3 Units of Chapter Hubble s Galaxy Classification 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space 24.3 Hubble s Law 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei More Precisely 24-2 Relativistic Redshifts and Look-Back Time 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy
4 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification This pair of images shows the Coma cluster of galaxies. Almost every object visible is a galaxy.
5 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Spiral galaxies are classified according to the size of their central bulge.
6 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Type Sa has the largest central bulge, Type Sb is smaller, and Type Sc is the smallest. Type Sa tends to have the most tightly bound spiral arms with Types Sb and Sc progressively less tight, although the correlation is not perfect. The components of spiral galaxies are the same as in our own galaxy: disk, core, halo, bulge, and spiral arms.
7 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification The Sombrero galaxy, with its large central bulge, is a type Sa. We cannot see the spiral arms, as they are edge-on.
8 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Similar to the spiral galaxies are the barred spirals.
9 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Elliptical galaxies have no spiral arms and no disk. They come in many sizes, from giant ellipticals of trillions of stars, down to dwarf ellipticals of less than a million stars. Ellipticals also contain very little, if any, cool gas and dust, and they show no evidence of ongoing star formation. Many do, however, have large clouds of hot gas, extending far beyond the visible boundaries of the galaxy.
10 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Ellipticals are classified according to their shape from E0 (almost spherical) to E7 (the most elongated).
11 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification S0 (lenticular) and SB0 galaxies have a disk and bulge, but no spiral arms and no interstellar gas.
12 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification The irregular galaxies have a wide variety of shapes. The small and large Magellanic Clouds are close neighbors to our own Milky Way.
13 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Here are several other irregular galaxies: AM and its neighbors on the left, and NGC 1569 on the right.
14 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification A summary of galaxy properties by type
15 24.1 Hubble s Galaxy Classification Hubble s tuning fork is a convenient way to remember the galaxy classifications, although it has no deeper meaning.
16 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space Cepheid variables allow measurement of galaxies to about 25 Mpc away.
17 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space However, some galaxies have no Cepheids, and most are farther away than 25 Mpc. New distance measures are needed. Tully-Fisher relation correlates a galaxy s rotation speed (which can be measured using the Doppler effect) to its luminosity.
18 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space Type I supernovae all have about the same luminosity, as the process by which they happen doesn t allow for much variation. They can be used as standard candles objects whose absolute magnitude is known, and which can therefore be used to determine distance using their apparent magnitude.
19 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space With these additions, the cosmic distance ladder has been extended to about 1 Gpc
20 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space This is the Local Group of galaxies, about 45 galaxies within about 1 Mpc of the Milky Way
21 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space There are three spirals in this group the Milky Way, Andromeda, and M33. These and their satellites about 45 galaxies in all form the Local Group. Such a group of galaxies, held together by its own gravity, is called a galaxy cluster.
22 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space A nearby galaxy cluster is the Virgo Cluster; it is much larger than the Local Group, containing about 3500 galaxies.
23 24.2 The Distribution of Galaxies in Space This image shows the Abell 1689 cluster of galaxies, a very large cluster almost 1 billion parsecs away.
24 24.3 Hubble s Law Universal recession: all galaxies (with a couple of nearby exceptions) seem to be moving away from us, with the redshift of their motion correlated with their distance.
25 24.3 Hubble s Law These plots show the relation between distance and recessional velocity for the five galaxies in the previous figure, and then for a larger sample.
26 24.3 Hubble s Law The relationship (slope of the line) is characterized by Hubble s constant H 0 : recessional velocity = H 0 distance The currently accepted value for Hubble s constant is H 0 = 70 km/s/mpc Measuring distances using Hubble s law actually works better on farther away objects; random motions are overwhelmed by the recessional velocity.
27 24.3 Hubble s Law This puts the final step on our distance ladder
28 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei About 20 25% of galaxies don t fit well into the Hubble scheme they are far too luminous. Such galaxies are called active galaxies. They differ from normal galaxies in both the luminosity and type of radiation they emit.
29 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei The radiation from these galaxies is called nonstellar radiation. Many luminous galaxies are experiencing an outburst of star formation, probably due to interactions with a neighbor. These galaxies are called starburst galaxies, and we will discuss them later. The galaxies we will discuss now are those whose activity is due to events occurring in and around the galactic center.
30 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei This active galaxy has star-formation rings surrounding a very luminous core.
31 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Active galaxies are classified into three types: Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, and quasars. Seyfert galaxies resemble normal spiral galaxies, but their cores are thousands of times more luminous.
32 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei The rapid variations in the luminosity of Seyfert galaxies indicate that the core must be extremely compact
33 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Radio galaxies emit very strongly in the radio portion of the spectrum. They may have enormous lobes, invisible to optical telescopes, perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy.
34 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Radio galaxies may also be core dominated.
35 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Core-dominated and radio-lobe galaxies are probably the same phenomenon viewed from different angles.
36 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Many active galaxies have jets, and most show signs of interactions with other galaxies.
37 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Quasars quasi-stellar objects are starlike in appearance, but have very unusual spectral lines.
38 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Eventually it was realized that quasar spectra were normal, but enormously redshifted.
39 24.4 Active Galactic Nuclei Solving the spectral problem introduces a new problem quasars must be among the most luminous objects in the galaxy, to be visible over such enormous distances.
40 More Precisely 24-1: Relativistic Redshifts and Look-Back Time The redshift of a beam of light is its fractional increase in wavelength. Redshifts are measured directly; distances are calculated from them using Hubble s constant, which is uncertain. Astronomers therefore prefer to quote redshifts rather than distances. The look-back time is the time when light was emitted from a distant object; for very distant objects it is less than the redshift would indicate, as the object has receded in the meantime.
41 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active galactic nuclei have some or all of the following properties: high luminosity nonstellar energy emission Active Galaxy variable energy output, indicating small nucleus jets and other signs of explosive activity broad emission lines, indicating rapid rotation
42 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy This is the leading theory for the energy source in an active galactic nucleus: a black hole, surrounded by an accretion disk. The strong magnetic field lines around the black hole channel particles into jets perpendicular to the magnetic axis.
43 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy In an active galaxy, the central black hole may be billions of solar masses. The accretion disk is whole clouds of interstellar gas and dust; they may radiate away as much as 10 20% of their mass before disappearing.
44 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy This pair of images shows evidence for a black hole at the center of NGC 4261.
45 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy The central portion of M87 shows rapid motion and jets characteristic of material surrounding a black hole.
46 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy One might expect the radiation to be mostly X and gamma-rays, but apparently it is often reprocessed in the dense clouds around the black hole and reemitted at longer wavelengths.
47 24.5 The Central Engine of an Active Galaxy Particles will emit synchrotron radiation as they spiral along the magnetic field lines; this radiation is decidedly nonstellar.
48 Summary of Chapter 24 Hubble classification organizes galaxies according to shape Galaxy types: spiral, barred spiral, elliptical, irregular Objects of relatively uniform luminosities are called standard candles ; examples include RR Lyrae stars and Type I supernovae The Milky Way lies within a small cluster of galaxies called the Local Group. Other galaxy clusters may contain thousands of galaxies
49 Summary of Chapter 24 (cont.) Hubble s Law: Galaxies recede from us faster the farther away they are Active galaxies are far more luminous than normal galaxies, and their radiation is nonstellar Seyfert galaxies, radio galaxies, and quasars all have very small cores; many emit high-speed jets Active galaxies are thought to contain supermassive black holes in their centers; infalling matter converts to energy, powering the galaxy
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