Lecture 25 The Milky Way Galaxy November 29, 2017

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture 25 The Milky Way Galaxy November 29, 2017"

Transcription

1 Lecture 25 The Milky Way Galaxy November 29,

2 2 Size of the Universe The Milky Way galaxy is very much larger than the solar system Powers of Ten interactive applet

3 3 Galaxies Large collections of stars, dust and gas Held together by their gravity. Contain millions to billions of stars. Stars rotate around the center of the galaxy. Our galaxy is the Milky Way

4 4 Structure of the Milky Way Hard to observe our Galaxy -- we are inside. William Herschel -- tried to find where Sun was in the galaxy by counting stars Found same density of stars on all sides Concluded we are in the center.

5 5 Dust Blocks Our View of the Center of the Milky Way

6 6 Shapley Uses Globular Clusters Globular Clusters often orbit outside disk of MW. Shapley observed them mainly on one side of the sky. We are not at the center of the galaxy. to Find the Center Figure 23.9, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall

7 7 Structure of the Milky Way Figure 23.10, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall Animation

8 8 Harlow Shapley first located the center of our Galaxy in 1917 by A. observing supernova explosions throughout the Galaxy. B. observing the distribution of globular clusters. C. making redshift measurements of stars in the galactic disk. D. observing the distribution of hydrogen gas in the Galaxy Response Counter 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. 90

9 9 Components of the Milky Way Disk Young and older stars. Much gas and dust. Extends ~30 kpc in diameter Sun is about halfway out from center of the disk.

10 10 Motions of gas and stars Disk Takes 230 million yrs for Sun to go about the center. Stars rotate differentially Takes different amounts of time for stars to get around the center

11 11 Bulge Young and older stars Gas and dust. At center of disk.

12 12 Halo Mostly old stars. Many stars in globular clusters orbiting center. Little gas so no new star formation.

13 13 Motions of Stars Bulge Some stars move in elongated orbits coplanar with disk, others have random orientations. Halo Stars move in all directions around the center Figure 23.13, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall

14 14 Edge-on Spiral Galaxy Galaxy NGC 4565 Figure 23.3b, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall

15 15 Milky Way Milky Way galaxy from our perspective and at visible wavelength of light

16 16 Astronomers deduce that the Milky Way is a disk because they A. see stars arranged in a circular pattern around the north celestial pole. B. see far more stars along the band of the Milky Way than in other directions. C. see a large, dark circle silhouetted against the Milky Way in the Southern Hemisphere. D. see the same number of stars in all directions in the sky. Response Counter 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. 90

17 17 Mapping the Structure of the Milky Way Dust obscures our view of the galaxy Need to use radio and IR wavelengths of light 21-cm emission line Comes from neutral atomic hydrogen (not ionized) The radio wavelength is not obscured by dust H very common in the universe

18 18 Hydrogen emits 21-cm-wavelength radio waves because of a spin-flip transition.

19 19 Milky Way at different wavelengths (Interactive Figure)

20 20 Distribution of Gas Much of the gas is concentrated in arms in the disk spiraling around the center Figure 15.18, Arny and Schneider, 5 th ed. Explorations, 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies

21 21 Spiral Structure in the Milky Way A "God's view" map of Milky Way as seen from far Galactic North (in Coma Berenices). The star-like lines center in a yellow dot representing the position of Sun. The spokes of that "star" are marked with constellation abbreviations, "Cas" for "Cassiopeia", etc. The spiral arms are colored differently in order to highlight what structure belongs to which arm. HII regions are marked as dots colored in the same color as their spiral arm. From Krisciunas and Yenne, The Pictorial Atlas of the Universe, p.145 (ISBN X)

22 22 Spiral Structure in the Milky Way Recent (2008) data from the Spitzer Space Telescope indicates our galaxy has a large bar and perhaps only two major arms with several minor arms. Note in this diagram our Sun is at the bottom. (NASA) Our galaxy may therefore resemble NGC 1365 (below), click here for image info.

