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1 Lesson 4- Matrix Addition BIG IDEA Matrices with the same dimensions can be added in a very natural way. Vocabulary matrix addition, sum of two matrices scalar multiplication, scalar product difference of two matrices How Are Matrices Added? There are many situations which require adding the information stored in matrices. For instance, suppose matrix C represents the current inventory of cars at Rusty s Car Dealership. Current Inventory Red Blue White Silver Tan Turbo Cruiser = C Clunker Vacationer A new shipment of cars arrives and the numbers stored in matrix D are the quantities of the new cars received by Rusty. Deliveries Red Blue White Silver Tan Turbo Cruiser = D Clunker Vacationer Mental Math At the movies, a bag of popcorn costs \$4.50, a soda costs \$3.5, and a package of candy costs \$3.00. a. How much do one bag of popcorn and two sodas cost? b. How much do two sodas and two packages of candy cost? c. How much do one bag of popcorn, one soda, and one package of candy cost? d. How much do p bags of popcorn, s sodas, and c packages of candy cost? The current total inventory is found by adding matrices C and D. This matrix addition is performed according to the following rule. Definition of Matrix Addition If two matrices A and B have the same dimensions, their sum A + B is the matrix in which each element is the sum of the corresponding elements in A and B. Add corresponding elements of C and D to find the elements of C + D. One set of corresponding elements is circled in the two matrices on this page and the matrix at the top of the following page: = 0. Custom paint jobs such as the one above can give cars a unique look. 8 Matrices

2 Lesson 4- New Inventory Red Blue White Silver Tan Turbo Cruiser = C + D Clunker Vacationer Since matrix addition involves adding corresponding elements, only matrices with the same dimensions can be added. As the car dealership example shows, the sum matrix will have the same dimensions as the matrices that were added. Because addition of real numbers is commutative, addition of matrices is commutative. Thus, if two matrices A and B can be added, then A + B = B + A. Also, addition of matrices is associative, meaning that for all matrices A, B, and C with the same dimensions, (A + B) + C = A + (B + C). Scalar Multiplication Matrix addition is related to a special multiplication involving matrices called scalar multiplication. Activity MATERIALS CAS Step 1 Enter the matrix into your CAS and store it as M1. Step Add the matrix from Step 1 to itself and write down the result. You should see a display similar to the one at the right. Step 3 Add the result from Step to the original matrix in Step 1 and write down the result. Step 4 If you add the result from Step 3 to the matrix in Step 1, what result do you expect? Why? Step 5 Clear your screen and enter * result. and write down the Step 6 Enter 3 * Step 7 If you enter 4 * and write down the result., what result do you expect? Why? Step 8: Is there a connection between your responses to Step 4 and Step 7? If so, what is it? Matrix Addition 9

3 With real numbers, you can use multiplication as shorthand for repeated addition. For instance, a + a + a can be written as 3 a or 3a. The Activity gives evidence that this rule also holds true for matrices. Repeated matrix addition gives rise to an operation called scalar multiplication. Definition of Scalar Multiplication The scalar product of a real number k and a matrix A is the matrix ka in which each element is k times the corresponding element in A. Example 1 Find the scalar product Solution Multiply each element in the matrix by = = How Are Matrices Subtracted? In the set of real numbers, subtraction has the following property: a - b = a + b = a + 1 b. Matrices are subtracted in a similar manner: A - B = A + ( 1)B = A + ( B). Definition of Matrix Subtraction Given two matrices A and B with the same dimensions, their difference A - B is the matrix in which each element is the difference of the corresponding elements in A and B. 30 Matrices

4 Lesson 4- Example The matrices P1 and P below represent the degrees earned by men and women in four professions during 003 and Male Female Medicine 8,1 6,813 Dentistry,653 1,691 Law 19,916 19,151 Theology 3,499 1,85 = P1 004 Male Female Medicine 8,73 7,169 Dentistry,53 1,803 Law 0,33 19,877 Theology 3,511 1,81 = P Source: U.S. Census Bureau a. Create a new matrix that shows the change in the number of degrees awarded from 003 to 004, separated by gender. b. Which group, male or female, had the greater total increase in degrees awarded? Solution a. The change by gender of degrees awarded can be found by creating P - P1. Store P1 and P on a CAS. Then subtract the matrices as shown at the right. b. The sum of the elements in the fi rst column in matrix P - P1 gives the overall change for males, and the sum of the elements in the second column gives the overall change for females. Overall change for males: = 359 Overall change for females: = 1163 Females had the greater total increase in degrees awarded with 1163 more degrees in 004 than 003. QY When more than one matrix operation appears in an expression, you should follow the same order of operations as with expressions involving real numbers. That is, you should perform scalar multiplication before addition or subtraction. You are asked to evaluate expressions with more than one matrix operation in Questions 4 and 5. QY Check your answer to Part a of Example by performing the subtraction of the fi rst row by hand. Questions COVERING THE IDEAS 1. Can you add 6 8 to 4? Explain why or why not. Matrix Addition 31

