# Chomsky Normal Form and TURING MACHINES. TUESDAY Feb 4

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1 Chomsky Normal Form and TURING MACHINES TUESDAY Feb 4

2 CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM A context-free grammar is in Chomsky normal form if every rule is of the form: A BC A a S ε B and C aren t start variables a is a terminal S is the start variable Any variable A that is not the start variable can only generate strings of length > 0

3 CHOMSKY NORMAL FORM A context-free grammar is in Chomsky normal form if every rule is of the form: A BC A a S ε B and C aren t start variables a is a terminal S is the start variable S 0S1 S TT T ε S 0 TU TV ε T 0 U SV S TU TV V 1

4 Theorem: If G is in CNF, w L(G) and w > 0, then any derivation of w in G has length 2 w - 1 Proof (by induction on w ): Base Case: If w = 1, then any derivation of w must have length 1 (A a) Inductive Step: Assume true for any string of length at most k 1, and let w = k+1 Since w > 1, derivation starts with A BC So w = xy where B * x, x > 0 and C * y, y > 0 By the inductive hypothesis, the length of any derivation of w must be 1 + (2 x - 1) + (2 y - 1) = 2( x + y ) - 1

5 Theorem: Any context-free language can be generated by a context-free grammar in Chomsky normal form Can transform any CFG into Chomsky normal form

6 Theorem: Any context-free language can be generated by a context-free grammar in Chomsky normal form Proof Idea: 1. Add a new start variable 2. Eliminate all A!ε rules (ε rules). Repair grammar 3. Eliminate all A!B rules (unit productions). Repair 4. Convert A!u 1 u 2... u k to A!u 1 A 1, A 1!u 2 A 2,... If u i is a terminal, replace u i with U i and add U i!u i

7 1. 2. Add Remove a new all start A variable ε rules S 0 and (where add A the is not rule SS 0 ) 0 S For each occurrence of A on right hand side of a rule, add a new rule with the occurrence deleted If we have the rule B A, add B ε, unless we have previously removed B ε 3. Remove unit rules A B Whenever B w appears, add the rule A w unless this was a unit rule previously removed S 0 S S 0S1 S T#T S T T ε S T# S #T S # S ε S S1 S 0 ε

8 4. Convert all remaining rules into the proper form: S 0 0S1 S 0 A 1 A 2 A 1 0 A 2 SA 3 A 3 1 S 0 01 S 0 A 1 A 3 S 01 S A 1 A 3 S 0 ε S 0 0S1 S 0 T#T S 0 T# S 0 #T S 0 # S 0 01 S 0S1 S T#T S T# S #T S # S 01

9 Convert the following into Chomsky normal form: A BAB B ε B 00 ε S 0 A A BAB B ε B 00 ε S 0 A ε A BAB B BB AB BA B 00 S 0 BAB 00 BB AB BA ε A BAB 00 BB AB BA B 00 S 0 BC DD BB AB BA ε, C AB, A BC DD BB AB BA, B DD, D 0

10 TURING MACHINE FINITE STATE q 10 CONTROL AI N P U T INFINITE TAPE

11 TURING MACHINE FINITE STATE q 10 CONTROL AI N P U T INFINITE TAPE

12 Theoretical Computer Science follows TURING, 1937 On computable numbers, with an application to the {Entscheidungsproblem Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, 42, 1937, pp vol.

13 read write move 0 0, R, R q accept, R q reject 0 0, R 0 0, R, L

14 read write move 0 0, R, R q accept, R 0 0, R 0 0, R, L

15 TMs VERSUS FINITE AUTOMATA TM can both write to and read from the tape The head can move left and right The input doesn t have to be read entirely, and the computation can continue after all the input has been read Accept and Reject take immediate effect

16 Definition: A Turing Machine is a 7-tuple T = (Q, Σ, Γ, δ, q 0, q accept, q reject ), where: Q is a finite set of states Σ is the input alphabet, where Σ Γ is the tape alphabet, where Γ and Σ Γ δ : Q Γ Q Γ {L, R} q 0 Q is the start state q accept Q is the accept state q reject Q is the reject state, and q reject q accept