23 23 Radio waves of 21-cm wavelength originate from which component of the interstellar medium? A. Cool, neutral atomic hydrogen B. Cool, carbon monoxide, CO C. Cold, molecular hydrogen, H 2 D. Hot, ionized atomic hydrogen Response Counter 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. 90

24 24 Destruction of Spiral Structure If the spiral arms consisted of matter moving together with the stars, they would wind up and be destroyed within a few rotations. See animation applet. (Applet from M. Seeds, Foundations of Astronomy 12 th ed. ITP Nelson; Dr. Brian Martin, The King s University College) Figure 23.17, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall

25 25 Density Waves Form Spiral Arms Spiral structure may be caused by waves of higher density. Same material is not always in the arm, just temporarily compacted. (See Wikipedia animations and Interactive Figure) Slinky Traffic on the highway Lower density Area Density wave Slow moving car Lower density Area

26 26 Density Wave Theory holds that the spiral arms are waves of gas compression that form stars as they go. In the painting at right, gas enters an arm from behind, is compressed, and forms stars. The inset shows spiral galaxy NGC Spiral Arm Formation Figure 23.18, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall

27 27 Spiral Arm Formation Stars form in arms since they have higher density. Recent star formation indicated by some O and B stars. Arms are bright, blue regions

28 28 Spiral Arm Formation Between arms, star formation less recent, less bright. Arms have only 5% more stars than the other areas, but they are mostly very luminous (O and B spectral types)

29 29 Self-Propagating Star Formation Stars form in higher density area. Supernovae later on compress nearby areas, start new star formation Figure 23.19, Chaisson and McMillan, 6 th ed. Astronomy Today, 2008 Pearson Prentice Hall

30 30 How can you tell the difference between a young collection and an old collection of stars? A. Collections of young stars are redder. B. Collections of young stars are darker. C. Collections of young stars move faster. D. Collections of young stars are bluer. Response Counter 0% 0% 0% 0% A. B. C. D. 90

31 31 Center of the Galaxy Center suspected to contain billions of stars Cannot observe center in visible light due to dust, so we use IR and radio observations Bright source near center in radio - Sagittarius A* Probably a black hole at the center

32 32 Galactic Center Radio image of Galactic center. ~60 parsecs across Filaments may be associated with magnetic field. Radio image of Galactic center ~7 parsecs across Sagittarius A* at center.

33 33 Black Hole at the Center Stars are orbiting center (Sagittarius A*) very quickly. Estimated 4.3 million solar masses contained in an area 0.30 AU across Likely black hole. IR image of Galactic Center movie

34 34 The best measurements of the mass of the black hole at the galactic center come from A. the orbits of gas clouds near the center. B. analysis of the X-ray emission from the accretion disk. C. the orbits of stars near center. D. the rate at which the black hole orbits its companion black hole. the orbits of gas clouds n... 0% 0% 0% 0% Response Counter 90 analysis of the X-ray emis... the orbits of stars near c... the rate at which the bla..

Our View of the Milky Way. 23. The Milky Way Galaxy

Our View of the Milky Way. 23. The Milky Way Galaxy 23. The Milky Way Galaxy The Sun s location in the Milky Way galaxy Nonvisible Milky Way galaxy observations The Milky Way has spiral arms Dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy Density waves produce spiral

More information

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Guidepost This chapter plays three parts in our cosmic drama. First, it introduces the concept of a galaxy. Second, it discusses our home, the Milky Way Galaxy, a natural

More information

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way

Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night sky belongs to the Milky Way We see most of the Milky Way as a faint band of light across the sky From the outside, our

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions

The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions 1. What is our Galaxy? How do astronomers know where we are located within it? 2. What is the shape and size of our Galaxy? 3. How do we know that our Galaxy has

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy

The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way Galaxy Guiding Questions 1. What is our Galaxy? How do astronomers know where we are located within it? 2. What is the shape and size of our Galaxy? 3. How do we know that our Galaxy has

More information

telescopes resolve it into many faint (i.e. distant) stars What does it tell us?

telescopes resolve it into many faint (i.e. distant) stars What does it tell us? The Milky Way From a dark site the Milky Way can be seen as a broad band across the sky What is it? telescopes resolve it into many faint (i.e. distant) stars What does it tell us? that we live in a spiral

More information

The Milky Way & Galaxies

The Milky Way & Galaxies The Milky Way & Galaxies The Milky Way Appears as a milky band of light across the sky A small telescope reveals that it is composed of many stars (Galileo again!) Our knowledge of the Milky Way comes

More information

Chapter 19 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 19 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Our Galaxy Pearson Education, Inc. Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Our Galaxy 19.1 The Milky Way Revealed What does our galaxy look like? How do stars orbit in our galaxy? Where are globular clusters located

