3 Question 1 What s the 3rd busiest month on average in terms of Atlantic ACE? A. July B. August C. September D. October
4 No Storm Formations in 2008
5 Madden-Julian Oscillation Discovered in the early 1970s by Roland Madden and Paul Julian. An eastward propagating wave that circles the globe in about days involving tropical convection. Detected in the Outgoing Longwave Radiation (OLR) and wind fields across the tropics. Later papers showed that it is an important modulator of TC activity, especially in the Pacific Ocean.
6 -Idealized Diagram of the day Tropical Intraseasonal Oscillation -Became known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the late 1980s -Generally forms over the Indian Ocean, strengthens over the Pacific Ocean and weakens due to interaction with South America and cooler eastern Pacific SSTs (Madden and Julian 1972)
8 Daily Rainfall (mm)
9 200 mb Velocity Potential fields one way to track the MJO Blue= divergence Red= convergence Center of the blue area tracks the most upper divergence, which is usually well-linked to thunderstorms
11 MJO characteristics Note signal is much stronger in eastern Hemisphere than western Eastward phase speed is a lot slower in eastern than western Hemi (convective coupling) In western hemisphere, upper-level signal usually much easier to track than lower-level
12 10-day ECMWF MJO Forecast
13 MJO Effects in the Atlantic Basin The MJO can lose much of its strength before entering the Atlantic basin. In addition, the MJO is weakest during the late summer, near the peak of Atlantic activity. Western part of the basin most strongly affected (Maloney and Hartmann 2000).
14 Active MJO EOF and corresponding TS and H tracks Active MJO in the western Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico produces more storms due to: Increase in low-level convergence (ITCZ moves farther north) Inactive MJO EOF and corresponding TS and H tracks Low-level vorticity is also increased due to westerly low-level flow meeting easterly trades Upper divergence is stronger than average during the westerly phase, with a drop in shear as well Adapted from Maloney and Hartmann (2000)
15 Most genesis points are near or behind the upperlevel divergence center.
16 A different way to visualize the MJO The axes (RMM1 and RMM2) represent daily values of the principal components from the two leading modes, following the active convection. The triangular areas indicate the location of the enhanced phase of the MJO Counter-clockwise motion is indicative of eastward propagation Distance from the origin is proportional to MJO strength Line colors distinguish different months
17 Current MJO: Plan view versus RMM diagram
19 200 mb Velocity Potential fields one way to track the MJO Blue= ~divergence Red= ~convergence Center of the blue area tracks the most upper divergence, which is usually well-linked to thunderstorms
20 Question 2 What phases of the MJO are most favorable for Atlantic TC activity? A. Phases 3/4 B. Phases 5/6 C. Phases 7/8 D. Phases 1/2
21 Normalized Activity by MJO Phase ( ) MJO Phase NS NSD H HD MH MHD ACE Phase Phase Phase Phase Phase Phase Phase Phase Ratio of Phases 1+2 to Phases From Klotzbach (2010)
22 850-hPa Vector Wind Anomalies (m s-1) Note that shading denotes the zonal wind anomaly Blue shades: Easterly anomalies Red shades: Westerly anomalies Typical Active Atlantic pattern (if in summer-time)!
23 All Genesis Points MJO Phases 1+2 MJO Phases 6+7
26 Kelvin Waves & Tropical Cyclones Adapted from: Michael Ventrice (TWC), Kyle Griffin (UW) & Carl Schreck (NCICS)
27 Background The idea of equatorial waves interacting with TCs is relatively new - An objective method of tracking equatorial waves in real-time wasn t published until First AMS papers mentioning (atmospheric) equatorial waves and TCs appeared around Number of papers that involve this or similar topics in AMS journals only number in the ~2 dozen range Equatorial waves aid in enhanced predictability of TC genesis several (3-7) days into the future.
