Materials Science and Engineering C

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Materials Science and Engineering C"

Transcription

1 Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Materials Science and Engineering C journal homepage: Doxorubicin loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore , Singapore article info abstract Article history: Received 7 September 2009 Received in revised form 4 December 2009 Accepted 11 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 Keywords: Superparamagnetic magnetic nanoparticles Functionalization Conjugation Magnetic drug delivery Magnetic drug targeting is a drug delivery system that can be used in locoregional cancer treatment. Coated magnetic particles, called carriers, are very useful for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs. Magnetic carriers were synthesized by coprecipitation of iron oxide followed by coating with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. The magnetic core of the carriers was magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), with average size of 10 nm. The room temperature VSM measurements showed that magnetic particles were superparamagnetic. The amount of PVA bound to the iron oxide nanoparticles were estimated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the attachment of PVA to the iron oxide nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR analysis. Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the drug release followed the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. The binding of DOX to the PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. The present findings show that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising for magnetically targeted drug delivery Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Corresponding author. Tel.: ; fax: address: (R.V. Ramanujan). In the last decade, nanotechnology has developed to such an extent that it is possible to synthesize, characterize and tailor the functional properties of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications [1 7]. This has led to enormous interest in magnetic nanoparticle based systems for cancer treatment [8 16]. The limitations of conventional chemotherapy include general systemic distribution of drug, lack of drug specificity to the tumor site, insufficient local drug concentration in the tumor and poor control over drug release. The general systemic distribution of chemotherapeutic agent results in deleterious side effects since the drug attacks the normal, healthy cells together with the tumor cells. Therefore, it is very important to selectively target chemotherapeutic agents to the tumor. This need has prompted a search for methods of drug delivery which can address this limitation and provide more effective cancer therapy. Magnetic drug delivery system using magnetic nanoparticle carriers targeted by an external magnetic field is a promising alternative to avoid the problems associated with conventional chemotherapy [8,10,11,16 18]. In magnetically targeted drug delivery, carriers comprising of coated magnetic nanoparticles loaded with anti-cancer drug are injected into the patient body via the human circulatory system. An external magnetic field is used to localize the drug loaded carriers at the tumor site and the drug can then be released from the carriers either via enzymatic activity or changes in physiological conditions such as ph, osmolality, or temperature [16] and be taken up by tumor cells. Alexiou et al. showed that this magnetic targeted drug delivery caused complete tumor remission in tumor bearing rabbits without any negative side effects and the applied dose of drug reduced to 20% of the regular systemic dose [8,19,20]. A Phase-I human clinical trial with 4-epidoxorubicin showed encouraging results of the physiological tolerance of magnetic drug targeting by patients [17]. Magnetic nanoparticles can also be used for hyperthermia treatment of cancer [21 23]. Hyperthermia is the heating of cells in the range of C, which causes preferential death of tumor cells [24,25]. When magnetic nanoparticles are subjected to an alternating magnetic field, heat can be generated by Neel relaxation, Brownian relaxation and hysteresis losses [11]. Magnetic drug targeting using superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as carriers is of considerable amount research interest [17,18,26 32]. Iron oxide nanoparticles are biocompatible in the doses required for therapeutic use (FDA approved) and are sold commercially, currently in routine use as MRI contrast enhancement agents [33 35]. In vivo experiments on animal models have shown that iron oxides are suitable for drug delivery [16,36] and human clinical trials for drug delivery have been conducted with iron oxide based ferrofluids, the injected dosage being well tolerated by patients [17]. The most common synthesis processes of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are based on the wet chemical coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric ions with sodium hydroxide or ammonia in aqueous solution or in microemulsion [37,38] or the partial oxidation of ferrous hydroxide gels [39].Magnetic nanoparticles have a tendency to agglomerate, hence magnetic nanoparticles are generally coated with surfactants [40] or polymers [41] to minimize aggregation. When the particles are injected into the bloodstream, they are surrounded by plasma proteins (hydrophobic surface), /$ see front matter 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi: /j.msec

2 S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan / Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) this process is called opsonization [42]. Generally, particles with hydrophobic surfaces are more prone to opsonization due to hydrophobic hydrophobic interactions which causes rapid removal of opsonized particles by the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) [5,43]. However, particles which are more hydrophilic inhibit the plasma protein coating process (opsonization) [44]. Therefore, the role of hydrophilic coating is to provide stabilization of nanoparticles in biological suspension, functionalization at the surface with drugs and to increase circulation time by reducing immediate clearance of the carriers by RES. In this study, hydrophilic polymer polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) was chosen as the coating of the magnetic particles because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and it can also be readily functionalized [10,45 47]. Doxorubicin drug (DOX) was used as an anti-cancer agent since it has high therapeutic index and gives better activity on solid tumor [48]. Several researchers have studied the synthesis and characterization of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Lee et al. [49] synthesized ultrafine Fe 3 O 4 particles (4 7 nm) by precipitation in aqueous PVA solution and showed that relative crystallinity and saturation magnetization (M s ) decrease with increasing PVA concentration. Chastellain et al. reported a multistep synthesis of PVA coated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles (5 20 nm) by coprecipitation method followed by a thermochemical treatment and demonstrated the colloidal stability at neutral ph [50]. Mohapatra et al. prepared polyvinyl alcohol phosphate (PVAP) coated magnetite nanoparticles having a broad size distribution (13 55 nm) which were superparamagnetic at room temperature [45]. Petri-Fink et al. developed functionalized super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) and showed the interaction of amino-pva-spion with human melanoma cells [46]. Hanessian et al. designed and synthesized drug-functionalized linkers which were coupled to amino- PVA-SPION and showed that this drug-functionalized-amino-pva- SPION was taken up by human melanoma cells [51]. In this work, our goal is to conjugate the DOX with various PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticle carriers and study the drug loading and release profile from these carriers. Iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation technique and coated with different weight % of PVA solution. XRD, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and VSM were used to characterize the synthesized nanoparticles. These magnetic carriers were loaded with the anti-cancer drug DOX and its in vitro loading and release profiles were studied. The novelty of this work is the binding of DOX to the PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, the study of drug loading and subsequent in vitro drug release in order to evaluate the suitability of DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles as magnetic carriers for drug delivery. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Materials All chemicals were used without further purification. Chemicals used for the synthesis of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles were ferrous chloride tetrahydrate (FeCl 2 4H 2 O, Aldrich), ferric chloride hexahydrate (FeCl 3 6H 2 O, Aldrich), sodium hydroxide (NaOH, Merck Inc.), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, Fluka) with average molecular weight of 31,000 50,000 (99% degree of hydrolysis). Deionized water was used throughout the experiment. Doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX, Aldrich) was used for the drug loading and release study Synthesis of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation of iron oxide at high ph and subsequently coated with PVA solution. A mixed solution of ferrous and ferric ions (molar ratio 1:2) was prepared by dissolving 0.15 mol FeCl 2 4H 2 O and 0.3 mol FeCl 3 6H 2 O in 30 ml aqueous medium. Iron oxide was precipitated by adding this mixed solution drop by drop to 100 ml of 0.4 M NaOH solution (ph=13) while stirring at 600 rpm with an impeller and purging with N 2, when the black precipitates of iron oxide were formed. The mixture was then continuously purged with N 2 for another 20min. Precipitates and supernatant liquid were separated by centrifugation. The precipitates were washed with deionized water (purged with N 2 ) under ultrasonication for 10 min and then separated by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min. Precipitates were dried after washing three times to carry out characterization. For coating of iron oxide nanoparticles, PVA solutions were prepared by dissolving dry PVA powder in deionized water at 55 C and iron oxide nanoparticles were added and mixed with the PVA solution using a magnetic stirrer for 12h. Coated particles were separated by the use of a permanent magnet and dried in the vacuum oven for characterization. Following the above synthesis method, 5 sets of samples were prepared by varying the concentration of PVA (Table 1), the uncoated sample is referred as S-1 and those prepared with 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% (by weight) PVA solution are referred as S-2, S-3, S-4 and S-5 respectively, in subsequent results and discussion Instrumentation A Shimadzu XRD-6000 X-ray diffractometer with Cu-K α radiation (wavelength= nm) was used for X-ray analysis. Phase identification was performed by matching peak positions and relative intensities to reference JCPDS files. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD pattern was performed using TOPAS (version 4.1) software. The size and morphological characterization of the particles were carried out using a JEOL 2010 transmission electron microscope (TEM) operating at 200 kv. TEM samples were prepared by dispersing nanoparticles in acetone for 30 min by ultrasonic vibration. The aqueous dispersion was dropped on a carbon coated copper TEM grid with filter paper underneath to absorb the acetone and dried in vacuum. The amount of PVA attached to the magnetic particles was analyzed by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA Q500) up to 600 C in air at a ramp rate of 10 Cmin 1. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of uncoated, PVA coated, and DOX-conjugated PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles were recorded by Nicolet Magna-IR 550 spectrometer at 4 cm 1 resolution. The FTIR spectra were measured in the cm 1 region with samples dispersed in KBr pellets. Magnetic properties were evaluated by a Lakeshore 7404 vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), the applied field was in the range of 0 to 10kOe. The DOX concentration was measured by a UV vis (Shimadzu UV 1700) spectrophotometer equipped with quartz 1 cm optical length cuvettes (Hellma) Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release studies The water-soluble anti-cancer drug DOX was chosen as a model drug. The DOX loading was carried out by dispersing 5 mg of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles in 5 ml aqueous DOX solution (drug concentration=0.1 mg/ml) following the experimental procedure described by Kuznetsov et al. [52]. The mixture of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles in DOX was shaken in a rotary shaker (200 rpm) at 37 C for 26 h to facilitate DOX uptake. At fixed time intervals, the magnetic particles were removed from the liquid by means of a permanent magnet and the optical density of residual DOX in the supernatant was measured at 498 nm by UV vis spectrophotometer [53]. After the measurement, magnetic nanoparticles were redispersed for further DOX adsorption. Beyond a certain adsorption time, there were no further changes in the concentration of DOX since the loading capacity of the particles had reached saturation. The drug loading was determined as the difference between the initial DOX Table 1 Summary of sample sets synthesized by coprecipitation technique. Sample set S-1 S-2 S-3 S-4 S-5 PVA concentration (wt.%)