More information

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015

BROCK UNIVERSITY. Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 9 Test 2, March 2015 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P02 Number of Students: 420 Date of Examination: March 5, 2015 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 18:00 18:50

More information

Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014

Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014 1 Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014 2 Structure of the Universe Does clustering of galaxies go on forever? Looked at very narrow regions of space to far distances. On large scales the

More information

Lecture 29. Our Galaxy: "Milky Way"

Lecture 29. Our Galaxy: Milky Way Lecture 29 The Milky Way Galaxy Disk, Bulge, Halo Rotation Curve Galactic Center Apr 3, 2006 Astro 100 Lecture 29 1 Our Galaxy: "Milky Way" Milky, diffuse band of light around sky known to ancients. Galileo

More information

The Interstellar Medium (ch. 18)

The Interstellar Medium (ch. 18) The Interstellar Medium (ch. 18) The interstellar medium (ISM) is all the gas (and about 1% dust) that fills our Galaxy and others. It is the raw material from which stars form, and into which stars eject

More information

Galaxies and The Milky Way

Galaxies and The Milky Way Galaxies and The Milky Way Attendance Quiz Are you here today? Here! (a) yes (b) no (c) To infinity and beyond! Next Tuesday, 5/30, I will be away at a meeting. There will be a guest lecture by Dr. Jorge

More information

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

Star systems like our Milky Way. Galaxies

Star systems like our Milky Way. Galaxies Galaxies Star systems like our Milky Way Galaxies Contain a few thousand to tens of billions of stars,as well as varying amounts of gas and dust Large variety of shapes and sizes Gas and Dust in

More information

Astro 1050 Fri. Apr. 14, 2017

Astro 1050 Fri. Apr. 14, 2017 Astro 1050 Fri. Apr. 14, 2017 Today: Ch. 19: Our Galaxy, the Milky Way Reading in Bennett: Ch 12 this week, Ch. 13 for next week 1 2 Chapter 12 The Milky Way Galaxy Band of light running around sky in

More information

Question 1. Question 2. Correct. Chapter 16 Homework. Part A

Question 1. Question 2. Correct. Chapter 16 Homework. Part A Chapter 16 Homework Due: 11:59pm on Thursday, November 17, 2016 To understand how points are awarded, read the Grading Policy for this assignment. Question 1 Following are a number of distinguishing characteristics

More information

Galaxies and the expansion of the Universe

Galaxies and the expansion of the Universe Review of Chapters 14, 15, 16 Galaxies and the expansion of the Universe 5/4/2009 Habbal Astro 110-01 Review Lecture 36 1 Recap: Learning from Light How does light tell us what things are made of? Every

More information

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS.

Directed Reading A. Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS THE LIFE CYCLE OF SUNLIKE STARS A TOOL FOR STUDYING STARS. Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.

More information

24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification

24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Chapter 24 Galaxies Units of Chapter 24 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space 24.3 Hubble s Law 24.4 XXActive Galactic Nuclei XXRelativistic Redshifts and Look-Back

More information

Review of Lecture 15 3/17/10. Lecture 15: Dark Matter and the Cosmic Web (plus Gamma Ray Bursts) Prof. Tom Megeath

Review of Lecture 15 3/17/10. Lecture 15: Dark Matter and the Cosmic Web (plus Gamma Ray Bursts) Prof. Tom Megeath Lecture 15: Dark Matter and the Cosmic Web (plus Gamma Ray Bursts) Prof. Tom Megeath A2020 Disk Component: stars of all ages, many gas clouds Review of Lecture 15 Spheroidal Component: bulge & halo, old

More information

Chapter 10 The Interstellar Medium

Chapter 10 The Interstellar Medium Chapter 10 The Interstellar Medium Guidepost You have begun your study of the sun and other stars, but now it is time to study the thin gas and dust that drifts through space between the stars. This chapter

More information

The Milky Way. Finding the Center. Milky Way Composite Photo. Finding the Center. Milky Way : A band of and a. Milky Way

The Milky Way. Finding the Center. Milky Way Composite Photo. Finding the Center. Milky Way : A band of and a. Milky Way The Milky Way Milky Way : A band of and a The band of light we see is really 100 billion stars Milky Way probably looks like Andromeda. Milky Way Composite Photo Milky Way Before the 1920 s, astronomers

More information

Galaxies and the Universe

Galaxies and the Universe Standard 7.3.1: Recognize and describe that the Sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a diskshaped galaxy of stars and that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and each galaxy

