# PHY 3221 Fall Homework Problems. Instructor: Yoonseok Lee. Submit only HW s. EX s are additional problems that I encourage you to work on.

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1 PHY 3221 Fall 2012 Homework Problems Instructor: Yoonseok Lee Submit only HW s. EX s are additional problems that I encourage you to work on. Week 1: August 22-24, Due August 27 (nothing to submit) EX: Go over Force Concept Inventory (Do not submit). EX: Review Mathematical Self-Assessment by the end of the second week. EX: (1.18) Week 2: August 27-31, Due September 5 EX: Check the following relations: (a) ǫ ijk δ ij = 0 (b) ǫ ijk ǫ ijk = 6 HW: For the two vectors (a) A B A = î + 3ĵ 3ˆk, B = 2î + ĵ + ˆk, (b) component of A along B (c) angle between the vectors (d) A B. HW: (1.12) (1.13) HW: (1.22) HW: Use Levi-Civita and Kronecker-Delta symbols to solve (1.17). HW: Show that ( A B) ( C D) = A [ B ( C D)] = ( A C)( B D) ( A D)( B C). Week 3: September 3-7, Due September 10 EX: (1.27) EX: A bead is moving with a constant speed v o along the frictionless spoke of a bicycle wheel rotating with a constant angular velocity ω (see Fig.1). At t = 0, the bead starts to 1

2 move from the center along the x-direction. Write down the velocity of the bead at a later time t in (a) 2D polar coordinates and (b) 2D Cartesian coordinates. In which direction is the velocity at t = 0? (c) Calculate the acceleration of the bead in 2D polar coordinates. In which direction is the acceleration at t = 0? (You know φ = ω.) ANS: v(t) = v oˆr + v o ωtˆφ (2D Polar), v(t) = v o (cosωt ωt sin ωt)î + v o (sin ωt + ωt cos ωt)ĵ a = v o ω 2 tˆr + 2v o ωˆφ. (Cartesian), FIG. 1: HW: (1.46) HW: (1.45) HW: (1.47) FIG. 2: HW: (Previous Exam Problem) A ball is thrown with initial speed v o up an inclined plane. The inclined plane makes an angle of π/6 above the horizontal line and the ball is launched at an angle θ above the inclined plane (see Fig.2). No air resistance in this 2

3 problem. (An appropriate choice of the reference frame makes it easy!) (a) How long in time does the ball stay in the air? (b) At what angle of θ should the ball be launched in order to fall back on the plane normal to the inclined plane surface? You can express the angle in arctan. Week 4: September 10-14, Due September 17 EX: (2.6) EX: (2.7) HW: (2.4) Part (b) only (Force = P/ t) HW: (2.10) Buoyant force F b = ρvg. EX: Consider a particle of m. The velocity of the particle is measured as a function of displacement x: v = c î x + x o where x o is a positive constant. Express the force acting on the particle in terms of x. ANS: F = m d v and use dv = dv dx = dvv. Then, dt dt dx dt dx F = c 2 (x+x o) 3î. It is a resistive force causing deceleration! HW: (2.12) v = dv = dv dx = dvv = 1 d(v 2 ) dt dx dt dx 2 dx HW: (2.14) Check your answer for (a) by putting t = 0. Does it produce the correct initial speed? Useful relation: ln x = x ln x x. EX: (Previous Exam Problem) An object of mass m is dropped from a high tower. One measures the coordinate y vertically down from the drop height. (a) Write down the equation of motion for this object assuming the dominant drag force is given by f = cv 2. (b) What is the terminal speed v ter of this object? (c) Calculate the speed of the object at time t. Does it reach v ter as t? HW: A block of mass m slides on a horizontal surface. The surface is treated specially to have a drag force described by (a) What is the dimension of α? f d = αv 2ˆv (α > 0). (b) The block moves with a speed of v o at t = 0. Calculate the speed of the block at a later time t. 3

