visualizer to model the correct way to measure to the nearest centimeter) visualizer or overhead projector (optional) Student Materials: 1 copy of Measuring Fossil Length 1 dual scale rule or single-sided ruler with centimeters Procedure: The teacher should review the different types of units for measuring length in standard measurement (inch, foot, and yard) and the metric units (millimeter, centimeter, meter). Have students observe both sides of the ruler and discuss how to tell which side is the standard measurement side and which side uses metric. Modification: If students keep using the wrong side, teachers may wish to tape over the standard side of the ruler with a piece of masking tape until students get use to using the metric side. Start by having students look at the ruler and notice that every 5 th line is longer than the others. This line is the halfway point and will help them round up to the nearest centimeter. Start by having the students use the ruler on the paper and decide how long each line is. Modification: If they have trouble with the halfway point, have them use their pencils to make the halfway point longer and more pronounced. Also you can have the students draw a line straight up from the ruler to the object they are measuring. Be careful, students don t always draw the straightest lines. Then have them use their own rulers to measure some fossil pictures to tell how long or how wide the fossil is. Be sure the student starts measuring at the zero mark and not the end of the ruler. (They are not always the same.) Extension 1: Have students measure common objects in the room to the nearest centimeter. For example, the desk, chalkboard eraser, poster hanging in the room, science book etc Extension 2: Show students how the centimeter ruler is separated into 10 parts and each part can be written as a decimal. Then have them write the exact measurement. Extension 3: Have students graph the length of each of the fossils (be sure they don t use the width of the shark s tooth). Create a Station: This measurement sheet along with several real objects could be placed at a center for students to visit. Print the sheet on card stock (you may also wish to laminate to avoid students writing on). Have students write their answers on a separate sheet of paper. Answer Key The unit symbol for centimeter is cm Nearest whole number Exact Measurement Nearest whole number Exact Measurement 1 3 cm 3.1 cm Trilobite fossil length cm 2 11 cm 11.2 cm Shrimp fossil length cm 3 6 cm 5.8 cm Fish fossil length 6 cm 6 cm 4 9 cm 8.9 cm Shark fossil tooth length 2.5 cm 3 cm Shark fossil tooth width 2 cm 1.9 cm

4 Student Name Date Measuring Fossil Length What unit symbol do we use for centimeter? Use the ruler on the paper to measure each line to the nearest centimeter. Remember if it gets to or goes past the halfway point you round up to the next number. Example Halfway point Ex._8 cm So the measurement to the nearest whole number would be 8 cm

5 A fossil is something that has been left behind by a plant or animal of the past. Sometimes the fossil might be a piece of bone or an imprint left in rock. Use your own ruler to measure these pictures of fossils to the nearest centimeter. Start and stop lines have been added to the fossil picture to help you with your measurements. Trilobite fossil length Shrimp fossil length Fish fossil length Shark tooth fossil Length Width Width Length

7 3. Ask the students the guided video questions. Video Watching Strategy: Show the entire video through once and then pause between segments during the second viewing for discussion. Prior to showing a segment ask students to watch and listen for a specific detail or answer to a question. This video has special interactive questions that have been marked for Turn and Talk. Pause the video and allow students to discuss before continuing the video. Guided Video Questions: Segment Name of Segment Question Answer Number 1 Exploring Fossils: Intro? (0:47) What is one question you may learn the answer to during the video? (only need to list one) What are fossils? What are some of the different kinds of fossils? How are fossils formed? Why are fossils important? 2 Fossils (1:17) You Compare: How are fossilized footprints different from recent handprints (turn and talk) 3 Importance of Fossils (1:53) Why are fossils important? What do we call scientists that study fossils What do we call the study of fossils Footprints millions of years old Tell us when and where they lived and how they lived. Paleontologists Paleontology 4 Fossil Formation (2:04) You Predict: What will happen to the banana peel when left on the shelf for reveal days? (turn and talk) What helps fossils form? Prediction: Rot/Decay Quick burial in sediment (to avoid decay and scavengers) Left alone for very long time What parts form fossils the easiest? 5 Petrification (1:09), What is petrification? 6 Molds, Casts and Imprints (2:41) What are some samples of petrification? You Decide: How do you think these dinosaur tracks were formed? (turn and talk) What is a mold? Hard parts like bones, teeth and claws (don t decay as easy) Replacement of cells by minerals to turn it to stone Trees, bones and shells Walked in wet mud that dried and hardened Empty hollowed out space left in rock when organism

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