More information

Chapter 11 Review. 1) Light from distant stars that must pass through dust arrives bluer than when it left its star. 1)

Chapter 11 Review. 1) Light from distant stars that must pass through dust arrives bluer than when it left its star. 1) Chapter 11 Review TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) Light from distant stars that must pass through dust arrives bluer than when it left its star. 1)

More information

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE

Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which

More information

Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008

Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008 Notes for Wednesday, July 16; Sample questions start on page 2 7/16/2008 Wed, July 16 MW galaxy, then review. Start with ECP3Ch14 2 through 8 Then Ch23 # 8 & Ch 19 # 27 & 28 Allowed Harlow Shapely to locate

More information

How does the galaxy rotate and keep the spiral arms together? And what really lies at the center of the galaxy?

How does the galaxy rotate and keep the spiral arms together? And what really lies at the center of the galaxy? Ch 14: Mysteries of the Milky Way How does the galaxy rotate and keep the spiral arms together? And what really lies at the center of the galaxy? The Structure of the Galaxy We know that our galaxy has

More information

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Glos. Glossary. of Astronomy. Terms. Related to Galaxies

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Glos. Glossary. of Astronomy. Terms. Related to Galaxies National Aeronautics and Space Administration Glos of Astronomy Glossary Terms Related to Galaxies Asterism: A pattern formed by stars not recognized as one of the official 88 constellations. Examples

More information

The Universe o. Galaxies. The Universe of. Galaxies. Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA

The Universe o. Galaxies. The Universe of. Galaxies. Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA Hello! The Universe of Galaxies The Universe o Galaxies Ajit Kembhavi IUCAA Galaxies: Stars: ~10 11 Mass: ~10 11 M Sun Contain stars, gas and dust, possibly a supermassive black hole at the centre. Much

More information

Tour of Galaxies. Sgr A* VLT in IR + adaptive optics. orbits. ASTR 1040 Accel Astro: Stars & Galaxies VLT IR+AO

Tour of Galaxies. Sgr A* VLT in IR + adaptive optics. orbits. ASTR 1040 Accel Astro: Stars & Galaxies VLT IR+AO ASTR 1040 Accel Astro: Stars & Galaxies Prof. Juri Toomre TA: Kyle Augustson Lecture 23 Tues 8 Apr 08 zeus.colorado.edu/astr1040-toomre toomre Tour of Galaxies Briefly revisit Monster in the Milky Way

More information

Galaxies and Star Systems

Galaxies and Star Systems Chapter 5 Section 5.1 Galaxies and Star Systems Galaxies Terms: Galaxy Spiral Galaxy Elliptical Galaxy Irregular Galaxy Milky Way Galaxy Quasar Black Hole Types of Galaxies A galaxy is a huge group of

More information

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A

29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A 29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A There are 40 questions. Read each question and all of the choices before choosing. Budget your time. No whining. Walk with Ursus!

More information

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES 28.1 A CLOSER LOOK AT LIGHT Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, which is energy that travels in waves. Waves of energy travel at 300,000 km/sec (speed of light Ex:

More information

Galaxies Galaxy Classification Formation of Galaxies Galactic Evolution

Galaxies Galaxy Classification Formation of Galaxies Galactic Evolution Class 1 Introduction, Background History of Modern Astronomy The Night Sky, Eclipses and the Seasons Kepler's Laws Newtonian Gravity General Relativity Matter and Light Telescopes Class 2 Solar System

More information

Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017

Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017 Lecture 21 Formation of Stars November 15, 2017 1 2 Birth of Stars Stars originally condense out of a COLD, interstellar cloud composed of H and He + trace elements. cloud breaks into clumps (gravity)

More information

AST 101 INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY SPRING MIDTERM EXAM 2 TEST VERSION 1 ANSWERS

AST 101 INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY SPRING MIDTERM EXAM 2 TEST VERSION 1 ANSWERS AST 101 INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY SPRING 2008 - MIDTERM EXAM 2 TEST VERSION 1 ANSWERS Multiple Choice. In the blanks provided before each question write the letter for the phrase that best answers the

More information

Galaxies. What is a Galaxy? A bit of History. A bit of History. Three major components: 1. A thin disk consisting of young and intermediate age stars

Galaxies. What is a Galaxy? A bit of History. A bit of History. Three major components: 1. A thin disk consisting of young and intermediate age stars What is a Galaxy? Galaxies A galaxy is a collection of billions of stars, dust, and gas all held together by gravity. Galaxies are scattered throughout the universe. They vary greatly in size and shape.