4 (c) How long does the block travel until it stops? Week 5-6: September 17-21, Due October 1 HW: A spherical object with 5 g mass and 10 cm diameter is launched at an angle 60 above the horizontal line with a speed of 10 m/s. Using the linear drag force in air, f lin = βdv where β = Ns/m 2 and D is the diameter of the spherical object, plot the trajectories of this object in the xy-plane with and without the drag force (use any software). Compare the landing points between two cases. How good is Eq. (2.44) obtained using successive approximation? HW: (2.19) EX: (2.24) Not that difficult. f quad = 1 4 ρ airav 2. HW: (2.27) Useful integral: 1 1+x 2 dx = tan 1 (x), 1 1 x 2 dx = tanh 1 (x). HW: (2.38) (a) and (b) only. HW: (2.40) Exam on September 24 Week 7: October 1-5, Due October 8 EX: Example 3.1 on p. 84. EX: Consider a gun of mass M (when unloaded) that fires a shell of mass m with muzzle speed v. This means that the shell s speed relative to the gun with is v. Assume the gun is under test and is completely free to recoil. Ignoring gravitational force, there is no external force applied to the gun and shell. Therefore the total linear momentum has to be conserved. What is the shell s speed relative to the ground? Let s follow the following process to work on this problem. (a) To apply conservation of momentum lets choose a inertial reference frame through out the process: before and after trigger. The frame on the ground would do it. (b) Before the trigger the total momentum P = M v g + m v s = 0 since v g = v s = 0 from the ground. (c) After trigger, the shell and the gun moves with v s and v g, respectively in the ground R.F. But the conservation of momentum forces P = 0 = M v g + m v s, therefore, M v g = m v s (Eq.(1)). (d) Therefore, the velocity of the shell from the gun is v = v s v g (Eq.(2)). Solving Eq.(1) and (2) will give you v s = Mv/(M + m). HW: A loaded spring gun, initially at rest on a horizontal frictionless surface, fires a shot of mass m at angle of θ above the horizontal surface. The muzzle speed of the shot is v o and the mass of the unloaded gun is M. What is the final motion of the gun? 4

5 Hint: This is exactly the same problem as the above EX. EX: A rod of length L has a nonuniform density, λ (mass per unit length) given by λ = λ o (s/l), where λ o is a constant and s is the distance from the end marked 0. (a) If the total mass of the rod is M, what is λ o? (b) Then, the mass element dm = λ o ds and you can calculate the center of mass position from the end. ANS: 2 L. Does it make sense? Compare with the uniform rod. 3 HW: (3.4) HW: (3.21) HW: (3.12) HW: (3.14) HW: (3.19) Week 8: October 8-12, Due October 15 HW: In class, we talked about the motion of a conical pendulum. It is in steady circular motion with constant angular speed ω (see Fig. 3). We will analyse this problem in two different ways: origin at point A and B. (a) Show that the net external force on the mass M is F ext = Mg tanαˆr. (b) What is the angular momentum of this pendulum when you choose point A as the origin? (c) What is the net torque ( Γ A ) on the mass in this case? (d) What is the angular momentum and the net torque ( Γ B ) on the mass when you choose point B as the origin? Ans: Γ B = MgL sin αˆφ. (e) Are your results for two cases consistent with Newton s 2nd law? HW: (3.25) HW: (3.30) HW: (3.32) You need to know the spherical polar coordinates for this problem. Read p in Taylor. Spherical Polar Coordinates Position vector: r = r r = r sin θ cosφî + r sin θ sin φĵ + r cos θˆk. Any vector: A = Arˆr + A φ ˆφ + Aθˆθ. Differential surface element: ds = (r sin θdθ)(rdφ) = r 2 sin θdθdφ. 5

6 FIG. 3: Differential volume element: dv = (r sin θdθ)(rdφ)dr = r 2 sin θdrdθdφ. 0 θ π, 0 φ 2π. HW: (Previous Exam Problem) (3.35) Hint: Attend the lectures. FIG. 4: Week 9: October 15-19, Due October 22 No Homework Enjoy the football game. Week 10: October 22-26, Due October 31 EX: (4.2) HW: (4.4) You can go back to (3.25). EX: (4.6) 6

