# 5. How did Copernicus s model solve the problem of some planets moving backwards?

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1 MODELS OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM Reading Guide: Chapter 27.2 (read text pages ) 1k. Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence. 1n. Know that when an observation does not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is sometimes mistaken or fraudulent or sometimes the scientific theory is wrong. 1. The first astronomers thought that the stars revolved around the. 2a. Aristotle suggested an earth centered or model of the solar system. 2b. In this model the, the and the revolve around the. 3. What changes did Ptolemy make to the model? 4a. What kind of model did Nicolaus Copernicus propose? 4b. What is at the center of this model? 5. How did Copernicus s model solve the problem of some planets moving backwards? 6a. What is Kepler s first law? 6b. The law states that each planet orbits the 6c. Elliptical orbits can vary in shape. Some elliptical orbits are very oval and others are almost perfect. 6d. Define Eccentricity: 8a. Isaac Newton hypothesized that a moving body will This concept is called. 8b. For example, a ball rolling on a smooth surface will 7a. What is Kepler s second law? 7b. The law describes the speed at which objects 7c. What is Kepler s third law? 7d. The law describes the relationship between the 7e. Define orbital period: 9a. Because a planet does not follow a straight path, an outside Newton gave this force the name. 9b. The father from the sun a planet is the, the weaker NOTE SHEET- How did our solar system form? Step 1 Approximately ago a star that formed from the exploded & died in _ When the star exploded in a huge gas cloud called a. Step 2 The cloud Most of the material was pulled by Step 3 Planetesimals slowly began, they formed protoplanets. Step 4 The protoplanets became the, one dwarf planet and moons that currently orbit our sun to form. The rest of the debris was either accreted into the planets or 1

2 Reading Guide: Chapter 27.1a (read text pages ) FORMATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM 1b. Know the evidence from earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas approx. 4.6 billion yrs ago. 1c. Know the evidence from geological studies of earth & other planets suggest that early earth was different from today. 1a. Define solar system? 2a. Almost 5 billion years ago, the amount of gravity near one of these clouds increased as a result of a nearby. 1b. Define planets? 2b. What is a solar nebula? 2c. What did energy from collisions cause? 3a. What was forming in the outer regions of the solar nebula, at the same time the sun was forming? 3b. What are planetesimals? 3c. What are protoplanets? 3d. What do protoplanets become? 4. Find Figure 2 (bottom pg ) Look at all of the pictures and read each caption below the picture. Describe in 2 sentences what Figure 2 is showing: 5a. The four protoplanets close to the sun (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars) contained large percentages of 5b. These planets lost their less dense gases because at the temperature of the gases, 5c. As the denser material sank to the centers of the planets and formed 5d. The inner planets are smaller, 6a. As a group (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus & Neptune) they formed far from the sun and therefore 6b. They did not lose their lighter elements such as, or their 6c. Today these planets are referred to as gas giants because they are composed & are huge planets. 6d. Pluto is smaller than our moon and can be described as a 6e. Pluto is part of a new category of Reading Guide: Chapter 27.4b (Read text pages ) Objects beyond Neptune, Kuiper Belt & Exoplanets 1a Students know how the differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the formation of the solar system 1a. When was Pluto discovered? 1b. Now it is defined 1c. Describe Pluto s orbit: 2a. Size km 2b. Pluto is than earths moon. 2c. Describe what Pluto is made of: 3. Define the Kuiper Belt: 4. Look Figure 7 & list the other 2 objects that are part of the Kuiper belt: & 5. Define a dwarf planet: 6. Astronomers have discovered 200 planets that orbit 7. Exoplanets can t be seen with a telescope so they stars other than our sun. These planets are called can be detected only because their. Exo means 9. Most of the exoplanets that have been identified are than Uranus, but recently two exoplanets have been discovered that are closer to. 2