28 Kelvin Waves Convergence Divergence Negative OLR Positive OLR Matsuno (1966) Kiladis et al. (2009) Alternating westerlies and easterlies on the equator Enhanced convection where low-level winds converge Active phase associated with latent heating & the generation of low-level relative vorticity due to presence of meridional flow Modifies ITCZ convection, which causes significant changes to a system s local environment NASA PMM Science Meeting October 2016, Houston, TX NASA PMM Grant NNX13AH47G Propagation: Eastward Phase speed: m s 1 Period: Wavelength: 3 10 days km Adapted from Carl Schreck
29 MJO vs. KW The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) consists of an active and suppressed phase, dominated by low-level westerly and easterly anomalies, respectively. Convection is preferred in the active phase. A typical MJO moves eastward at 4 to 8 m s -1 with a zonal extent that spans planetary to synoptic scales. A Kelvin wave is spatially very similar to the MJO, but is typically observed at higher zonal wavenumbers and moves eastward at m s -1. Effects are more constrained within the Tropics and associated wind anomalies are spatially smaller than the MJO. Adapted from Griffin (2014)
30 Tropical wave + CCKW composite East Pacific: 40 storms Storm-relative Totals Composite Hovmöllers of storms forming at the most favorable lags (2-3d) from Kelvin wave crest The wave is invigorated with convection/rainfall, leading to genesis. CCKW most effective when some westerly flow already present NASA PMM Science Meeting October 2016, Houston, TX NASA PMM Grant NNX13AH47G 32
31 Kelvin Waves, MJO and Tropical Cyclogenesis Storms typically form 0 3 days after the Kelvin wave s convective peak Easterly wave amplifies in the Kelvin wave/mjo convective envelope Timing of genesis can be strongly influenced by the Kelvin Wave in positive MJO Schreck (2015, MWR) Background Vertical Horizontal Summary NASA PMM Science Meeting October 2016, Houston, TX NASA PMM Grant NNX13AH47G 33
32 Vertical Structure East Pacific Zonal Wind Eq 10 N Convection and storm-relative westerlies intersect easterly wave 2 days before genesis Easterly wave circulation builds upward as the Kelvin wave propagates Kelvin tilt might explain lag in genesis from convection 400-hPa is 30 longitude behind 850- hpa Kelvin speed of 15 m s 1 gives a 2.5-day lag between 850 hpa and 400 hpa NASA PMM Science Meeting October 2016, Houston, TX NASA PMM Grant NNX13AH47G 35
33 Atlantic CCKWs and genesis t -t Tropical cyclogenesis events over the MDR (5-25 N, W) relative to the CCKW during June-September Day 0 highlights the transition to statistically significant negative unfiltered OLR anomalies, or the eastern-most side of the convectively active phase of the CCKW. Error bars indicate the 95% confidence interval.
34 Atlantic CCKWs and genesis Tropical cyclogenesis relative to the Kelvin wave
35 10-day ECMWF forecast of CCKWs
36 Yet another strong CCKW is moving across the eastern Pacific This system should move through the eastern Pacific within the next few days, with genesis possible in the far eastern Pacific Days 3-5. Ana & Trudy form 51
37 Ana Trudy 52
38 Operational challenges Real-world CCKWs have day-to-day weather patterns overlaid on them, making them harder to recognize. When making genesis forecasts for a particular system, any CCKW information must be taken in context with the entire weather situation. Knowledge about the base state (~120 d mean or ENSO), MJO phase, climatology and numerical weather models must all be considered in concert with CCKW interactions. For example, if the base state is extremely unfavorable, can it overcome other enhancing factors? (e.g. most of the 2014 Atlantic hurricane season, 2015 EPac is the counter example) 54
39 Current NHC practices No operational standard on use of CCKW in genesis forecasts (about half of forecasters use it). It is believed that global models handle the MJO much more accurately than individual CCKWs (too much dampening), and thus the forecaster can add value to the deterministic models. Any adjustments to 5-day genesis probabilities are small and subjectively determined. Also used as a way to increase forecaster confidence in a given situation if conceptual model of CCKWs and genesis matches model solutions. 55
40 Operational long-range TC forecasts CPC, in combination with other NOAA/federal/university partners, issues a week 1 and week 2 possible TC risk areas (in addition to other global hazards) These global forecasts are released Tuesday afternoons The TC-only forecasts are updated on Friday afternoons, if necessary, for the Atlantic/E Pacific only during week 1/2 56
41 Matthew x
42 Seasonal Forecasting
43 Seasonal Forecasting is more than this!
44 Short history of NOAA seasonal hurricane forecasting The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) began issuing Atlantic seasonal hurricane forecasts after the Gray 1997 forecast bust. Outlooks issued in late May and early August. Collaborative effort between the CPC, National Hurricane Center and Hurricane Research Division. Outlooks are a qualitative combination of statistical and dynamical tools, but have become more quantitative over time.
45 El Niño Warming of the equatorial waters in the central and eastern Pacific every 3-5 years Changes global atmospheric circulation by altering low-latitude deep convection. Moderate/strong events generally cause a reduced Atlantic season Weaker events have little relationship to Atlantic hurricane activity
46 Composite of tropical cyclone tracks during 14 moderate to strong El Niño years versus the next year El Niño Years Year after El Niño From Gray 1984
47 Niño regions Nino 3.4 region generally has the strongest relationship with Atlantic hurricane activity.
48 El Niño La Niña
49 El Niño versus La Niña Upper winds Hello there it Convection shifted eastward during El Niño causes more shear and sinking air over the Atlantic. Upper winds Convection shifted westward during La Niña causes less sinking air and shear over the Atlantic.