3 486 S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan / Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) concentration and the DOX concentration in the supernatant. The drug loaded magnetic nanoparticles were then magnetically separated and dried. The release profile was obtained by dispersing the dried drug loaded nanoparticles in 5 ml PBS buffer at 37 C. As in the uptake experiments, the concentration of DOX in the particle free liquid was determined at fixed time intervals by UV vis spectrophotometry. 3. Results and discussion Here we present structural, morphological and magnetic properties of uncoated and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The particles were characterized by XRD, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM. DOX loading and release studies of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are also presented Structural and morphological properties Representative powder X-ray diffraction patterns of uncoated (S-1) and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles (S-3 and S-5) are presented in Fig. 1. From the XRD analysis, it has been found that the peaks correspond to the spinel structure of magnetite phase (Fe 3 O 4, reference JCPDS No ). The peaks corresponding to reflection planes are indexed (Fig. 1). From the absence of (210) and (300) peaks in the XRD pattern, it can be concluded that separate maghemite (γ-fe 2 O 3 )isnot present in the samples. Interestingly, there is broadening of peaks from Fig. 1b to a with an increase in polymer concentration, the broadening of XRD peaks is predominantly attributed to the decrease in crystallite size. The mean crystallite size has been calculated using Scherrer's formula. The mean crystallite size of uncoated (S-1) sample is 19.3 nm and those of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles S-2, S-3, S-4, and S-5 are 14.6 nm, 7.9 nm, 5.6 nm and 4.5 nm respectively. Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns of S-1 and S-5 using TOPAZ (version 4.1) software is shown in Fig. 2 and lattice parameter calculated (a=8.39 Å) is very close to that of magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) (lattice parameter (a) from the literature; Fe 3 O 4 : Å and γ-fe 2 O 3 :8.35Å)[54]. Our XRD results agree well with the previous reports [29,45,49,50]. TEM micrographs of uncoated (S-1) and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles (S-4) are shown in Fig. 3. The particles are equiaxed with an average particle diameter in the range of nm. PVA is responsible for image blurring due to film formation. In this work, we have synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles of narrow particle size distribution (10 15 nm) by the coprecipitation technique followed by coating with different weight percentage of PVA. In the context of drug delivery, a narrow particle size range such as that obtained in the present work is useful since uniform size particles offer Fig. 2. Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction pattern of (a) S-1 (uncoated iron oxide) and (b) S-5 (5 wt.% PVA coated iron oxide). Peak broadening occurs in PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles due to decrease in crystallinity. equal probability of magnetic capture of drug loaded nanoparticles and are characterized by similar drug content PVA adsorption on iron oxide nanoparticles The amount of PVA adsorbed to the iron oxide nanoparticles was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fig. 4 shows the weight loss vs. temperature curves of pure PVA (inset), uncoated and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles heated up to 600 C in air. The inset shows that pure PVA degrades completely when heated up to 600 C. There is no significant weight loss in the TGA curve of uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fig. 4a), whereas, there are distinct weight losses in the TGA curves of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The initial weight loss up to 100 C is due to the desorption of physically adsorbed water. The weight loss from 200 to 500 C is due to the dehydration reaction of OH groups in PVA chains and subsequent degradation of PVA releasing CO 2 gas. The weight loss due to PVA is presented in Table 2. PVA is known to adsorb nonspecifically on oxide surfaces through hydrogen bonding arising from the polar functional groups of PVA and the hydroxylated and protonated surface of the oxide [55]. Fig. 1. X-ray powder diffraction pattern of (a) S-5 (5 wt.% PVA coated iron oxide), (b) S-3 (1 wt.% PVA coated iron oxide) and (c) S-1 (uncoated iron oxide). The phase is magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ), peaks corresponding to reflection planes are indexed FTIR study FTIR is an appropriate technique to establish the attachment of the polymer to the magnetic nanoparticles and conjugation of drug with the PVA coated magnetic nanoparticles. Fig. 5 shows the FTIR spectra of uncoated and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The series of characteristic IR bands are summarized in detail in Table 3 [56] and only the salient features are discussed below. In case of uncoated iron oxide, the band at 3394 cm 1 is assigned to stretching (ν) vibrations and the band at 1620 cm 1 is assigned to bending (δ) vibrations due to adsorbed water on the surface of the iron oxide nanoparticles. The band observed at 611 cm 1 corresponds to the stretching vibrations of M Th O M Oh, where M Th and M Oh correspond to the iron occupying tetrahedral and octahedral positions, respectively. In PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, the M Th O M Oh stretching band at 606 cm 1, the alcoholic O H stretching band at 3410 cm 1 are observed. The additional bands at 2912 cm 1 corresponding to C H stretching vibrations, at 1416 cm 1 corresponding to C C stretching vibrations, at 1092 cm 1 attributable to M O C (M=Fe) bond and at 850 cm 1 corresponding to CH 2 rocking are observed in PVA coated iron oxide

4 S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan / Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) Fig. 3. TEM micrographs of (a) S-1, corresponding to the uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) S-4, coated with 2 wt.% PVA. Particles are equiaxed with average size of nm. Fig. 4. Weight loss vs. temperature TGA curves of (a) S-1 (uncoated iron oxide), (b) S-2 (iron oxide coated with 0.5 wt.% PVA), (c) S-3 (iron oxide coated with 1 wt.% PVA), (d) S-4 (iron oxide coated with 2 wt.% PVA) and (e) S-5 (iron oxide coated with 5 wt.% PVA) heated up to 600 C in air. The inset shows the TGA curve of pure PVA indicating complete degradation of PVA when heated up to 600 C. nanoparticles, confirming the attachment of PVA onto iron oxide nanoparticles which is also supported by thermal analysis (Section 3.2). The interaction between polymer coating and Fe 3 O 4 particles has been studied earlier [57 61]. Polymer interactions were studied in Fe 3 O 4 /polypyrrole and Fe 3 O 4 /polyaniline nanocomposites, where interactions exist between the lone pair electrons of the N atom in the polypyrrole chain or in the polyaniline chain with the 3d orbital of the Fe atom to form a coordinate bond [57,58]. Li et al. reported that oleic acid adsorption on the surface of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles could be due to hydrogen bonding or a coordination linkage [59]. Zhang et al. reported the attachment of polymethacrylic acid to Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles via coordination linkages between the carboxyl groups and iron [60]. In the present work, we confirm by FTIR analysis (Fig. 5) that the attachment of PVA to iron oxide nanoparticles occurs via hydrogen Table 2 Weight loss due to PVA in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. Sample set Wt loss (%) S-2 (0.5 wt.% PVA coated) 11 S-3 (1 wt.% PVA coated) 14 S-4 (2 wt.% PVA coated) 18 S-5 (5 wt.% PVA coated) 23 Fig. 5. FTIR spectra of (a) uncoated and (b) PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Bands at 2912, 1416, 1092 and 850 cm 1 in PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles confirm the attachment of PVA to iron oxide nanoparticles. Table 3 Assignment of FTIR spectra of uncoated iron oxide, PVA coated iron oxide, pure DOX and DOX-conjugated PVA coated iron oxide shown in Figs. 5 and 6. Samples IR region or bands (cm 1 ) Description Uncoated iron oxide 3394 ν (H O) 1620 δ (H O H) ofadsorbed water 611 ν (M Th O M Oh ) PVA coated iron oxide 3410 ν (H O) 2912 ν (C H) 1624 δ (H O H) 1416 ν (C C) 1092 ν (M O C (M=Fe)) 850 CH 2 rocking 606 ν (M Th O M Oh ) Pure DOX 3450 ν (N H) 3330 ν (H O) 2932 ν (C H) 1730 ν (C O) 1618, 1521 δ (N H) 1410 ν (C C) 1280, 997 ν (C O C) 1070 ν (C O) 870, 805 ω (N H) DOX-conjugated PVA 3265 ν (N H), ν (H O) coated iron oxide 2910 ν (C H) 1712 ν (C O) 1630 δ (N H) 1409 ν (C C) 1250 ν (C O C) 1093 ν (C O) 600 ν (M Th O M Oh )

