# INVISIBLE WATER COSTS

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1 Every Drop Every Counts... Drop Counts...

2 INVISIBLE WATER COSTS Corn gallons per pound How much water it takes to produce... Apple gallons to grow Beef - 1,581 gallons per pound Oats gallons per pound Dry Beans gallons per cup White Sugar 7 gallons per tablespoon Milk 48 gallons per cup An egg 63 gallons

3 Watershed 11,560 square miles

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5 Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) is a common snowpack measurement. It is the amount of water contained within the snowpack. It can be thought of as the depth of water that would theoretically result if you melted the entire snowpack instantaneously. For example, say there is a swimming pool that is filled with 36 inches of new powdery snow at 10% snow water density. If you could turn all the snow into water magically, you would be left with a pool of water 3.6 inches deep. In this case, the SWE of your snowpack would equal 36" x 0.10 = 3.6 inches. The NRCS measures SWE at many remote SNOTEL sites and uses the data for streamflow forecasting.

6 To determine snow depth from SWE you need to know the density of the snow. The density of new snow ranges from about 5% when the air temperature is 14 F, to about 20% when the temperature is 32 F. After the snow falls its density increases due to gravitational settling, wind packing, melting and recrystallization. Most snow that falls in the Cascade Mountains of Washington and Oregon tends to be higher density snow. In the Cascades, snowpack densities are around 20-30% in the winter to 30-50% in the spring. However, east of the Cascades, the snowpack density is much less. Typical values are 10-20% in the winter and 20-40% in the spring.

7 SnoTel Automated sites

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14 RECENT ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC OBSERVATIONS CONTINUE TO INDICATE ENSO NEUTRAL CONDITIONS. THE OFFICIAL ENSO OUTLOOK CALLS FOR A CONTINUATION OF THE ENSO NEUTRAL STATE INTO EARLY THE TEMPERATURE OUTLOOK FOR DECEMBER-JANUARY-FEBRUARY (DJF) INDICATES ELEVATED CHANCES FOR ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES FOR PARTS OF THE SOUTHWEST, THE SOUTHERN ROCKIES, THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS, TEXAS AND PARTS OF THE SOUTHEAST. ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE ALSO FAVORED FOR MUCH OF NEW ENGLAND. THERE ARE INCREASED ODDS FOR ABOVE-NORMAL TEMPERATURES IN WESTERN ALASKA. ENHANCED CHANCES FOR BELOW-NORMAL TEMPERATURES ARE INDICATED FOR PARTS OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS, AS WELL AS IN THE ALASKAN PANHANDLE. THE DJF PRECIPITATION OUTLOOK CALLS FOR ELEVATED ODDS OF ABOVE-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION IN THE NORTHERN ROCKIES. BELOW-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS ARE FAVORED IN THE SOUTHWEST, SOUTHERN ROCKIES, AND WESTERN SECTIONS OF THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS. THE CHANCES FOR BELOW-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION ARE ALSO ELEVATED IN PARTS OF THE SOUTHEAST. BELOW-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS ARE FAVORED FOR MOST OF THE ALASKAN PANHANDLE. IN AREAS WHERE THE LIKELIHOODS OF SEASONAL MEAN TEMPERATURES AND SEASONAL ACCUMULATED PRECIPITATION AMOUNTS ARE SIMILAR TO CLIMATOLOGICAL PROBABILITIES, EQUAL CHANCES (EC) IS SHOWN. SEASONAL PRECIPITATION SIGNALS ARE WEAK AND UNRELIABLE FOR MOST OF THE REMAINING SEASONS, EXCEPT FOR THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST IN JJA AND JAS 2014, WHERE RECENT TRENDS FAVOR BELOW-MEDIAN PRECIPITATION. The National Weather Service typically does not make a detailed long-range winter weather forecast. Its Climate Prediction Center, however, does offer a less specific three-month forecast. The most recent, issued Nov. 21, indicated neither wet nor dry conditions.

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17 Our thinking here at Liveweatherblogs.com is a west based weak to moderate El Nino to develop in late fall or early winter. This will keep the southern jet active and allow for the areas from California to Texas to the Mid Atlantic to have above average winter precipitation. Areas with above snowfall would be the Southeast, Mid Atlantic, Deep South and Mountain Southwest including the Rockies in Colorado. The Northeast will see near normal snowfall and that will extend back into the Ohio Valley. The Upper Midwest will be below normal snowfall due to the mainly southerly storm track this winter. California will have above average rainfall and snowfall and even a few very big winter storms esp. along the coast. The Pacific Northwest will see near to slightly above average rainfall and snowfall.

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