Theory of Computation


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1 Theory of Computation Dr. Sarmad Abbasi Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 1 / 33
2 Lecture 20: Overview Incompressible strings Minimal Length Descriptions Descriptive Complexity Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 2 / 33
3 Incompressible strings Recall that a string, x, is bcompressible if K(x) x b 1 A string is bincompressible if it is not bcompressible. 2 A string is incompressible if it is not 1compressible. Incompressible strings cannot be compressed. Their description is at least as long as the string itself. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 3 / 33
4 Incompressible strings 1 Incompressible strings look like random strings. 2 This can be made precise in many ways. Many properties of random strings are also true for incompressible strings. For example Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 4 / 33
5 Incompressible strings We proved two theorems: Theorem For every n there is a incompressible string of length n. Theorem The number of bincompressible strings of length b is at least The proof is simple counting! 2 n 2 n b Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 5 / 33
6 Incompressible strings 1 Incompressible strings have roughly the same number of 0 s and 1 s. 2 The longest run of 0 is of size O(log n). Let us prove a theorem which is central in this theory. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 6 / 33
7 Incompressible strings Theorem A computable property that holds for almost all strings also holds for incompressible strings. Let us formalize this statement. A property p is a mapping from set of all strings to {TRUE, FALSE}. Thus p : {0, 1} {true, false} Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 7 / 33
8 Incompressible strings We say that p holds for almost all strings if {x {0, 1} n : p(x) = false } 2 n approaches 0 as n approaches infinity. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 8 / 33
9 Incompressible strings Theorem Let p be a computable property. If p holds for almost all strings the for any b > 0, the property p is false on only finitely many strings that are incompressible by b. Let M be the following algorithm: 1 On input i (in binary) 2 Find the ith string s such that p(s) = False. Considering the strings lexicographically. 3 Output s. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 9 / 33
10 Incompressible strings We can use M to obtain short descriptions of string that do not have property p. Let x be a string that does not have property p. Let i x be the index of x in the list of all strings that do not have property p ordered lexicographically. Then M, i x is a description of x. The length of this description is i x + c Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 10 / 33
11 Incompressible strings Now we count. For any give b > 0 select n such that at most 1 2 b+c fraction of the strings of length n do not have property p. Note that since p holds for almost all strings, this is true for all sufficiently large n. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 11 / 33
12 Incompressible strings Then we have i x 2n 2 b+c Therefore, i x n b c. Hence the length of M i x is at most n b c + c = n b. Thus K(x) n b which means x is bcompressible. Hence, only finitely many strings that fail p can be incompressible by b. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 12 / 33
13 Incompressible strings We can ask a very interesting question now: Is it possible to compress a string that is already compressed? The answer to this question seems to be no! Let us prove something that is quite close to this. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 13 / 33
14 Incompressible strings Theorem There is a constant b such that for every string x the minimal description d(x) is incompressible by b. Roughly the idea of the proof is that If d(x) were compressible we could use the compressed version of d(x) to obtain a smaller description of x than d(x). Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 14 / 33
15 Incompressible strings Consider the following TM M: 1 On input R, y 2 Run R on y and reject if its output is not of the form S, z 3 Run S on z and halt with its output on the tape. This machine is decoding twice. Let b = 2 M + 3. We now show that b satisfies the statement of the theorem. Suppose on the contrary that d(x) is b compressible for some string. The d(d(x)) d(x) b. But what happens if we run M on d(d(x)). Note that it outputs x Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 15 / 33
16 Incompressible strings Thus < M > d(d(x)) is a description of x. How long is this description? 2 M d(d(x)) = (b 1) + ( d(x) b) = d(x) 1 This contradicts the fact that d(x) is the minimal description of x. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 16 / 33
17 Complexity Theory Now we will look at resource bounded computations. Two of the most important resources are going to be 1 Time 2 Space Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 17 / 33