5 488 S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan / Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) Table 4 Saturation magnetization (M s ) of uncoated and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Sample set Saturation magnetization (emu/g) S-1 (uncoated) 42 S-2 (0.5 wt.% PVA coated) 33 S-3 (1 wt.% PVA coated) 28 S-4 (2 wt.% PVA coated) 23 S-5 (5 wt.% PVA coated) 19 coated iron oxide nanoparticles occurs via the interaction of NH 2 and OH groups of DOX with OH groups of PVA through hydrogen bonding which is consistent with previous report [62]. Fig. 6. FTIR spectra of (a) pure DOX and (b) DOX-conjugated PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. Conjugation of DOX to the PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles occurs via the interaction of NH 2 and OH groups of DOX with OH groups of PVA. bonding between hydroxyl group of PVA and protonated surface of the oxide. FTIR was further extended to study the conjugation of DOX with the PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. FTIR spectra of pure DOX and DOX-conjugated PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are presented in Fig. 6 and characteristic peaks are tabulated (Table 3). FTIR spectrum of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles (Fig. 5) shows the alcoholic O H stretching band at 3410 cm 1. FTIR spectrum of pure DOX shows peaks at 3450 cm 1 due to N H stretching vibrations for the primary amine structure and at 3330 cm 1 due to O H stretching vibrations (Fig. 6). However, in case of DOX-conjugated PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, peaks due to N H stretching vibrations and O H stretching vibrations overlap, are broadened and shifted to the lower frequency range (~3265 cm 1 ). The bands observed at 870 cm 1 and 805 cm 1 due to N H wag in pure DOX diminish in the FTIR spectrum of DOX-conjugated PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. From this FTIR result, it can be interpreted that attachment of DOX to the PVA 3.4. Magnetic measurements Fig. 7 shows the room temperature magnetization curves of uncoated and PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The absence of remanence in the hysteresis curves indicates that magnetic particles are superparamagnetic. The saturation magnetization (M s ) of uncoated sample (S-1) is 42 emu/g, less than that of bulk magnetite (88 emu/g) reported earlier [63 65]. As expected, the M s of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles decreases with increasing PVA concentration (Table 4). In this study, the observed saturation magnetization (M s ) of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles is comparable to the previous reports [29,45]. Our particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature which are useful in drug delivery as they do not retain magnetization before and after exposure to an external magnetic field, reducing the probability of particle aggregation due to magnetic dipole attraction [62,66]. The observed M s of uncoated Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles is lower than that of bulk magnetite since M s generally decreases with a decrease in magnetic particle size [67]. For PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, the M s decreases with increasing PVA concentration (Fig. 7). This may be due to the dilution effect from adsorbed water and the hydroxyl content of PVA and the possibility of a small volume fraction of antiferromagnetic amorphous iron oxides. The reduced magnetization could also result from the small particle surface effect [68] which refers to the disordered alignment of surface atomic spins induced by reduced coordination and broken exchange between surface spins [45]. This surface effect is more Fig. 7. Magnetization vs. field curves measured at room temperature of (a) S-1, corresponding to uncoated iron oxide nanoparticles, (b) S-2, iron oxide coated with 0.5 wt.% PVA, (c) S-3, iron oxide coated with 1 wt.% PVA, (d) S-4, iron oxide coated with 2 wt.% PVA and (e) S-5, iron oxide coated with 5 wt.% PVA. Particles are superparamagnetic, M s decreases with increase in PVA concentration.

6 S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan / Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) Fig. 8. DOX loading on PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, DOX loading increases with increase in PVA concentration in the PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles. prominent in small particles as the ratio of surface atoms to the interior atoms increases with a decrease in particle size Doxorubicin (DOX) drug loading and release study The DOX loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticle carriers are shown in Figs. 8 and 9, respectively. Initially there is a rapid adsorption of DOX, then the adsorption rate slows down and finally reaches the saturation value (Fig. 8). It has been found that higher PVA content results in higher drug adsorption, 35 µg, 41 µg, 47 µg, and 58 µg of DOX per mg of carrier was loaded in 26 h with 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 5% PVA respectively. The drug release behavior of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticle carriers was investigated in PBS buffer at ph of 7 and temperature of 37 C to maintain the experimental conditions similar to body fluid. The DOX release profiles from magnetic carriers coated with 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 5% PVA are presented in Fig. 9. The release profiles show that initially there is a rapid release until 6 h after which release slows down. A maximum of 45%, 33%, 25% and 17% of adsorbed drugs were released in 80 h from carriers coated with 0.5%, 1%, 2%, and 5% PVA respectively. The drug loading is attributed to the conjugation of NH 2 and OH groups in DOX to the surface active OH groups in PVA as shown in FTIR results (Fig. 6). When the PVA concentration increases (from 0.5 to 5 wt.%), the number of surface active OH groups increases, which results in higher drug adsorption (Fig. 8). Considering the conjugation of DOX with the surface active hydroxyl group ( OH) of PVA, there is an increased binding of DOX with increasing PVA concentration, therefore, the drug is likely to be released at a slower rate from the carriers with higher PVA content (Fig. 9). Our drug release profiles follow the Fick's law of diffusion for monolithic system [69]: M t M =1 6 1 π 2 n =1 n exp 2! Dn2 π 2 t R 2 where M t and M are cumulative amounts of drug released at time t and infinity, respectively; n is a dummy variable, D is the diffusion coefficient of the drug and R is the radius of particle. We have fitted the DOX release profile with above equation indicating that the DOX release from PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles is Fickian diffusion-controlled process. We have calculated the diffusion coefficient (D) ofdox( cm 2 /s) which is close to previous report [70] (D of DOX for PEG-b-PCL and PEGb-PLA is cm 2 /s and cm 2 /s, respectively). The DOX release profile of our system is comparable to that of Kuznetsov et al. [52], where iron carbon adsorbent was loaded with DOX and approximately 25% of DOX was released in 24 h. Fig. 9. DOX release from PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles, DOX release follows the Fickian diffusion-controlled process. In summary, magnetic carriers comprising of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized, characterized and studied for anticancer drug loading and drug release. The important aspects of functionalization of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by PVA, conjugation of DOX with the PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles and drug release showed that DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles have potential to be used in magnetically targeted drug delivery. 4. Conclusions Magnetic carriers consisting of PVA coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (magnetite) nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation of iron oxide and subsequently coated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The magnetic carriers were characterized by XRD, TEM, TGA, FTIR and VSM techniques. TEM showed a magnetic core of average size of 10 nm, a decrease in the saturation magnetization of the carriers was observed with increase in PVA concentration. DOX loading and release profiles of PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles were studied and the results showed that up to 45% of adsorbed drug was released in 80 h, the conjugation of DOX to PVA was confirmed by FTIR analysis. DOX loaded PVA coated iron oxide nanoparticles are promising magnetic drug carriers to be used in magnetically targeted drug delivery. References [1] X.Q. Yang, S. Pilla, J.J. Grailer, D.A. Steeber, S.Q. Gong, Y.H. Chen, G.H. Chen, J. Mater. Chem. 19 (2009) [2] J. Kim, Y. Piao, T. Hyeon, Chem. Soc. Rev. 38 (2009) 372. [3] W.J.M. Mulder, G.J. Strijkers, G.A.F. van Tilborg, D.P. Cormode, Z.A. Fayad, K. Nicolay, Acc. Chem. Res. 42 (2009) 904. [4] Y. Yang, J.S. Jiang, B. Du, Z.F. Gan, M. Qian, P. Zhang, J. Mater. Sci. - Mater. Med. 20 (2009) 301. [5] C.C. Berry, A.S.G. Curtis, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 (2003) R198. [6] T.Y. Liu, S.H. Hu, K.H. Liu, R.S. Shaiu, D.M. Liu, S.Y. Chen, Langmuir 24 (2008) [7] C. Sun, J.S.H. Lee, M.Q. Zhang, Adv. Drug Delivery Rev. 60 (2008) [8] C. Alexiou, R. Schmid, R. Jurgons, M. Kremer, G. Wanner, C. Bergemann, E. Huenges, T. Nawroth, W. Arnold, F. Parak, Eur. Biophys. J. 35 (2006) 446. [9] K.L. Ang, S. Venkatraman, R.V. Ramanujan, Mater. Sci. Eng. C 27 (2007) 347. [10] A.K. Gupta, M. Gupta, Biomaterials 26 (2005) [11] Q.A. Pankhurst, J. Connolly, S.K. Jones, J. Dobson, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 (2003) R167. [12] T. Neuberger, B. Schopf, H. Hofmann, M. Hofmann, B. von Rechenberg, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 293 (2005) 483. [13] R. Jurgons, C. Seliger, A. Hilpert, L. Trahms, S. Odenbach, C. Alexiou, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18 (2006) S2893. [14] G. Ciofani, C. Riggio, V. Raffa, A. Menciassi, A. Cuschieri, Med. Hypotheses 73 (2009) 80.

