Introduction of Seasonal Forecast Guidance. TCC Training Seminar on Seasonal Prediction Products November 2013

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1 Introduction of Seasonal Forecast Guidance TCC Training Seminar on Seasonal Prediction Products November

2 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Regression method Single/Multi regression model Selection of variables 3. Probability Forecast 2

3 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Regression method Single/Multi regression model Selection of variables 3. Probability Forecast 3

4 1. Introduction Observed data Atmospheric and Oceanic conditions Analysis Numerical model Ensemble forecast Model output GPV data Forecaster Guidance Seasonal forecast Area averaged temperatures and precipitation amounts Probability forecasts 4

5 1. Introduction Guidance is a statistical downscaling technique based on grid point value (GPV) data predicted by a numerical model. Guidance has a possibility to increase reliability of forecasts. For seasonal forecast, the indices associated with the tropical phenomena, including ENSO, may be more effective. 5

6 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Regression method Single/Multi regression model Selection of variables 3. Probability Forecast 6

7 2. Regression method Two types of time series data are used to make guidance. variables for issued forecast, ex) Temperature, Precipitation (Response variables, i.e. Predictands) variables predicted by the numerical model, ex) SST, Z500 (Explanatory variables, i.e. Predictors) Our purpose is to predict the future values of predictands using the statistical relationship between predictands and predictors. Past Predictands Regression equation Present or Future Predictands Predictors Predictors 7

8 2. Regression model MOS: the Model Output Statistics technique. A statistical relationship is established between observed values of the predictand and forecast predictors. If the model has a tendency to under- or over-forecast a predictor, this will be compensated for by the MOS technique. Observed data Hind cast data Regression model Numerical model Objective variable Issued Forecast (Tsurf, Rain etc.) Predictors Predicted GPV data (SST, Z500 etc.) * Now, JMA uses MOS technique to make guidance. 8

9 2. Regression model PPM: the Perfect Prognostic Method A statistical relationship is established between observed values and the analyzed variables. Observed data Analyzed GPV data Regression model Objective variable Issued Forecast (Tsurf, Rain etc.) Predictors Predicted GPV data (SST, Z500 etc.) Numerical model * Now, JMA does not use PPM technique to make guidance. 9

10 Single regression Single regression is the simplest regression using one single predictor. Single regression model is written as Y = ax + b + ε Y: predictand X: predictor a: regression coefficient b: constant ε: error term 10

11 Multiple regression Multiple regression is assumed that predictands are the sum of a linear combination of plural predictors. Multiple regression model is written as Y = a k X k + b + ε k=1,2,,n Y: predictand X: predictors a: regression coefficient b: constant ε: error term Y Predictand will be near this plane. X 1 X 2 Example: two predictors 11

12 Selection of variables (in JMA) We considered the variables to grasp signals of the tropical variation and global warming. Zonal Mean Thickness Height of East Sea SST Zonal Mean Height Convective Activity SST Convective Activity SST 12

13 Selection of variables (in JMA) Seasonal forecast Guidance of JMA uses multiple regression model by the MOS technique. Predictors related with climate in Japan are selected from the variables by stepwise procedure. List of predictors selected many times in each target season These predictors are anomalies except thickness extratropic. Temperature Precipitation Spring Thickness extratropic IOBW SST Zonal mean 500hPa height of Mid lat Summer Thickness extratropic NIO RAIN Okinawa SST Autumn Thickness extratropic NINO.3 SST Zonal mean 500hPa height of Mid lat Winter Thickness extratropic Okinawa SST WNP RAIN Spring Okinawa SST WNP RAIN NINO.3 SST Summer Zonal mean 500hPa height of Mid lat IOBW SST WNP RAIN Autumn NINO.3 SST Thickness extratropic IOBW SST Winter Thickness extratropic NINO.3 SST Okinawa SST