50 El Niño
51 La Niña
52 Vertical Wind Shear Tropical cyclones generally require low vertical wind shear to develop, less than about 20 mph. Early-season vertical shear (June-July) relates well to August-October shear (peak season). Since 90% of the season is usually after 1 August, useful to update then.
53 200 mb (~40,000 ft) Climatology is for lots of shear during hurricane season 850 mb (~5,000 ft)
54 Vertical Wind Profile in the Main Development Region (10-20 N; W) a b TROPOPAUSE (16 km) a fewer TCs (El Niño) b more TCs (La Niña) Zonal Wind (u) ms -1
55 Sea-Surface Temperatures (SSTs) Warmer Atlantic waters generally mean a more active hurricane season. Relative warmth of Atlantic to global tropics also important. Higher SSTs lead to more instability in the boundary layer of the atmosphere. Changes in SST gradients modulates regional circulation. Atlantic SSTs also atmospheric proxy. Cooler waters are linked to higher surface pressures, stronger surface winds (higher shear as a result) and upwelling.
56 Correlation between Atlantic SST and Atlantic Hurricane Activity
57 Composite map of June-July SST anomalies during 10 active hurricane seasons Colder than average Warmer than average
58 The Atlantic Meridional Mode: SST, wind, and precip anoms Leading mode of basinwide ocean-atmosphere interaction between SST and low-level winds Amplifies via the wind-evaporation-sst (WES) feedback mechanism Strongest signal during the spring, but persists into hurricane season J. P. Kossin, 2008 AMS Annual Meeting
59 Comparative effects of the AMM (local) and ENSO (remote) on vertical wind shear in the Atlantic units: m/s per standard deviation Shear regressed onto AMM and N34 indices, and correlations between the indices and storm activity. J. P. Kossin, 2008 AMS Annual Meeting
60 Forcing the AMM SLP anomaly associated with (+) NAO L 1. Subtropical SLP anomalies associated with NAO H H 2. Cool SST through enhanced evaporation (stronger easterlies) 3. Atmosphere responds through anticyclonic circulation, reinforcing wind anomalies (-) AMM 4. Resulting feedback can last for several months, even after NAO forcing subsides [FLIP sign for (-) NAO] Courtesy Dima Smirnov ESRL
61 Mid-latitudes in winter/spring can have an impact on the next hurricane season 1) Negative NAO/AO in winter/spring (could be preceded by a stratospheric warming event), leads to weak Atlantic trade winds. 2) Weak trades excite a positive AMM for the summer, leading to warmer-thanaverage waters and favorable low-level winds for genesis.
62 CFS version 2 1. An atmosphere at high horizontal resolution (spectral T574, ~27 km) and high vertical resolution (64 sigma-pressure hybrid levels) for the real time analysis 2. An atmosphere of T126L64 for the real time forecasts 3. An interactive ocean with 40 levels in the vertical, to a depth of 4737 m, and horizontal resolution of 0.25 degree at the tropics, tapering to a global resolution of 0.5 degree northwards and southwards of 10N and 10S respectively 4. An interactive 3 layer sea-ice model 5. An interactive land model with 4 soil levels
63 CFS-based TS, Hurricanes and ACE Index Forecast Atlantic Basin May forecast Tropical Storms Hurricanes ACE Index % of Median Slightly Above Normal Year Tropical Storms Hurricanes ACE Index % of Median Ensemble Standard Deviation Range Model Clim
65 Seasonal Forecast Caveats: 1) Even with perfect knowledge of all predictors only 50-60% of the variance in TC activity is explained. This could increase as dynamical model skill grows. 2) This make a 1-category forecast error possible in 1 out of 3 or 4 years, and a 2-category error in 1 in ~7 years. 3) In seasonal forecasting, you will be flat wrong some years despite your best efforts is a prime example.
66 Model Forecast Summary: 2013 Atlantic Outlook Model predicted ranges (± 1 σ) and mean activity (in parenthesis). The model averages (yellow) and NOAA s outlook (Red) are shown at bottom. Statistical CFS European Model CPC Regression: Named Storms Hurricanes Major Hurricanes ACE (% Median) (16) 7-9 (8) (3.75) (155) CPC Binning : Nino 3.4+SSTA (14.7) (7.85) (4) (143) CPC Binning ENSO+SSTA (15.55) (8.45) (4.35) (167) CFS: Hi-Res T (16.4) (8.2) (155) CFS-V2 T126: (14) 6-9 (7.5) 3-4 (3.5) (140) CFS-V2 T126: (15) 7-10 (8.5) 3-4 (3.5) (152) CFS-V2 T126: (15) 6-10 (8) 3-4 (3.5) (152) ECMWF: (12.6) (8) (128) EUROSIP: (11) Guidance Mean (14.5) (8.1) (3.8) (149) NOAA Outlook (16.5) 6-11 (8.5) 3-6 (4.5) (163) Actual:
67 NOAA Forecast Methodology 1) Assess states of the ocean and atmosphere. 2) Use model forecasts for El Niño/Atlantic SSTs and incorporate any analog techniques and dynamical model forecasts of TCs. 3) Predict range of overall activity and probabilities of above-, near-, and belowaverage seasons. 4) Qualitative/Quantitative process. 5) No forecast of hurricane landfalls, just the total seasonal activity for the entire basin.