7 490 S. Kayal, R.V. Ramanujan / Materials Science and Engineering C 30 (2010) [15] R. Tietze, R. Jurgons, S. Lyer, E. Schreiber, F. Wiekhorst, D. Eberbeck, H. Richter, U. Steinhoff, L. Trahms, C. Alexiou, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321 (2009) [16] C. Alexiou, W. Arnold, R.J. Klein, F.G. Parak, P. Hulin, C. Bergemann, W. Erhardt, S. Wagenpfeil, A.S. Lubbe, Cancer Res. 60 (2000) [17] A.S. Lubbe, C. Bergemann, H. Riess, F. Schriever, P. Reichardt, K. Possinger, M. Matthias, B. Dorken, F. Herrmann, R. Gurtler, P. Hohenberger, N. Haas, R. Sohr, B. Sander, A.J. Lemke, D. Ohlendorf, W. Huhnt, D. Huhn, Cancer Res. 56 (1996) [18] A.S. Lubbe, C. Alexiou, C. Bergemann, J. Surg. Res. 95 (2001) 200. [19] C. Alexiou, W. Arnold, P. Hulin, R.J. Klein, H. Renz, F.G. Parak, C. Bergemann, A.S. Lubbe, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 225 (2001) 187. [20] C. Alexiou, Magnetohydrodynamics 37 (2001) 318. [21] A. Jordan, R. Scholz, K. Maier-Hauff, F.K. van Landeghem, N. Waldoefner, U. Teichgraeber, J. Pinkernelle, H. Bruhn, F. Neumann, B. Thiesen, A. von Deimling, R. Felix, J. Neurooncol. 29 (2005) 1. [22] A. Jordan, R. Scholz, P. Wust, H. Fahling, R. Felix, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201 (1999) 413. [23] I. Hilger, R. Hiergeist, R. Hergt, K. Winnefeld, H. Schubert, W.A. Kaiser, Invest. Radiol. 37 (2002) 580. [24] P. Wust, B. Hildebrandt, G. Sreenivasa, B. Rau, J. Gellermann, H. Riess, R. Felix, P.M. Schlag, Lancet. Oncol. 3 (2002) 487. [25] P.R. Stauffer, Int. J. Hyperthermia 21 (2005) 731. [26] V. Zavisova, M. Koneracka, M. Muckova, P. Kopcansky, N. Tomasovicova, G. Lancz, M. Timko, B. Patoprsta, P. Bartos, M. Fabian, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 321 (2009) [27] K.J. Landmark, S. DiMaggio, J. Ward, C. Kelly, S. Vogt, S. Hong, A. Kotlyar, A. Myc, T.P. Thomas, J.E. Penner-Hahn, J.R. Baker, M.M.B. Holl, B.G. Orr, ACS Nano 2 (2008) 773. [28] S. Rudge, C. Peterson, C. Vessely, J. Koda, S. Stevens, L. Catterall, J. Controlled Release 74 (2001) 335. [29] M. Mahmoudi, A. Simchi, M. Imani, A.S. Milani, P. Stroeve, J. Phys. Chem. B 112 (2008) [30] B. Gaihre, M.S. Khil, D.R. Lee, H.Y. Kim, Int. J. Pharm. 365 (2009) 180. [31] B. Chertok, B.A. Moffat, A.E. David, F.Q. Yu, C. Bergemann, B.D. Ross, V.C. Yang, Biomaterials 29 (2008) 487. [32] M.M. Lin, D.K. Kim, A.J. El Haj, J. Dobson, IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 7 (2008) 298. [33] C. Corot, P. Robert, J.M. Idee, M. Port, Adv. Drug. Deliv. Rev. 58 (2006) [34] Y.X.J. Wang, S.M. Hussain, G.P. Krestin, Eur. Radiol. 11 (2001) [35] Y. Wang, Y.W. Ng, Y. Chen, B. Shuter, J. Yi, J. Ding, S.C. Wang, S.S. Feng, Adv. Funct. Mater. 18 (2008) 308. [36] A.S. Lubbe, C. Bergemann, W. Huhnt, T. Fricke, H. Riess, J.W. Brock, D. Huhn, Cancer Res. 56 (1996) [37] G.A. van Ewijk, G.J. Vroege, A.P. Philipse, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 201 (1999) 31. [38] A. Bee, R. Massart, S. Neveu, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 149 (1995) 6. [39] S. Qu, H. Yang, D. Ren, S. Kan, G. Zou, D. Li, M. Li, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 215 (1999) 190. [40] N.S. Kommareddi, M. Tata, V.T. John, G.L. McPherson, M.F. Herman, Y.S. Lee, C.J. O'Connor, J.A. Akkara, D.L. Kaplan, Chem. Mater. 8 (1996) 801. [41] N. Fauconnier, J.N. Pons, J. Roger, A. Bee, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 194 (1997) 427. [42] S.S. Davis, Trends Biotechnol. 15 (1997) 217. [43] S.M. Moghimi, A.C. Hunter, J.C. Murray, Pharm. Rev. 53 (2001) 283. [44] U. Gaur, S.K. Sahoo, T.K. De, P.C. Ghosh, A. Maitra, P.K. Ghosh, Int. J. Pharm. 202 (2000) 1. [45] S. Mohapatra, N. Pramanik, S.K. Ghosh, P. Pramanik, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 6 (2006) 823. [46] A. Petri-Fink, M. Chastellain, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, A. Ferrari, H. Hofmann, Biomaterials 26 (2005) [47] F. Cavalieri, E. Chiessi, R. Villa, L. Vigano, N. Zaffaroni, M.F. Telling, G. Paradossi, Biomacromolecules 9 (2008) [48] A. Di Marco, M. Gaetani, B. Scarpinato, Cancer Chemother. Rep. 53 (1969) 33. [49] J. Lee, T. Isobe, M. Senna, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 177 (1996) 490. [50] M. Chastellain, A. Petri, H. Hofmann, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 278 (2004) 353. [51] S. Hanessian, J.A. Grzyb, F. Cengelli, L. Juillerat-Jeanneret, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16 (2008) [52] A.A. Kuznetsov, V.I. Filippov, O.A. Kuznetsov, V.G. Gerlivanov, E.K. Dobrinsky, S.I. Malashin, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 194 (1999) 22. [53] M. Arruebo, R. Fernandez-Pacheco, S. Irusta, J. Arbiol, M.R. Ibarra, J. Santamaria, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) [54] R.M. Cornell, U. Schwertmann, The Iron Oxides, Wiley, Weinheim, [55] L.T. Lee, P. Somasundaran, Langmuir 5 (2002) 854. [56] A. Lee Smith, Applied Infrared Spectroscopy, John Wiley & Sons, New York, [57] J.G. Deng, Y.X. Peng, C.L. He, X.P. Long, P. Li, A.S.C. Chan, Polym. Int. 52 (2003) [58] J. Deng, X. Ding, W. Zhang, Y. Peng, J. Wang, X. Long, P. Li, A.S.C. Chan, Polymer 43 (2002) [59] P. Li, B. Yu, X. Wei, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 93 (2004) 894. [60] H. Zhang, R. Wang, G. Zhang, B. Yang, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 429 (2003) 167. [61] H.L. Ma, X.R. Qia, Int. J. Pharmacol. 333 (2007) 177. [62] S. Rana, A. Gallo, R.S. Srivastava, R.D.K. Misra, Acta Biomater. 3 (2007) 233. [63] W. Jiang, H.C. Yang, S.Y. Yang, H.E. Horng, J.C. Hung, Y.C. Chen, C.Y. Hong, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 283 (2004) 210. [64] B.D. Cullity, Introduction to Magnetic Materials, Addison-Wesley, Reading, [65] S.A. Gomez-Lopera, R.C. Plaza, A.V. Delgado, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 240 (2001) 40. [66] P. Tartaj, M.P. Morales, T. Gonzalez-Carreño, S. Veintemillas-Verdaguer, C.J. Serna, J. Magn. Magn. Mater (2005) 28. [67] S.J. Cho, B.R. Jarrett, A.Y. Louie, S.M. Kauzlarich, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 640. [68] B. Martínez, X. Obradors, L. Balcells, A. Rouanet, C. Monty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 181. [69] J. Siepmann, F. Siepmann, Int. J. Pharm. 364 (2008) 328. [70] D. Sutton, S. Wang, N. Nasongkla, J. Gao, E.E. Dormidontova, Exp. Biol. Med. 232 (2007) 1090.

MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES FOR HYPERTHERMIA APPLICATIONS. Mohamed DARWISH and Ivan STIBOR

MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES FOR HYPERTHERMIA APPLICATIONS. Mohamed DARWISH and Ivan STIBOR MAGNETIC NANOPARTICLES FOR HYPERTHERMIA APPLICATIONS Mohamed DARWISH and Ivan STIBOR Institute for Nanomaterials, Advanced Technology and Innovation, Technical University of Liberec, 461 17Liberec, Czech

More information

Synthesis of 12 nm iron oxide nanoparticles

Synthesis of 12 nm iron oxide nanoparticles Electronic Supporting Information for Dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles as contrast agent for MRI Brice Basly, a Delphine Felder-Flesch,* a Pascal Perriat, b Claire Billotey, c Jacqueline Taleb, c Geneviève

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Supporting Information Au nanoparticles supported on magnetically separable Fe 2 O 3 - graphene

More information

Adsorption of Amino Acids, Aspartic Acid and Lysine onto Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles

Adsorption of Amino Acids, Aspartic Acid and Lysine onto Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles Supporting Information Adsorption of Amino Acids, Aspartic Acid and Lysine onto Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles Klementina Pušnik, Mojca Peterlin, Irena Kralj Cigić, Gregor Marolt, Ksenija Kogej, Alenka Mertelj,

More information

An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid as MRI contrast agent using Taguchi method

An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid as MRI contrast agent using Taguchi method Materials Science-Poland, 31(2), 2013, pp. 253-258 http://www.materialsscience.pwr.wroc.pl/ DOI: 10.2478/s13536-012-0098-9 An investigation on the optimum conditions of synthesizing a magnetite based ferrofluid

More information

Electronic Supplementary Material. Methods. Synthesis of reference samples in Figure 1(b) Nano Res.

Electronic Supplementary Material. Methods. Synthesis of reference samples in Figure 1(b) Nano Res. Electronic Supplementary Material Shaped Pt Ni nanocrystals with an ultrathin Pt-enriched shell derived from one-pot hydrothermal synthesis as active electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction Jun Gu 1,, Guangxu

More information

enzymatic cascade system

enzymatic cascade system Electronic Supplementary Information Fe 3 O 4 -Au@mesoporous SiO 2 microsphere: an ideal artificial enzymatic cascade system Xiaolong He, a,c Longfei Tan, a Dong Chen,* b Xiaoli Wu, a,c Xiangling Ren,

More information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Supplementary Information Multifunctional Fe 2 O 3 /CeO 2 Nanocomposites for Free Radical Scavenging

More information

One-pot Solvent-free Synthesis of Sodium Benzoate from the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol over Novel Efficient AuAg/TiO 2 Catalysts

One-pot Solvent-free Synthesis of Sodium Benzoate from the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol over Novel Efficient AuAg/TiO 2 Catalysts Electronic Supplementary Information One-pot Solvent-free Synthesis of Sodium Benzoate from the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol over Novel Efficient AuAg/TiO 2 Catalysts Ying Wang, Jia-Min Zheng, Kangnian

More information

Efficient Co-Fe layered double hydroxide photocatalysts for water oxidation under visible light

Efficient Co-Fe layered double hydroxide photocatalysts for water oxidation under visible light Supplementary Information Efficient Co-Fe layered double hydroxide photocatalysts for water oxidation under visible light Sang Jun Kim, a Yeob Lee, a Dong Ki Lee, a Jung Woo Lee a and Jeung Ku Kang* a,b

More information

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, , Singapore. b

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, , Singapore. b Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Dopamine-Mo VI complexation-assisted large-scale aqueous synthesis of single-layer MoS 2 /carbon

More information

Supporting Information:

Supporting Information: Supporting Information: In Situ Synthesis of Magnetically Recyclable Graphene Supported Pd@Co Core-Shell Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts for Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane Jun Wang,

More information

Facile Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of CeO 2 with Tunable Morphologies from Thermal Transformation of Cerium Benzendicarboxylate Complexes

Facile Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of CeO 2 with Tunable Morphologies from Thermal Transformation of Cerium Benzendicarboxylate Complexes Electronic Supplementary Information Facile Synthesis and Catalytic Properties of CeO 2 with Tunable Morphologies from Thermal Transformation of Cerium Benzendicarboxylate Complexes Yuhua Zheng, Kai Liu,

More information

Research Article Preparation of γ-fe 2 O 3 /Ni 2 O 3 /FeCl 3 (FeCl 2 ) Composite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Process Useful for Ferrofluids

Research Article Preparation of γ-fe 2 O 3 /Ni 2 O 3 /FeCl 3 (FeCl 2 ) Composite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Process Useful for Ferrofluids Smart Materials Research Volume 2011, Article ID 351072, 5 pages doi:10.1155/2011/351072 Research Article Preparation of γ-fe 2 O 3 /Ni 2 O 3 /FeCl 3 (FeCl 2 ) Composite Nanoparticles by Hydrothermal Process

More information

The characterization of MnO nanostructures synthesized using the chemical bath deposition method

The characterization of MnO nanostructures synthesized using the chemical bath deposition method The characterization of MnO nanostructures synthesized using the chemical bath deposition method LF Koao 1, F B Dejene 1* and HC Swart 2 1 Department of Physics, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus),

More information

ECE Lecture #8 ECE 5320

ECE Lecture #8 ECE 5320 Lecture #8 Synthesis and Application of Magnetic Nanoparticles Top Down Synthesis by Physical Methods Up Bottom Synthesis by Chemical Methods Bulk Classical behavior 1. High Energy Ball Milling 2. Laser

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Polyoxometalate-based crystalline tubular microreactor: redox-active inorganic-organic hybrid materials producing gold nanoparticles and catalytic properties Dong-Ying Du, Jun-Sheng

More information

Electrically pulsatile responsive drug delivery platform for treatment of Alzheimer s disease

Electrically pulsatile responsive drug delivery platform for treatment of Alzheimer s disease Electronic Supplementary Material Electrically pulsatile responsive drug delivery platform for treatment of Alzheimer s disease Li Wu 1,2, Jiasi Wang 1,2, Nan Gao 1, Jinsong Ren 1, Andong Zhao 1,2, and

More information

Relaxivity of Hydrogen Protons of Water Molecules in the Aqueous Solutions of Dextran - and Chitosan - Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles

Relaxivity of Hydrogen Protons of Water Molecules in the Aqueous Solutions of Dextran - and Chitosan - Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles ISSN 1749-8023 (print), 1749-8031 (online) International Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Vol. 01, No. 01, 2007, pp. 015-020 Relaxivity of Hydrogen Protons of Water Molecules in the Aqueous Solutions

More information

Clean synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and 1,2-propylene glycol over zinc iron double oxide catalyst

Clean synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and 1,2-propylene glycol over zinc iron double oxide catalyst Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology J Chem Technol Biotechnol 81:794 798 (2006) DOI: 10.1002/jctb.1412 Clean synthesis of propylene carbonate from urea and 1,2-propylene glycol over zinc iron

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Bamboo-Like Carbon Nanotube/Fe 3 C Nanoparticle Hybrids and Their Highly Efficient Catalysis for Oxygen Reduction Wenxiu Yang a,b, Xiangjian Liu a,b, Xiaoyu Yue a,b, Jianbo Jia,

More information

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Characterization of pure CaO and Zr-TiO 2 /CaO nanocomposite

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Characterization of pure CaO and Zr-TiO 2 /CaO nanocomposite RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Characterization of pure CaO and Zr-TiO 2 /CaO nanocomposite 4.1.1. Scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) SEM images of prepared CaO are shown in Fig. 4.1 (a and b). CaO

More information

Three Dimensional Nano-assemblies of Noble Metal. Nanoparticles-Infinite Coordination Polymers as a Specific

Three Dimensional Nano-assemblies of Noble Metal. Nanoparticles-Infinite Coordination Polymers as a Specific Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Electronic Supplementary Information Three Dimensional Nano-assemblies of Noble Metal Nanoparticles-Infinite

More information

Achiral CdSe quantum dots exhibit optical activity in the visible region upon post-synthetic ligand exchange with D- or L-cysteine

Achiral CdSe quantum dots exhibit optical activity in the visible region upon post-synthetic ligand exchange with D- or L-cysteine This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry Supporting Information for the manuscript entitled Achiral CdSe quantum dots exhibit optical activity in the visible region upon post-synthetic ligand exchange

More information

Polybenzimidazole/Silica Nanocomposites: Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes for. PEM Fuel Cell