17 CONFIGURATIONS 11010q corresponds to: q

18 A Turing Machine M accepts input w if there is a sequence of configurations C 1,, C k such that 1. C 1 is a start configuration of M on input w, ie C 1 is q 0 w 2. each C i yields C i+1, ie M can legally go from C i to C i+1 in a single step ua q i bv yields u q j acv if δ (q i, b) = (q j, c, L) ua qi bv yields uac q j v if δ (q i, b) = (q j, c, R)

19 A Turing Machine M accepts input w if there is a sequence of configurations C 1,, C k such that 1. C 1 is a start configuration of M on input w, ie C 1 is q 0 w 2. each C i yields C i+1, ie M can legally go from C i to C i+1 in a single step 3. C k is an accepting configuration, ie the state of the configuration is q accept

20 A TM recognizes a language iff it accepts all and only those strings in the language A language L is called Turing-recognizable or recursively enumerable or semi-decidable iff some TM recognizes L A TM decides a language L iff it accepts all strings in L and rejects all strings not in L A language L is called decidable or recursive iff some TM decides L

21 A language is called Turing-recognizable or recursively enumerable (r.e.) or semidecidable if some TM recognizes it A language is called decidable or recursive if some TM decides it r.e. languages recursive languages Theorem: If A and A are r.e. then A is recursive

22 Theorem: If A and A are r.e. then A is recursive Given: a TM that recognizes A and a TM that recognizes A, we can build a new machine that decides A

23 2 { 0 n n 0 } Is decidable PSEUDOCODE: 1. Sweep from left to right, cross out every other 0 2. If in stage 1, the tape had only one 0, accept 3. If in stage 1, the tape had an odd number of 0 s, reject 4. Move the head back to the first input symbol. 5. Go to stage 1.

24 2 { 0 n n 0 } x x, L 0 0, L q 2 x x, R, R, L x x, R q 0 q 1 0, R 0 x, R q 3 x x, R, R, R 0 x, R 0 0, R q reject q accept q 4, R x x, R

25 2 { 0 n n 0 } x x, R, R q 2 x x, L 0 0, L q q xq 3 00, L x0q 4 0 x x, R q 0 q 1 0, R x x, R, R, R q reject q accept 0 x, R 0 x, R x0xq 3 q 3 x0q 2 x xq 2 0x q 4 0 0, R q 2 x0x q 2 x0x, R x x, R

26 C = {a i b j c k k = ij, and i, j, k 1} PSEUDOCODE: 1. If the input doesn t match a*b*c*, reject. 2. Move the head back to the leftmost symbol. 3. Cross off an a, scan to the right until b. Sweep between b s and c s, crossing off one of each until all b s are crossed off. 4. Uncross all the b s. If there s another a left, then repeat stage 3. If all a s are crossed out, Check if all c s are crossed off. If yes, then accept, else reject.

27 C = {a i b j c k k = ij, and i, j, k 1} aabbbcccccc xabbbcccccc xayyyzzzccc xabbbzzzccc xxyyyzzzzzz

28 MULTITAPE TURING MACHINES FINITE STATE CONTROL δ : Q Γ k Q Γ k {L,R} k

29 Theorem: Every Multitape Turing Machine can be transformed into a single tape Turing Machine FINITE STATE CONTROL FINITE STATE CONTROL #. #. #

30 Theorem: Every Multitape Turing Machine can be transformed into a single tape Turing Machine FINITE STATE CONTROL FINITE STATE CONTROL #. #. #

31 THE CHURCH-TURING THESIS Intuitive Notion of Algorithms EQUALS Turing Machines

32 We can encode a TM as a string of 0s and 1s n states start state reject state 0 n 10 m 10 k 10 s 10 t 10 r 10 u 1 m tape symbols (first k are input symbols) accept state blank symbol ( (p, a), (q, b, L) ) = 0 p 10 a 10 q 10 b 10 ( (p, a), (q, b, R) ) = 0 p 10 a 10 q 10 b 11

33 Similarly, we can encode DFAs, NFAs, CFGs, etc. into strings of 0s and 1s So we can define the following languages: A DFA = { (B, w) B is a DFA that accepts string w } Theorem: A DFA is decidable Proof Idea: Simulate B on w A NFA = { (B, w) B is an NFA that accepts string w } Theorem: A NFA is decidable A CFG = { (G, w) G is a CFG that generates string Theorem: w } A CFG is decidable Proof Idea: Transform G into Chomsky Normal Form. Try all derivations of length up to 2 w -1

34 Read Chapter 3 of the book for next time

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