68 Why issue a seasonal hurricane outlook then? One of the top questions NOAA gets in the offseason is What s the season going to be like? Large amount of media coverage makes it ideal to get the preparedness/awareness message out, even if most people can t use the forecast. Gets people thinking about the upcoming hurricane season/activity. Specialized users (reinsurance companies, offshore interests etc.)
69 Percent Correct Forecasts (%) Percent of Correctly Forecasted Parameters Named May August Storms May Hurricanes August Major May Hurricanes August May ACE August season May strength August Outlooks Outlooks Outlooks Outlooks Outlooks Named Storms Hurricanes Major Hurricanes ACE Season Classification For both the May (Blue) and August (Red) outlooks, large skill improvements are seen since 2008 for all predicted parameters except Season Classification,. 17
70 Exercise Using what you have been taught about seasonal forecasting, make a seasonal forecast with the atmospheric and oceanic slides in the following slides. Please forecast ranges of activity for tropical storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and ACE. Remember long term averages are 12 TS, 6 H, 3 MH and ACE ~ 100 What are the expected climate conditions for hurricane season? How will these conditions affect your forecast?
71 March-April SSTAs
72 April SST and SSTA
73 Tropical Pacific SSTA Evolution
74 Time-Longitude Section of 850-hPa Zonal Wind Anomalies averaged 5N-5S
75 ENSO Forecast Plume
76 Niño 3.4 region: CFS Forecast
77 T382 High Resolution SST anomaly forecast:
78 T382 High Resolution shear anomaly forecast:
79 Storm Counts and ACE Index Atlantic Basin CFS is predicting 7.5 storms versus a 10.9 storm climatology. ACE Index is only 75% of Normal
82 Updated CFS (T-62) ACE Forecast : ATLANTIC ICs Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 ACE Forecast 03/31 04/ /07 04/ /13 04/ Range 03/31 04/ (Forecast one standard deviation of inter-member spreads) 04/07 04/21 04/13 04/
83 Updated CFS (T-62) MH Forecast : ATLANTIC ICs Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Major Hurricanes Forecast 03/31 04/ /07 04/ /13 04/ Range 03/31 04/ (Forecast one standard deviation of inter-member spreads) 04/07 04/21 04/13 04/
84 Updated CFS (T-62) Hurricane Forecast: ATLANTIC ICs Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Hurricanes Forecast 03/31 04/ /07 04/21 04/13 04/ Range 03/31 04/ (Forecast one standard deviation of inter-member spreads) 04/07 04/21 04/13 04/
85 Updated CFS (T-62) NS Forecast: ATLANTIC ICs Method 1 Method 2 Method 3 Named Storms Forecast 03/31 04/ /07 04/ /13 04/ Range 03/31 04/ (Forecast one standard deviation of inter-member spreads) 04/07 04/21 04/13 04/
86 TS forecast from ECMWF
87 Hurricanes forecast from ECMWF
88 ACE forecast from ECMWF
89 ASO SLPA forecast from ECMWF
90 ASO SSTA forecast from ECMWF
91 Question 3 What ACE did you predict for the exercise? A. Under 60 B C D. Over 120
92 What about 2018?
93 Current Global SST anomalies
94 La Niña gradually weakening
95 Strong downwelling oceanic Kelvin Wave
96 CFS forecasts best chance of neutral for ASO 2018 El Nino Neutral La Nina
97 El Nino Neutral ECMWF warmer than CFS, neutral likely by Spring, El Nino possible by late summer La Nina
98 Nino models aren t very good though!
99 El Nino Neutral La Nina Huge uncertainty for summer!
100 CFS ASO Seasonal Forecasts from Feb 26 SST (warm Atlantic, neutral ENSO) Vertical Shear (lower than normal)
101 ECMWF JJA SST forecast Both CFS/EC agree on warm high latitude Atlantic, ENSO big unknown
102 Conclusions The MJO and Kelvin waves modulate TC activity around the globe. El Niño/La Niña conditions are probably the most important factor in a seasonal forecast. Tropical Atlantic Ocean water temperatures and multidecadal cycles are also very important. There are also year-to-year differences in vertical wind shear, sea-level pressures, and global circulation changes during the early part of the season that may give clues to how the rest of the season may turn out appears to be less active than 2017 but how much so is an open question.
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