Polybenzimidazole/Silica Nanocomposites: Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes for. PEM Fuel Cell Polybenzimidazole/Silica Nanocomposites: Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Membranes for PEM Fuel Cell Sandip Ghosh, Sudhangshu Maity and Tushar Jana School of Chemistry University of Hyderabad Hyderabad, India

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for CrystEngComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 A rare case of a dye co-crystal showing better dyeing performance Hui-Fen Qian, Yin-Ge Wang,

More information

dissolved into methanol (20 ml) to form a solution. 2-methylimidazole (263 mg) was dissolved in

dissolved into methanol (20 ml) to form a solution. 2-methylimidazole (263 mg) was dissolved in Experimental section Synthesis of small-sized ZIF-8 particles (with average diameter of 50 nm): Zn(NO 3 ) 2 (258 mg) was dissolved into methanol (20 ml) to form a solution. 2-methylimidazole (263 mg) was

More information

Chemistry Research Journal, 2016, 1(3): Research Article

Chemistry Research Journal, 2016, 1(3): Research Article , 2016, 1(3):14-20 Available online www.chemrj.org Research Article ISSN: 2455-8990 CODEN(USA): CRJHA5 Synthesis and Characterization of Fe 3 O 4 Magnetite Nanoparticles Coated with Silica Nanoparticles

More information

Bonding MnO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 Shell Core Nanostructures to Catalyze H 2 O 2 Degrading Organic Dyes

Bonding MnO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 Shell Core Nanostructures to Catalyze H 2 O 2 Degrading Organic Dyes Copyright 2010 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Vol. 10, 1 6, 2010 Bonding MnO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 Shell Core

More information

Electronic supplementary information

Electronic supplementary information Electronic supplementary information Surface plasmon resonance enhanced upconversion luminescence in aqueous media for TNT selective detection Nina Tu and Leyu Wang* State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource

More information

Magnetic cellulose-chitosan hydrogels prepared from ionic liquids as reusable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions

Magnetic cellulose-chitosan hydrogels prepared from ionic liquids as reusable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions Magnetic cellulose-chitosan hydrogels prepared from ionic liquids as reusable adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions Zhen Liu, Haisong Wang*, Chao Liu, Yijun Jiang, Guang Yu, Xindong Mu* and Xiaoyan

More information

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Composites Embeded with Silver Nanoparticles

Synthesis and Characterization of Polymeric Composites Embeded with Silver Nanoparticles World Journal of Nano Science and Engineering, 2012, 2, 19-24 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wjnse.2012.21004 Published Online March 2012 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/wjnse) 19 Synthesis and Characterization

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information

Electronic Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Information Facile synthesis of halogenated carbon quantum dots as an important intermediate for surface modification Jin Zhou, Pei Lin, Juanjuan Ma, Xiaoyue Shan, Hui Feng, Congcong

More information

Adsorption of Cd(II) ions by synthesize chitosan from fish shells

Adsorption of Cd(II) ions by synthesize chitosan from fish shells British Journal of Science 33 Adsorption of Cd(II) ions by synthesize chitosan from fish shells Angham G. Hadi Babylon University, College of Science, Chemistry Department. Abstract One of the major applications

More information

Sub-10-nm Au-Pt-Pd Alloy Trimetallic Nanoparticles with. High Oxidation-Resistant Property as Efficient and Durable

Sub-10-nm Au-Pt-Pd Alloy Trimetallic Nanoparticles with. High Oxidation-Resistant Property as Efficient and Durable Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Electronic Supplementary Information Sub-10-nm Au-Pt-Pd Alloy Trimetallic Nanoparticles with High

More information

Supplementary Information

Supplementary Information Supplementary Information Facile preparation of superhydrophobic coating by spraying a fluorinated acrylic random copolymer micelle solution Hui Li, a,b Yunhui Zhao a and Xiaoyan Yuan* a a School of Materials

More information

Polymer Science, Series A, 2017, Vol. 59, No. 3 SUPPORTING INFORMATION. The Screening and Evaluating of Chitosan/β-cyclodextrin

Polymer Science, Series A, 2017, Vol. 59, No. 3 SUPPORTING INFORMATION. The Screening and Evaluating of Chitosan/β-cyclodextrin Polymer Science, Series A, 2017, Vol. 59, No. 3 SUPPORTING INFORMATION The Screening and Evaluating of Chitosan/β-cyclodextrin Nanoparticles for Effective Delivery Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride Yiwen Wang,

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2008 69451 Weinheim, Germany Supporting information: Iron Nanoparticle Catalyzed Hydrolytic Dehydrogenation of Ammonia Borane for Chemical Hydrogen Storage Jun-Min Yan,

More information

Urchin-like Ni-P microstructures: A facile synthesis, properties. and application in the fast removal of heavy-metal ions

Urchin-like Ni-P microstructures: A facile synthesis, properties. and application in the fast removal of heavy-metal ions SUPPORTING INFORMATION Urchin-like Ni-P microstructures: A facile synthesis, properties and application in the fast removal of heavy-metal ions Yonghong Ni *a, Kai Mi a, Chao Cheng a, Jun Xia a, Xiang

More information

Utilization of Rice Husk Ash Silica in Controlled Releasing Application

Utilization of Rice Husk Ash Silica in Controlled Releasing Application Journal of Metals, Materials and Minerals, Vol.9 No.2 pp.6-65, 29 Utilization of Rice Husk Ash Silica in Controlled Releasing Application Piyawan PRAWINGWONG, Chaiyan CHAIYA 2, Prasert REUBROYCHAROEN 3

More information

Preparation of Silver Iodide Nanoparticles Using a Spinning Disk Reactor in a Continuous Mode

Preparation of Silver Iodide Nanoparticles Using a Spinning Disk Reactor in a Continuous Mode Preparation of Silver Iodide Nanoparticles Using a Spinning Disk Reactor in a Continuous Mode Chin-Chan Li a, Yao Hsuan Wang a, and Clifford Y. Tai a * a Department, National Taiwan University, Taipei,

More information

Modify morphology of colloidal Ag 2 Se nanostructures by laser irradiation

Modify morphology of colloidal Ag 2 Se nanostructures by laser irradiation Supporting information for Modify morphology of colloidal Ag 2 Se nanostructures by laser irradiation Ling-Ling Zhao a, Zhi-Ming Gao a, Hui Liu a, Jing Yang a, Shi-Zhang Qiao a,b, Xi-Wen Du a a School

More information

Pt-Ni alloyed nanocrystals with controlled archtectures for enhanced. methanol oxidation

Pt-Ni alloyed nanocrystals with controlled archtectures for enhanced. methanol oxidation Supplementary Information Pt-Ni alloyed nanocrystals with controlled archtectures for enhanced methanol oxidation Xiao-Jing Liu, Chun-Hua Cui, Ming Gong, Hui-Hui Li, Yun Xue, Feng-Jia Fan and Shu-Hong

More information

Synthesis and characterization of hybride polyaniline / polymethacrylic acid/ Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites

Synthesis and characterization of hybride polyaniline / polymethacrylic acid/ Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites Synthesis and characterization of hybride polyaniline / polymethacrylic acid/ Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposites Mohammad Reza Saboktakin*, Abel Maharramov, Mohammad Ali Ramazanov Department of Chemistry, Baku State

More information

Functionalized flexible MOF as filler in mixed matrix membranes for highly selective separation of CO 2 from CH 4 at elevated pressures

Functionalized flexible MOF as filler in mixed matrix membranes for highly selective separation of CO 2 from CH 4 at elevated pressures -Supplementary info file- Functionalized flexible MOF as filler in mixed matrix membranes for highly selective separation of CO 2 from CH 4 at elevated pressures Beatriz Zornoza a, Alberto Martinez-Joaristi

More information

Hybrid Gold Superstructures: Synthesis and. Specific Cell Surface Protein Imaging Applications

Hybrid Gold Superstructures: Synthesis and. Specific Cell Surface Protein Imaging Applications Supporting Information Hybrid Gold Nanocube@Silica@Graphene-Quantum-Dot Superstructures: Synthesis and Specific Cell Surface Protein Imaging Applications Liu Deng, Ling Liu, Chengzhou Zhu, Dan Li and Shaojun

More information

International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology

International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology Int. J. Pure Appl. Sci. Technol., 9(1) (2012), pp. 1-8 International Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences and Technology ISSN 2229-6107 Available online at www.ijopaasat.in Research Paper Preparation,

More information

CHAPTER 5. STUDY OF CoFe 2 O 4 PARTICLES SYNTHESIZED WITH PVP AND CITRIC ACID

CHAPTER 5. STUDY OF CoFe 2 O 4 PARTICLES SYNTHESIZED WITH PVP AND CITRIC ACID 58 CHAPTER 5 STUDY OF CoFe 2 O 4 PARTICLES SYNTHESIZED WITH PVP AND CITRIC ACID This chapter deals with the synthesis of CoFe 2 O 4 particles using metal nitrates, PVP and citric acid. The structure, morphology