More information

A World of Dust. Bare-Eye Nebula: Orion. Interstellar Medium

A World of Dust. Bare-Eye Nebula: Orion. Interstellar Medium Interstellar Medium Physics 113 Goderya Chapter(s): 10 Learning Outcomes: A World of Dust The space between the stars is not completely empty, but filled with very dilute gas and dust, producing some of

More information

Study Guide Chapter 2

Study Guide Chapter 2 Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

More information

Our Solar System: A Speck in the Milky Way

Our Solar System: A Speck in the Milky Way GALAXIES Lesson 2 Our Solar System: A Speck in the Milky Way The Milky Way appears to be curved when we view it but in reality it is a straight line. It is curved due to the combination of pictures taken

More information

The Neighbors Looking outward from the Sun s location in the Milky Way, we can see a variety of other galaxies:

The Neighbors Looking outward from the Sun s location in the Milky Way, we can see a variety of other galaxies: Galaxies The Neighbors Looking outward from the Sun s location in the Milky Way, we can see a variety of other galaxies: Small Magellanic Cloud (Digital Sky Survey) Large Magellanic Cloud (credit: Eckhard

More information

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe

Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Wrap-Up What makes up the universe and how does

More information

7. THE ROTATION CURVE AND MASS OF THE GALAXY: DARK MATTER

7. THE ROTATION CURVE AND MASS OF THE GALAXY: DARK MATTER 7. THE ROTATION CURVE AND MASS OF THE GALAXY: DARK MATTER GOALS In this lab, you will learn: 1. How to measure the speeds at which matter orbits our galaxy. 2. How to measure the rotation curve of our

More information

Einführung in die Astronomie II

Einführung in die Astronomie II Einführung in die Astronomie II Teil 12 Peter Hauschildt yeti@hs.uni-hamburg.de Hamburger Sternwarte Gojenbergsweg 112 21029 Hamburg 13. September 2017 1 / 77 Overview part 12 The Galaxy Historical Overview

More information

The Universe. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents the bright-line spectrum for an element.

The Universe. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents the bright-line spectrum for an element. A) B) The Universe 1. According to the Big Bang theory, which graph hest represents the relationship between time and the size of the universe from the beginning of the universe to the present? C) D) 2.

More information

Chapter 20 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 20 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 20 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology Galaxies and the Foundation of Modern Cosmology 20.1 Islands of Stars Our goals for learning: How

More information

Figure 19.19: HST photo called Hubble Deep Field.

Figure 19.19: HST photo called Hubble Deep Field. 19.3 Galaxies and the Universe Early civilizations thought that Earth was the center of the universe. In the sixteenth century, we became aware that Earth is a small planet orbiting a medium-sized star.

More information

UNIT 3 The Study of the. Universe. Chapter 7: The Night Sky. Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood. Chapter 9:The Mysterious.

UNIT 3 The Study of the. Universe. Chapter 7: The Night Sky. Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood. Chapter 9:The Mysterious. UNIT 3 The Study of the Universe Chapter 7: The Night Sky Chapter 8: Exploring Our Stellar Neighbourhood Chapter 9:The Mysterious Universe CHAPTER 9 The Mysterious Universe In this chapter, you will: identify

More information

Universe. If you could see it from afar. Chapter 22. Our Galaxy 8/17/2015. By reading this chapter, you will learn. Tenth Edition

Universe. If you could see it from afar. Chapter 22. Our Galaxy 8/17/2015. By reading this chapter, you will learn. Tenth Edition Roger Freedman Robert Geller William Kaufmann III Universe Tenth Edition Chapter 22 Our Galaxy By reading this chapter, you will learn 22 1 How astronomers discovered the solar system s location within

More information

Galaxies & Introduction to Cosmology

Galaxies & Introduction to Cosmology Galaxies & Introduction to Cosmology Other Galaxies: How many are there? Hubble Deep Field Project 100 hour exposures over 10 days Covered an area of the sky about 1/100 the size of the full moon Probably

More information

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

More information

The Cosmological Redshift. Cepheid Variables. Hubble s Diagram

The Cosmological Redshift. Cepheid Variables. Hubble s Diagram SOME NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE. Lecture 22 Hubble s Law and the Large Scale Structure of the Universe PRS: According to modern ideas and observations, what can be said about the