7 HW: A mass m is shot vertically upward from the surface of the earth with initial speed v o. The gravitational force on the mass is F g = GMm where M is the mass of the earth r 2 and r is the distance from the center of the earth. R is the radius of the earth. (a) Show that the maximum height is r m = (b) and the escape velocity is v esc = 2gR. R (1 v2 o 2gR ), EX: Let s go back to the conical pendulum (WK 8 Homework). The pendulum (mass m) is rotating with angular speed ω. What is the kinetic energy? Does it change? How much work is done in one period by the tension and gravitational force, respectively? HW: (4.8) This becomes 1D problem if you express the potential and kinetic energy in terms of the angle θ (see Fig. 5 below). HW: (4.12) HW: (4.18) FIG. 5: HW: (4.24) See Fig. 6 below. Do you see the z-component of the total force completely cancels out due to symmetry? HW: (4.28) Integral Table at Week 11: October 29 - November 2, Due November 7 HW: (4.34) 7

8 FIG. 6: HW: (4.36) Hint: You will get potential energy U(θ) = mg b tan θ Mg(L EX: (4.37) (a) and (b) Ans: (a) U(φ = mgrφ + MgR cos φ. (b) Stable for 0 < φ < π 2 ; unstable for π 2 < φ < π. HW: (4.38) HW: (4.41) HW: (4.43) HW: (4.45) EX: (4.53) Week 12 & 13: November 5-16, Due November 19 EX: (5.2) EX: (5.5) (5.7) Must-know! HW: (5.12) EX: (5.16) HW: (5.23) de dt = vf damp EX: (5.24) HW: (5.29) b ). sin θ 8

9 EX: A simple pendulum consists of a mass m suspended from a fixed point by a massless rod of length l. (a) Obtain the equation of motion. (b) Obtain the natural frequency of this system for small oscillation θ 1. (c) Discuss the motion of the pendulum when the motion takes place in a viscous medium with retarding force 2m gl θ. Ans: Critically damped. HW: In order to conduct high resolution optics experiments, it is essential to eliminate (damp out) mechanical vibrations on the equipments. An optical table is designed to provide an effective and efficient vibration isolation for this purpose. The simplest scheme is to put the table on springs with a damper. Consider the simplified vibration isolation (damping) scheme shown in the figure below. The table has mass m and the isolation system is characterized by its spring constant k and damping coefficient γ that provides a linear damping force proportional to the relative speed of the table to the floor. Choose the static floor height as your reference point of all the vertical displacement. The center of mass of the table is at x o in equilibrium (balance point between spring force and weight of the table). Now allow vertical displacements of both ground floor and the table from their equilibrium position and represent their displacements as x and y (see Figure 7). (a) Show that the equation of motion for the table is mẍ + γẋ + kx = ky + γẏ. (b) Suppose the floor vibrates vertically at an angular frequency ω expressed by y = y o cos ωt. Then the equation of motion becomes mẍ + γẋ + kx = ky o cos ωt γωy o sin ωt. To solve this inhomogeneous differential equation, one can use the same technique discussed in the class: turning it into a complex differential equation and at the end take the real part. Show that the equation for the complex solution is z + 2βż + ω 2 oz = (ω 2 o + i2βω)y o e iωt where 2β = γ m and ω2 o = k m. (c) Using a trial solution z = z o e iωt, show that [ z o y o = (d) Plot this result as a function of ω ω o. ω 4 o + 4β 2 ω 2 (ω 2 o ω 2 ) 2 + 4β 2 ω 2 ]1 2. HW: (5.35) HW: (5.41) See class notes. 9

10 FIG. 7: HW: (5.44) E dis = 2πmβωA 2 Week 14-16: Due December 5 HW: (5.48) HW: (5.51) HW: Consider a 1-D linear damped oscillator described by the conventional differential equation: ẍ + 2βẋ + ω 2 ox = 0. Follow the conventional notations for β and ω o used in the text. If this oscillator is driven by a step function given by F(t) = a for m t > 0, show that the general solution for this oscillator is x(t) = a ] [1 e βt cos ω ωo 2 1 t βe βt sin ω 1 t ω 1 for t > 0. The oscillator was at rest in its equilibrium position before the driving force hit. EX: Using the result of previous HW, describe your strategy of solving a 1-D damped oscillator driven by a square impulse force given by F(t) m = a for only 0 < t < t o. Hint: A square impulse given can be generated by a clever linear superposition of the force in the previous HW. EX: (6.1) and (6.16) HW: (6.4) HW: (6.12) 10

11 HW: (6.14) HW: (6.23) Hint: See the figure below. The arrows indicate the wind velocity. For φ 1, v(y) v o (1 + V y v o ). FIG. 8: HW: (6.25) The End 11

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