More information

Preparation of Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSNs) by Delayed Co-condensation Technique

Preparation of Aminated Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSNs) by Delayed Co-condensation Technique Extra Supporting Information (ESI) Experimental Procedures General All chemicals were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and used as received, unless otherwise specified. 2,2',2''-(10-(2-((2,5-dioxopyrrolidin-1-yl)oxy)-2-oxoethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-

More information

Structure, morphology and catalytic properties of pure and alloyed Au-ZnO. hierarchical nanostructures

Structure, morphology and catalytic properties of pure and alloyed Au-ZnO. hierarchical nanostructures Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Supporting information for Structure, morphology and catalytic properties of pure and alloyed

More information

Karine Chesnel BYU. Idaho State University, Physics department 22 September 2014

Karine Chesnel BYU. Idaho State University, Physics department 22 September 2014 Karine Chesnel BYU Idaho State University, Physics department 22 September 2014 Potential applications of magnetic nanoparticles Magnetic recording Biomedical applications J. Mater. Chem., 19, 6258 6266

More information

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA) COATED FUNTIONALIZED γ-fe2o3 NANOPARTICALS

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA) COATED FUNTIONALIZED γ-fe2o3 NANOPARTICALS SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYVINYL ALCOHOL (PVA) COATED FUNTIONALIZED γ-fe2o3 NANOPARTICALS Tayyab Ali 1 and A. Venkataraman 2 1 Department of Materials Science, Gulbarga University Gulbarga.585106

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information

Electronic Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Information Selective Diels-Alder cycloaddition on semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes for potential separation application Jiao-Tong Sun, Lu-Yang Zhao, Chun-Yan Hong,

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Exploring the detection of metal ions by tailoring the coordination mode of V-shaped thienylpyridyl ligand in three MOFs Li-Juan Han,, Wei Yan, Shu-Guang Chen, Zhen-Zhen Shi, and

More information

[Supplementary Information] One-Pot Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Activity of Octapodal Au-Pd Nanoparticles

[Supplementary Information] One-Pot Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Activity of Octapodal Au-Pd Nanoparticles [Supplementary Information] One-Pot Synthesis and Electrocatalytic Activity of Octapodal Au-Pd Nanoparticles Jong Wook Hong, Young Wook Lee, Minjung Kim, Shin Wook Kang, and Sang Woo Han * Department of

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information. Fang He, Gang Chen,* Yaoguang Yu, Yansong Zhou, Yi Zheng and Sue Hao*

Electronic Supplementary Information. Fang He, Gang Chen,* Yaoguang Yu, Yansong Zhou, Yi Zheng and Sue Hao* Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Electronic Supplementary Information Synthesis of condensed C-PDA/g-C 3 N 4 composites with superior

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Phenyl-Modified Carbon Nitride Quantum Dots with Distinct Photoluminescence Behavior Qianling Cui, Jingsan Xu,* Xiaoyu Wang, Lidong Li,* Markus Antonietti, and Menny Shalom anie_201511217_sm_miscellaneous_information.pdf

More information

POLYPYRROLE FILMS PREPARED BY CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PYRROLE IN AQUEOUS FeCl 3 SOLUTION

POLYPYRROLE FILMS PREPARED BY CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PYRROLE IN AQUEOUS FeCl 3 SOLUTION Journal of Science and Arts Year 10, No. 1 (12), pp. 53-58, 2010 POLYPYRROLE FILMS PREPARED BY CHEMICAL OXIDATION OF PYRROLE IN AQUEOUS FeCl 3 SOLUTION DRAGOŞ-VIOREL BREZOI Valahia University of Targoviste,130024,

More information

Supplementary Material (ESI) for CrystEngComm. An ideal metal-organic rhombic dodecahedron for highly efficient

Supplementary Material (ESI) for CrystEngComm. An ideal metal-organic rhombic dodecahedron for highly efficient Supplementary Material (ESI) for CrystEngComm An ideal metal-organic rhombic dodecahedron for highly efficient adsorption of dyes in an aqueous solution Yuan-Chun He, Jin Yang,* Wei-Qiu Kan, and Jian-Fang

More information

Application of Nano-ZnO on Antistatic Finishing to the Polyester Fabric

Application of Nano-ZnO on Antistatic Finishing to the Polyester Fabric Modern Applied Science January, 2009 Application of Nano-ZnO on Antistatic Finishing to the Polyester Fabric Fan Zhang & Junling Yang School of Material Science and Chemical Engineer Tianjin Polytechnic

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI)

Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Electronic Supplementary material (ESI) for Nanoscale Electronic Supplementary Information (ESI) Synthesis of Nanostructured Materials by Using Metal-Cyanide Coordination Polymers and Their Lithium Storage

More information

Graphene is a single, two-dimensional nanosheet of aromatic sp 2 hybridized carbons that

Graphene is a single, two-dimensional nanosheet of aromatic sp 2 hybridized carbons that Chemical Identity and Applications of Graphene-Titanium Dioxide Graphene is a single, two-dimensional nanosheet of aromatic sp 2 hybridized carbons that enhances the performance of photocatalysts. 1 The

More information

Rare double spin canting antiferromagnetic behaviours in a. [Co 24 ] cluster

Rare double spin canting antiferromagnetic behaviours in a. [Co 24 ] cluster Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Rare double spin canting antiferromagnetic behaviours in a [Co 24 ] cluster Guang-Ming Liang, Qing-Ling

More information

All materials and reagents were obtained commercially and used without further

All materials and reagents were obtained commercially and used without further Reversible shrinkage and expansion of a blue photofluorescene cadmium coordination polymer and in situ tetrazole ligand synthesis Hong Deng,* a Yong-Cai Qiu, a Ying-Hua Li, a Zhi-Hui liu, a Rong-Hua Zeng,

More information

Electronic Supplementary Information

Electronic Supplementary Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Journal of Materials Chemistry A. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014 Electronic Supplementary Information MoS 2 nanosheet/mo 2 C-embedded N-doped

More information

Synthesis of nano sized particles using supercritical fluids

Synthesis of nano sized particles using supercritical fluids Synthesis of nano sized particles using supercritical fluids Yong-Suk Youn 1, Young-Ho Lee 1, Ki Ho Ahn 1, Bambang Veriansyah 2, Jaehoon Kim 2, Jae-Duck Kim 2, Youn-Woo Lee 1,* 1) School of Chemical and

More information

Chapter 6 Magnetic nanoparticles

Chapter 6 Magnetic nanoparticles Chapter 6 Magnetic nanoparticles Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are a class of nanoparticle which can be manipulated using magnetic field gradients. Such particles commonly consist of magnetic elements

More information

CONFOCHECK. Innovation with Integrity. Infrared Protein Analysis FT-IR

CONFOCHECK. Innovation with Integrity. Infrared Protein Analysis FT-IR CONFOCHECK Infrared Protein Analysis Innovation with Integrity FT-IR CONFOCHECK: FT-IR System for Protein Analytics FT-IR Protein Analysis Infrared spectroscopy measures molecular vibrations due to the

More information

-:Vijay Singh(09CEB023)

-:Vijay Singh(09CEB023) Heterogeneous Semiconductor Photocatalyst -:Vijay Singh(09CEB023) Guided by Azrina Abd Aziz Under Dr. Saravanan Pichiah Preparation of TiO 2 Nanoparticle TiO 2 was prepared by hydrolysis and poly-condensation

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2007 69451 Weinheim, Germany Topochemical Synthesis of Monometallic (Co 2+ Co 3+ ) Layered Double Hydroxide and Its Exfoliation into Positively Charged Co(OH) 2 Nanosheets

More information

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION SILICA COATED MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLE

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION SILICA COATED MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLE SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF SILICA COATED MAGNETITE NANOPARTICLE A Dissertation Submitted in partial fulfillment FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN CHEMISTRY Under The Academic Autonomy NATIONAL

More information

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves with AEL Structure

Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves with AEL Structure Journal of Natural Gas Chemistry 13(2004)231 237 Synthesis and Characterization of Magnesium Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular Sieves with AEL Structure Benjing Xu, Ling Qian, Xinmei Liu, Chunmin

More information

INFLUENCE OF CLAY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL(ALCOHOL)/ MONTMORILLONITE MEMBRANES

INFLUENCE OF CLAY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL(ALCOHOL)/ MONTMORILLONITE MEMBRANES INFLUENCE OF CLAY ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYVINYL(ALCOHOL)/ MONTMORILLONITE MEMBRANES Maria C. Carrera 1*, Eleonora Erdmann 1, Hugo A. Destéfanis 1 Marcos L. Dias 2, Victor J. R. R. Pita 2 1 Instituto

More information

Structural and magnetic properties of Ni doped CeO 2 nanoparticles

Structural and magnetic properties of Ni doped CeO 2 nanoparticles *E-mail: shailuphy@gmail.com Abstract: We report room temperature ferromagnetism in Ni doped CeO 2 nanoparticles using X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM),