14 Selection of variables (in this seminar) SST RAIN Z500 Thickness

15 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Normal El Niño 15

16 Delayed Influence from ENSO IOBW Time evolution of correlation coefficient to NINO3.4 in December 6-month lag correlation coefficient of SST (JJA) to NINO3 (DJF) IOBW 16

17 Asian summer monsoon Asian summer monsoon is a large scale motion with moisture transport from Southern Hemisphere to South and East Asia. Jul./925 hpa L H Convergence of water vapor H H Moisture leads to active convection and latent heat release. Heating in turn drives the monsoon circulation. ( 10-8 kg/kg/s) Monthly mean 925-hPa Stream function (contours, 10 6 m 2 /s), divergence of Water vapor flux (shadings, 10-8 kg/kg/s) and Water vapor flux (vectors, m/s*kg/kg) ( mean) Gray shadings show topography ( 1500 m). 17

18 Asian winter monsoon In boreal winter, Siberian High and Aleutian Low are developed. North-westerlies to East Asia, North-easterlies to South Asia Siberian High H L Sometimes, north-easterlies bring Cold Surge over South Asia. Aleutian Low enhanced convection and cold weather 8 12 Jan Jan. (ºC) Monthly mean surface 2 m temperature (shadings, ºC), Sea Level Pressure (contours, hpa) and surface 10 m wind (vectors, m/s) ( mean) Shadings: OLR anomalies (W/m 2 ) 18

19 Selection of variables (in this seminar) You will select one variable or three variables from the list when you make your country s guidance. SST and Rain variables are associated with the tropical phenomena (ENSO, Indian Ocean basin-wide mode, Asian monsoon, and so on). Z500 variables represent the atmospheric circulation in the troposphere over the subtropics, mid-latitudes, mid to high latitudes, and high-latitudes. Thickness variables correspond to zonal mean temperature anomalies in the troposphere over midlatitudes, the extratropics, and the tropics. These variables are useful to grasp signals of global warming. 19

20 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Regression method Single/Multi regression model Selection of variables 3. Probability Forecast 20

21 3. Probability Forecast Long-range forecasting involves the uncertainty due to the chaotic nature of atmospheric flow. It is necessary to take this uncertainty into account, and probabilistic forecasting is essential. Image chart of probabilistic forecast Probability density function corresponding to initial values and errors Predicted probability density function 21

22 3. Probability Forecast The Probability Density Function (PDF) is assumed to be a normal distribution with its mean xs and standard deviation σn. The mean xs is predicted using the regression model and the standard deviation σn is assumed to be the root mean square error of the regression model. Predicted PDF root mean square error of regression model σ n 0 x s predicted using regression model 22

23 3. Probability Forecast Probabilistic Forecast of JMA has 3 categories, Below Normal, Near Normal and Above Normal. The threshold values are determined from the observational data of 30 years. JMA uses the data of Issued Forecast Below Normal Above σ n 10% 30% 60% Dash lines: threshold values 0 xs PDF of Normal 33% 33% 0 33% 23

24 Normalization of precipitation data Temperature histogram is generally approximated by a normal distribution, while precipitation histogram is usually approximated by a gamma distribution as for Japan. The error distribution of regression models is assumed to be approximated by a normal distribution, which is important presumption to make a probabilistic forecast. Precipitation (Raw) 45 Frequency mm/month An example of histogram of observed monthly precipitation in Japan. This has a gap from a normal distribution. Bold line indicates a normal distribution. 24

25 Normalization of precipitation data To make guidance, precipitation data need to be normalized. To achieve this, JMA s seasonal forecast guidance uses the power of 1/4 for precipitation. Frequency Precipitation (power of 1/4) The histogram of observed precipitation after taking the power of 1/4. This is approximated by a normal distribution. Bold line indicates a normal distribution mm^0.25/month 25

26 Thank you! JMA Mascot Character Hare-run Hare means sunny weather in Japanese Hare-ru means it becomes sunny. Run-run means happiness feeling. 26

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