18 Complexity Theory Let A = {0 k 1 k : k 0} Consider the following TM that accepts A 1 Scan across the tape to check if all 0 s are before 1 s if not reject. 2 Scan across the tape crossing of a 0 and a 1 each time. 3 If 0 s remain and 1 s finished reject. 4 if 1 s remain and 0 s are finished reject. 5 if both 0 s and 1 s are finished accept. 6 Goto Step 2 We want to analyze this algorithm and talk about how many steps (time) does it take. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 18 / 33
19 Complexity Theory A step of the Turing machine is assumed to take unit time. Lets start with a definition. Let M be a TM that halts on all inputs. The running time or the time complexity of M is a function f : N N such that f (n) is the maximum number of steps that M uses on any input of length n. 1 We say that M runs in time f (n). 2 M is f (n)time TM. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 19 / 33
20 Big O notation We want to understand how much time a TM takes in the worst case. The exact running time t(n) is going to be very complicated expression. In some cases we will not be able to compute it. But what we are interested in is getting a rough idea of how t(n) grows for large inputs. So we will use asymptotic notation. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 20 / 33
21 Big O notation Lets look at an example let f (n) = 5n n 2 6n + 48 This function has four terms. He most important term is 5n 3 which will be the bulk if n is large. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 21 / 33
22 Big O notation In fact 5n 3 the constant 5 does not contribute to the growth of this function. Thus we will say that f (n) is order n 3. We will denote this by Let us state this precisely: f (n) = O(n 3 ). Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 22 / 33
23 Big O notation Let f, g : N R +. We say that f (n) = O(g(n)) if there are positive integers c, n 0 such that for all n n 0 f (n) cg(n) When f (n) = O(g(n)) we say that g is an asymptotic upperbound on f. Sometime we will just say that g is an upper bound on f. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 23 / 33
24 Big O notation Intuitively if f (n) = O(g(n)) you can think that f is less than or equal to some multiple of g. For most functions the highest order term is is an obvious candidate to be g. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 24 / 33
25 Big O notation Let Then Furthermore, But it is not true that f (n) = 13n 4 + 7n f (n) = O(n 4 ) f (n) = O(n 5 ) f (n) = O(n 3 ) Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 25 / 33
26 Big O notation When we say that f (n) = O(g(n)) we are only claiming that g(n) is an asymptotic upper bound on f. It may not be the best one. Lets look at other examples. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 26 / 33
27 Big O notation Suppose that where b is a constant. Note that f (n) = log b n log b n = log 2 n log 2 b. Hence we can say Let then f (n) = O(log n) f 2 (n) = 5n log n + 200n log log n + 17 f 2 (n) = O(n log n) Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 27 / 33
28 Big O notation We can use O notation in exponents also. Thus 2 O(n) stands for a function that is upper bounded by 2 cn for some constant c. We have to be careful though For example O(log n) 2 Well remember that O(log n) has a constant attached to it. Thus this is upper bounded by 2 c log n by some constant c. Now, we get 2 c log n = (2 log n ) c = n c Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 28 / 33
29 Big O notation Bounds of the form n c are called polynomial bounds. Where as bounds of the form 2 nc are called exponential bounds. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 29 / 33
30 small o notation The Big O notation roughly says that f is upper bounded by g. Now we want to say f grows strictly slower that g. Let f, g : N R +. We say that f (n) = o(g(n)) if f (n) lim n g(n) = 0 Thus the ratio of f and g becomes closer and closer to 0. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 30 / 33
31 small o notation 1 n = o(n) 2 n = o(n log log n) 3 n log log n = o(n log n) 4 n log n = o(n 2 ) 5 n 2 = o(n 3 ). Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 31 / 33
32 small o notation Lets look at a new TM that recognizes A = {0 k 1 k : k 0} 1 Scan the tape and make sure all the 0s are before 1s. 2 Repeat till there are 0s and 1 s on the tape. 3 Scan the tape and if the total number of 0 s and 1 s is odd reject. 4 Scan and cross of every other 0 and do the same with every other 1. 5 If all 0 s and 1 s are crossed accept. Thus if we have 13 0 s in the next stage there would be 6. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 32 / 33
33 small o notation How much time does this TM take? O(n log n) Thus the time taken by this TM is o(n 2 ). Hence, this reflects a real algorithmic improvement. Dr. Sarmad Abbasi () Theory of Computation 33 / 33
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