More information

STAR FORMATION (Ch. 19)

STAR FORMATION (Ch. 19) STAR FORMATION (Ch. 19) The basics: GRAVITY vs. PRESSURE (heat; but also rotation and magnetic fields can be important) Stages (you don t have to memorize numbers of stages in textbook or here, just be

More information

Interstellar Dust and Gas

Interstellar Dust and Gas Interstellar Dust and Gas In 1783 William Herschel began a survey of the heavens using an 18 ¾ inch reflector of his own construction. His goal was to discover new star clusters, nebulae, and double stars.

More information

Description of Pictures In the Dome

Description of Pictures In the Dome Description of Pictures In the Dome The Trifid Nebula (M20, NGC 6514) is an H II region located in Sagittarius. Its name means 'divided into three lobes'. The object is an unusual combination of an open

More information

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities

Life Cycle of a Star - Activities Name: Class Period: Life Cycle of a Star - Activities A STAR IS BORN STAGES COMMON TO ALL STARS All stars start as a nebula. A nebula is a large cloud of gas and dust. Gravity can pull some of the gas

More information

Galaxies. Galaxy Diversity. Galaxies, AGN and Quasars. Physics 113 Goderya

Galaxies. Galaxy Diversity. Galaxies, AGN and Quasars. Physics 113 Goderya Galaxies, AGN and Quasars Physics 113 Goderya Chapter(s): 16 and 17 Learning Outcomes: Galaxies Star systems like our Milky Way Contain a few thousand to tens of billions of stars. Large variety of shapes

More information

ASTR 135 Exam 4 5/4/2015

ASTR 135 Exam 4 5/4/2015 ASTR 135 Exam 4 5/4/2015 1) The Milky Way is a a) star b) star cluster d) nebula c) galaxy e) universe 2) What distance indicator or method did Edwin Hubble use to establish the distance of the Andromeda

More information

Astronomy Ch. 22 Neutron Stars and Black Holes. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Astronomy Ch. 22 Neutron Stars and Black Holes. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 22 Neutron Stars and Black Holes MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In a neutron star, the core

More information

Big Galaxies Are Rare! Cepheid Distance Measurement. Clusters of Galaxies. The Nature of Galaxies

Big Galaxies Are Rare! Cepheid Distance Measurement. Clusters of Galaxies. The Nature of Galaxies Big Galaxies Are Rare! Potato Chip Rule: More small things than large things Big, bright spirals are easy to see, but least common Dwarf ellipticals & irregulars are most common Faint, hard to see Mostly

More information

Other Galaxy Types. Active Galaxies. A diagram of an active galaxy, showing the primary components. Active Galaxies

Other Galaxy Types. Active Galaxies. A diagram of an active galaxy, showing the primary components. Active Galaxies Other Galaxy Types Active Galaxies Active Galaxies Seyfert galaxies Radio galaxies Quasars Origin??? Different in appearance Produce huge amount of energy Similar mechanism a Galactic mass black hole at

More information

Doppler Shift/Effect of EM Waves

Doppler Shift/Effect of EM Waves Doppler Shift/Effect of EM Waves A quick and dirty intro Not quite the same as Doppler shift of sounds (acoustic waves) but has similar physical principles Ø Speed of emitting source changes the wavelength/frequency

More information

Astronomy. Chapter 15 Stellar Remnants: White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

Astronomy. Chapter 15 Stellar Remnants: White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes Astronomy Chapter 15 Stellar Remnants: White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes are hot, compact stars whose mass is comparable to the Sun's and size to the Earth's. A. White dwarfs B. Neutron stars

More information

Lecture 7: the Local Group and nearby clusters

Lecture 7: the Local Group and nearby clusters Lecture 7: the Local Group and nearby clusters in this lecture we move up in scale, to explore typical clusters of galaxies the Local Group is an example of a not very rich cluster interesting topics include:

More information

The Physics of the Interstellar Medium

The Physics of the Interstellar Medium The Physics of the Interstellar Medium Ulrike Heiter Contact: 471 5970 ulrike@astro.uu.se www.astro.uu.se Matter between stars Average distance between stars in solar neighbourhood: 1 pc = 3 x 1013 km,

More information

Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions

Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions Regents Questions 1. The Sun revolves around the center of A) Polaris B) Aldebaran C) Earth D) the Milky Way Galaxy 4. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?