5 In 5, perform the indicated operations In 6 and 7, refer to Rusty s car inventory matrices C and D at the beginning of this lesson. 6. Does C + D = D + C? Explain why or why not. 7. Suppose matrix D represents cars in the current inventory that were damaged in a hailstorm. Find C - D, and explain what it represents. 8. Refer to the matrix P - P1 from Example. a. For which profession was there the greatest change in the number of degrees awarded? b. Is the change in Part a an increase or decrease? 9. a. True or False Subtraction of matrices is commutative. b. Let B = and C = 5. Support your answer to 8 11 Part a by evaluating B - C and C - B. APPLYING THE MATHEMATICS 10. The matrices N1, N, and N3 give the enrollments by gender and grade at North High School over a 3-year period, beginning with N1 and ending with N3. In each matrix, row 1 gives the number of boys and row the number of girls. Columns 1 to 4 give the number of students in grades 9 through 1, respectively. N1 = N = N3 = Grades boys girls boys girls boys girls a. Find matrix T that shows the total enrollment in each grade by gender over the 3-year time span. b. What was the change in enrollment for boys and girls in each grade from the first year to the last year? 3 Matrices

6 Lesson Some key results for four teams from the National Football League for the 005 and 006 regular season are given in the matrices below. W = number of wins, L = number of losses, PF = points scored for the team, and PA = points scored against the team. 006 W L PF PA New England Pittsburgh Indianapolis Denver Source: W L PF PA New England Pittsburgh Indianapolis Denver a. Subtract the right matrix from the left matrix. Call the difference M. b. What is the meaning of the 4th column of M? c. Interpret each number in the 1st row of M. 1. Pearl, a puzzle maker, constructs three types of animal puzzles for children in two different styles. Pearl s output last year is given in the matrix P below. Cat Dog Mouse Wood = P Cardboard a. Suppose Pearl wants to increase output by 5%. Write the matrix that represents the needed output. Round all decimals to the nearest whole number. b. If your answer to Part a is the matrix kp, what is k? Let F =. Let G = a. Solve F = kg for k. b. Solve G = lf for l Is D = a scalar multiple of E =? If so, identify the scalar k. If not, explain why not. In 15 and 16, solve for a, b, c and d. 15. a b c d = The Pittsburgh Steelers celebrated their 006 Super Bowl win. 16. a b c.5 = d Matrix Addition 33

7 REVIEW 17. Write a matrix to represent the triangle with vertices at the origin, (0, 4), and ( 1, 0). (Lesson 4-1) 18. According to the 000 United States Census, in 000 there were 7,9,068 foreign-born and 46,365,310 native-born people living in the Northeast; 3,509,937 foreign-born and 60,88,839 native-born people living in the Midwest; 8,608,441 foreignborn and 91,68,379 native-born people living in the South; and 11,760,443 foreign-born and 51,437,489 native-born people living in the West. Write a matrix to store this information in millions, rounding each population to the nearest million. (Lesson 4-1) 19. Graph f(x) = x and g(x) = x separately. Explain the difference in the two graphs. (Lesson 3-9) 0. A plumber charges a fixed fee to come to your house, plus an hourly fee for the time spent on the repair job. Suppose the plumber comes to your house, works for an hour, and charges \$10. The next week the plumber has to return to finish the job and spends one and a half hours working, and charges \$160. Write a possible equation that describes how much the plumber charges based on hours of work. Use it to figure out the fixed fee. (Lesson 3-4) 1. A rectangle has sides of length 4x and 0.5x. (Lesson -5) a. Write an equation for the area of the rectangle as a function of the lengths of its sides. b. Graph this equation in an appropriate window. c. What is the domain of the function you graphed? d. What is the domain of the function if the context is ignored? e. Graph the function again over the domain in Part d. 4x 0.5x EXPLORATION. The matrix 1 3 gives the endpoints of a line segment. 4 a. Find the slope of the line containing the segment and graph it. 4 b. Find the slope of the line through points and graph it. 1 3 c. Compare the two matrices. Then generalize Parts a and b. QY ANSWER [ ] - [ ] = [ ] = [5 356] The subtraction checks. 34 Matrices

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