More information

A novel Ag 3 AsO 4 visible-light-responsive photocatalyst: facile synthesis and exceptional photocatalytic performance

A novel Ag 3 AsO 4 visible-light-responsive photocatalyst: facile synthesis and exceptional photocatalytic performance Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Chemical Communications Supporting Information A novel Ag 3 AsO 4 visible-light-responsive photocatalyst: facile synthesis and exceptional photocatalytic performance

More information

Magnetite decorated graphite nanoplatelets as cost effective CO 2 adsorbent

Magnetite decorated graphite nanoplatelets as cost effective CO 2 adsorbent Supplementary Information Magnetite decorated graphite nanoplatelets as cost effective CO 2 adsorbent Ashish Kumar Mishra and Sundara Ramaprabhu * Alternative Energy and Nanotechnology Laboratory (AENL),

More information

Facile decoration and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles

Facile decoration and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles JOURNAL OF OPTOELECTRONICS AND ADVANCED MATERIALS Vol. 14, No. 3-4, March April 2012, p. 245-250 Facile decoration and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles

More information

EFFECT OF SOLIDS CONCENTRATION ON POLYMER ADSORPTION AND CONFORMATION

EFFECT OF SOLIDS CONCENTRATION ON POLYMER ADSORPTION AND CONFORMATION 2 EFFECT OF SOLIDS CONCENTRATION ON POLYMER ADSORPTION AND CONFORMATION Tsung-yuan Chen,. Chidambaram Maltesh,2 and Ponisseril Somasundaranl IHerny Krumb School of Mines Columbia University New York, New

More information

Influence of temperature and voltage on electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide

Influence of temperature and voltage on electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 37, No. 3, May 2014, pp. 629 634. Indian Academy of Sciences. Influence of temperature and voltage on electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide XIUQIANG LI, DONG ZHANG*, PEIYING

More information

MOHAMED R. BERBER Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt.

MOHAMED R. BERBER Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta 31527, Egypt. Advanced Materials Development and Performance (AMDP211) International Journal of Modern Physics: Conference Series Vol. 6 (212) 133-137 World Scientific Publishing Company DOI: 1.1142/S21194512366 CONTROL

More information

Field Dependence of Blocking Temperature in Magnetite Nanoparticles

Field Dependence of Blocking Temperature in Magnetite Nanoparticles J. Metastable and Nanocrystalline Materials 20-21,(2004) 673 Field Dependence of Blocking Temperature in Magnetite Nanoparticles G. F. Goya 1 and M. P. Morales 2 1 Instituto de Física, Universidade de

More information

SYNTHESIS OF SILVER/COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR METAL-METAL BONDING PROPERTY

SYNTHESIS OF SILVER/COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR METAL-METAL BONDING PROPERTY J. Min. Metall. Sect. B-Metall. 49 (1) B (2013) 65-70 Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, Section B: Metallurgy SYNTHESIS OF SILVER/COPPER NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR METAL-METAL BONDING PROPERTY Y. Kobayashi

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Visible Light-Driven BiOI-Based Janus Micromotors in Pure Water Renfeng Dong, a Yan Hu, b Yefei Wu, b Wei Gao, c Biye Ren, b* Qinglong Wang, a Yuepeng Cai a* a School of Chemistry

More information

Current efficiency of synthesis magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles via. electrodeposition

Current efficiency of synthesis magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles via. electrodeposition 3rd International Conference on Material, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (IC3ME 015) Current efficiency of synthesis magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles via electrodeposition XinZhong. Deng 1 ;

More information

Supporting Information. for. Advanced Materials, adma Wiley-VCH 2008

Supporting Information. for. Advanced Materials, adma Wiley-VCH 2008 Supporting Information for Advanced Materials, adma.200701537 Wiley-VCH 2008 69451 Weinheim, Germany Supporting Information (adma.200701537) Nano-Carbon Superhydrophobic Surface Created from Fullerene

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Self-assembly of smallest magnetic particles Sara Mehdizadeh Taheri 1, Maria Michaelis 1, Thomas Friedrich 2, Beate Förster 3, Markus Drechsler 1, Florian M. Römer 4, Peter Bösecke

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Supporting Information Title: A sulfonated polyaniline with high density and high rate Na-storage

More information

Different Biodegradable Silica Structures In Drug Delivery. Mika Jokinen

Different Biodegradable Silica Structures In Drug Delivery. Mika Jokinen Different Biodegradable Silica Structures In Drug Delivery Mika Jokinen & Different Morphologies of Biodegradable Silica - Several levels of morphology ; different forms & structures - monoliths, fibers,

More information

PREPARATION OF LUMINESCENT SILICON NANOPARTICLES BY PHOTOTHERMAL AEROSOL SYNTHESIS FOLLOWED BY ACID ETCHING

PREPARATION OF LUMINESCENT SILICON NANOPARTICLES BY PHOTOTHERMAL AEROSOL SYNTHESIS FOLLOWED BY ACID ETCHING Phase Transitions Vol. 77, Nos. 1 2, January February 2004, pp. 131 137 PREPARATION OF LUMINESCENT SILICON NANOPARTICLES BY PHOTOTHERMAL AEROSOL SYNTHESIS FOLLOWED BY ACID ETCHING X. LI, Y. HE, S.S. TALUKDAR

More information

College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou , China; 2

College of Mechanical Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou , China; 2 Proceedings Light-Assisted Room-Temperature NO2 Sensors Based on Black Sheet-Like NiO Xin Geng 1,2,3, Driss Lahem 4, Chao Zhang 1, *, Marie-Georges Olivier 3 and Marc Debliquy 3 1 College of Mechanical

More information

Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts

Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts Molecules 2003, 8, 67-73 molecules ISSN 1420-3049 http://www.mdpi.org Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts Hanxia Liu 1, Xikui Wang 1, *, Yao Gu 2 and Weilin Guo 1

More information

Structural effects on catalytic activity of carbon-supported magnetite. nanocomposites in heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions

Structural effects on catalytic activity of carbon-supported magnetite. nanocomposites in heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2018 Supplementary Information Structural effects on catalytic activity of carbon-supported magnetite

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Enhancing the Stability of CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 Quantum Dots by Embedding in Silica Spheres Derived from Tetramethyl Orthosilicate in Waterless Toluene Shouqiang Huang, Zhichun Li, Long

More information

Simple synthesis of urchin-like Pt-Ni bimetallic nanostructures as enhanced electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction

Simple synthesis of urchin-like Pt-Ni bimetallic nanostructures as enhanced electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for ChemComm. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Electronic Supplementary Information Simple synthesis of urchin-like Pt- bimetallic nanostructures

More information

Study on the Selective Hydrogenation of Nitroaromatics to N-aryl hydroxylamines using a Supported Pt nanoparticle Catalyst

Study on the Selective Hydrogenation of Nitroaromatics to N-aryl hydroxylamines using a Supported Pt nanoparticle Catalyst Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Catalysis Science & Technology. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 204 Supporting Information Study on the Selective Hydrogenation of Nitroaromatics

More information

From Polymer Gel Nanoparticles to Nanostructured Bulk Gels

From Polymer Gel Nanoparticles to Nanostructured Bulk Gels From Polymer Gel Nanoparticles to Nanostructured Bulk Gels Zhibing Hu Departments of Physics and Chemistry, University of North Texas Denton, TX 76203, U. S. A. Phone: 940-565 -4583, FAX: 940-565-4824,

More information

Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in Droplet Flow Reactors

Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in Droplet Flow Reactors University of New Hampshire University of New Hampshire Scholars' Repository Honors Theses and Capstones Student Scholarship Spring 2017 Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles in Droplet Flow Reactors

More information

Electronic Supporting Information

Electronic Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for Chemical Communications. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Electronic Supporting Information Nickel as a co-catalyst for photocatalytic hydrogen

More information

Unusual enhancement of effective magnetic anisotropy with decreasing particle size in maghemite nanoparticles

Unusual enhancement of effective magnetic anisotropy with decreasing particle size in maghemite nanoparticles Unusual enhancement of effective magnetic anisotropy with decreasing particle size in maghemite nanoparticles K. L. Pisane, Sobhit Singh and M. S. Seehra* Department of Physics & Astronomy, West Virginia

More information

Supporting Information. Synthesis of Metallic Magnesium Nanoparticles by Sonoelectrochemistry. Iris Haas and Aharon Gedanken*

Supporting Information. Synthesis of Metallic Magnesium Nanoparticles by Sonoelectrochemistry. Iris Haas and Aharon Gedanken* Supporting Information Synthesis of Metallic Magnesium Nanoparticles by Sonoelectrochemistry Iris Haas and Aharon Gedanken* Experimental Materials and chemical preparation The Gringard reagents, ethyl-mgcl

More information