More information

OPEN CLUSTERS LAB. I. Introduction: II. HR Diagram NAME:

OPEN CLUSTERS LAB. I. Introduction: II. HR Diagram NAME: NAME: OPEN CLUSTERS LAB What will you learn in this Lab? An open cluster is a group of stars that were born at the same time and can be studied to determine both the distance and age of the member stars

More information

The Universe and Galaxies

The Universe and Galaxies The Universe and Galaxies 16.1 http://dingo.care-mail.com/cards/flash/5409/galaxy.swf Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus

More information

Neutron Stars. But what happens to the super-dense core? It faces two possible fates:

Neutron Stars. But what happens to the super-dense core? It faces two possible fates: Neutron Stars When a massive star runs out of fuel, its core collapses from the size of the Earth to a compact ball of neutrons just ten miles or so across. Material just outside the core falls onto this

More information

Galactic Rotation Activity*

Galactic Rotation Activity* Galactic Rotation Activity* Neutral hydrogen atoms (H I) consist of a single proton and a single electron. The electron and proton can spin in the same direction (parallel) or in the opposite direction

More information

It is about 100,000 ly across, 2,000 ly thick, and our solar system is located 26,000 ly away from the center of the galaxy.

It is about 100,000 ly across, 2,000 ly thick, and our solar system is located 26,000 ly away from the center of the galaxy. The Galaxies The Milky Way Galaxy Is a spiral galaxy in which our solar system is located. The center of the galaxy lies in the Sagittarius Constellation. It is about 100,000 ly across, 2,000 ly thick,

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing

More information

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process. Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel

More information

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14

The Night Sky. The Universe. The Celestial Sphere. Stars. Chapter 14 The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations

More information

Diffuse Ultraviolet Emission in Galaxies

Diffuse Ultraviolet Emission in Galaxies National Aeronautics and Space Administration Diffuse Ultraviolet Emission in Galaxies Anne Pellerin and Martin J. Meyer Taken from: Produced by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Space Telescope Science

More information

Galaxy Classification and the Hubble Deep Field

Galaxy Classification and the Hubble Deep Field Galaxy Classification and the Hubble Deep Field A. The Hubble Galaxy Classification Scheme Adapted from the UW Astronomy Dept., 1999 Introduction A galaxy is an assembly of between a billion (10 9 ) and

More information

Galaxies. Say Thanks to the Authors Click (No sign in required)

Galaxies. Say Thanks to the Authors Click  (No sign in required) Galaxies Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version of this book, as well as other interactive content, visit www.ck12.org CK-12

More information

Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System The Universe pp

Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System The Universe pp Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System 25.3 The Universe pp 715-721 The Milky Way Galaxy On a clear and moonless night, away from city lights, you might see a a band of light in the sky. This band is The

More information

Lights. And God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; (Bible: Genesis I)

Lights. And God said, Let there be light; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; (Bible: Genesis I) Lights Astronomy is based on observing lights from celestial bodies. And God said, "Let there be light"; and there was light. And God saw that the light was good; (Bible: Genesis I) Cat's Eye planetary

More information

Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Dark Matter and Dark Energy Jim Pivarski March 4, 2012 Matter as we know it is a minority of the universe. Jim Pivarski 2/51 Jim Pivarski 3/51 Jim Pivarski 4/51 This talk: What is dark matter? The astronomer

More information

Galaxies. Lecture Topics. Lecture 23. Discovering Galaxies. Galaxy properties. Local Group. History Cepheid variable stars. Classifying galaxies

Galaxies. Lecture Topics. Lecture 23. Discovering Galaxies. Galaxy properties. Local Group. History Cepheid variable stars. Classifying galaxies Galaxies Lecture 23 APOD: NGC 3628 (The Hamburger Galaxy) 1 Lecture Topics Discovering Galaxies History Cepheid variable stars Galaxy properties Classifying galaxies Local Group 2 23-1 Discovering Galaxies

More information

Introduction to the Universe

Introduction to the Universe What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe Book page 642-644 Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy)

More information

Chapter 11 The Formation of Stars

Chapter 11 The Formation of Stars Chapter 11 The Formation of Stars A World of Dust The space between the stars is not completely empty, but filled with very dilute gas and dust, producing some of the most beautiful objects in the sky.

More information

M42 (The Orion Nebula) and M43

M42 (The Orion Nebula) and M43 3.4b demonstrate an understanding that emission nebulae, absorption nebulae and open clusters are associated with the birth of stars 3.4c demonstrate an understanding that planetary nebulae and supernovae

More information

An x-ray image of teeth. Can you see the filling?

An x-ray image of teeth. Can you see the filling? X-Rays APA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate. (2010). X-Rays. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from Mission:Science website: http://missionscience.nasa.gov /ems/11_xrays.html

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 20. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 20. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 20 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 20 Stellar Evolution Units of Chapter 20 20.1 Leaving the Main Sequence 20.2 Evolution of a Sun-Like Star 20.3 The Death

More information

Science with the New Hubble Instruments. Ken Sembach STScI Hubble Project Scientist

Science with the New Hubble Instruments. Ken Sembach STScI Hubble Project Scientist Science with the New Hubble Instruments Ken Sembach STScI Hubble Project Scientist 1 Hubble Has Improved Over Time Servicing missions have improved Hubble s vision. Hubble sees farther and with greater

More information

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 1. Where in the universe does the general expansion occur? A) everywhere in the universe, including our local space upon Earth, the solar system, our galaxy and

More information

The physical properties of galaxies in Universe

The physical properties of galaxies in Universe The physical properties of galaxies in Universe Iurii Babyk, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin City University, Main Astronomical Observatory of the NAS of Ukraine. Introduction Large-Scale

More information

Introduction to Astronomy Lecture 7: Our galaxy

Introduction to Astronomy Lecture 7: Our galaxy Introduction to Astronomy Lecture 7: Our galaxy putting the pieces together Presented by Dr Helen Johnston School of Physics Spring 2015 In tonight s lecture The scale of the Galaxy the long, hard journey

More information

Star-Forming Clouds. Stars form in dark clouds of dusty gas in interstellar space. The gas between the stars is called the interstellar medium.

Star-Forming Clouds. Stars form in dark clouds of dusty gas in interstellar space. The gas between the stars is called the interstellar medium. Star Birth Chapter 16 Lecture 16.1 Stellar Nurseries The Cosmic Perspective Our goals for learning: Where do stars form? Why do stars form? Seventh Edition Star Birth Where do stars form? Star-Forming

More information

Einstein s Gravity. Understanding space-time and the gravitational effects of mass

Einstein s Gravity. Understanding space-time and the gravitational effects of mass Einstein s Gravity Understanding space-time and the gravitational effects of mass Albert Einstein (1879-1955) One of the iconic figures of the 20 th century, Einstein revolutionized our understanding of

More information

Introduction to Astrophysics

Introduction to Astrophysics Introduction to Astrophysics Colin Stuart @ SKYPONDERER OUR MILKY WAY GALAXY As usual notes are at: www.colinstuart.net/notes Password is t2=mr3& NAMES From the Greek word galaxias meaning milky As it

More information

First Detection of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole Candidate in the Milky Way

First Detection of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole Candidate in the Milky Way Press Release September 27, 2017 Keio University First Detection of an Intermediate-Mass Black Hole Candidate in the Milky Way Professor Tomoharu Oka of the Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and

More information

The Formation of our Galaxy Transcript

The Formation of our Galaxy Transcript The Formation of our Galaxy Transcript Date: Wednesday, 3 February 2016-1:00PM Location: Museum of London 03 February 2016 The Formation of our Galaxy Professor Joseph Silk A typical galaxy, like our Milky

More information

A Tale of Star and Planet Formation. Lynne Hillenbrand Caltech

A Tale of Star and Planet Formation. Lynne Hillenbrand Caltech A Tale of Star and Planet Formation Lynne Hillenbrand Caltech Vermeer s The Astronomer (1688) Mauna Kea (last week) photos by: Sarah Anderson and Bill Bates Context: Our Sun The Sun is a completely average

More information

Stars: Birth, Life and Death

Stars: Birth, Life and Death Stars: Birth, Life and Death Stars are formed from interstellar material which is compressed by gravity They spend >90% of their lives burning Hydrogen into Helium how they die depends on mass large stars

More information

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES

CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES CHAPTER 9: STARS AND GALAXIES Characteristics of the Sun 1. The Sun is located about 150 million kilometres from the Earth. 2. The Sun is made up of hot gases, mostly hydrogen and helium. 3. The size of

More information