3 The Planets- Webquest 1. List the eight planets starting with the one closest to the sun. 2. List the 4 inner (terrestrial) planets 3. List the 4 outer (jovian) planets 4. What lies in between Mars and Jupiter? Collect data about the planets: Planet Revolution period (time to go around the sun) Mercury Rotation Period (time to spin on axis-1 day) Inner or outer planet? Rings or no rings # of moons? (If none = 0) made of rock or gas Does it have a thin or THICK atmosphere? Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Analyze your planet data: 5. Which planets are closest to the sun? inner or outer (circle the answer) 6. Which planets have a short Revolution period? inner or outer A long Revolution period? inner or outer 7. Which planets have a short Rotation period? inner or outer A long Rotation period? inner or outer 8. Which planets have rings? inner or outer planets 9. List the planets with more than 3 moons Are these inner or outer planets? 10. Which planets are made of rock? inner or outer Which planets are made of gas? inner or outer 11. Which planets have a thin atmosphere? inner or outer Which planets have a thick? inner or outer Conclusion 12. List 4 characteristics that all of the Outer Planets share 13. List 4 characteristics that all of the Inner Planets share Pluto no longer a planet?? 1. Pluto is no longer considered a planet. What is its new category? 2. Describe Pluto s size as compared to the other planets. 3. Pluto s orbit around the sun is very different than the other planets. Describe how it is different. 4. Pluto is in an area of space called the Belt 5. What is Pluto made of? 6. Does Pluto have an atmosphere? If so what is it made of? Is it thick or thin? 7. How many moons does Pluto have? 8. Does Pluto have rings? 9. Pluto is no longer considered a planet because it is very different than the other outer planets. List 5 ways Pluto is different that the outer planets: 3

4 FORMATION OF THE EARTH QUESTIONS (Read pgs ) 1. During the formation of the earth it was very hot. List and explain the 3 reasons why it was so hot. 2. As the earth was becoming a solid what happened to all of the heavy elements (like iron)? 3. Why did this happen to all of the heavy elements? 4. What is differentiation? 5. The earth separated into 3 layers. Describe the 3 layers. Core- Mantle- Crust- 6. The earth cooled and solid rock formed. What type of elements made up the surface? FORMATION OF THE OCEANS QUESTIONS (Read pg 690) 1. Some scientists think that part of Earth s water came from space. What brought it here? 2. The water from these bodies then became part of the atmosphere. What happened to it once the earth cooled? 3. The water collected on the surface and what did it form? 4. Describe this first ocean: 5a. Dissolved solids were carried to the oceans. Where did they come from? 5b. What did they do to the concentration of chemicals in the ocean? 6. How do the oceans affect global temperatures? 7. What did the early ocean water dissolve? 4

5 Kepler s Three Laws Illustrated (Read pg ) Part I. KEPLER S FIRST LAW INTRODUCTION (fill in the following blanks using your book) Kepler s first law is called the Law of. It states that the planets orbit the sun in a path called an. An ellipse is a closed curve whose shape is determined by two points or. In planetary orbits, one focus is located Elliptical orbits can vary in shape. Some orbits are. Other orbit shapes are almost perfect. The shape of an orbit can be described in a numerical form called During a planet s orbit, is it always the same distance from the sun? Why?: Diagram of a Circle: Diagram of an Ellipse: LAB DIRECTIONS A. Draw 4 different ellipses (Work in a team of 2 people) Step 1. Fold a sheet of paper in half. Each person will draw 2 ellipses with different distances between the foci Step 2. Choose the ellipse that you are going to draw (Distance between foci = 1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm, or 4 cm) Step 3. Measure and Mark the foci points of either 1.0 cm, 2.0 cm, 3.0 cm or 4.0 cm apart. Step 4. Pin the paper on a piece of cardboard at the appropriate foci, & draw the ellipse with a string Distance between foci (cm) Type of Ellipse: round, rounded oval, oval or elongated oval 1 cm a. 2 cm b. 3 cm c. 4 cm d. B. Conclusion Questions: 1. Describe the ellipse as you increased the distance between the foci 2. Describe what would happen to the ellipse if you increased the length of the string without changing the distance between the foci. (get some string and try it!) Part II. KEPLER S SECOND LAW INTRODUCTION (fill in the following blanks using your book) Kepler s second law is called the Law of. This law describes the at which planets travel at different points in their. Kepler discovered that Mars moves when it is closest to the sun. Therefore it must travel when it is furthest from the sun. He calculated that a line drawn from the center of the sun to the center of another object (like a planet) will sweep through equal in an equal period of. 5

6 LAB DIRECTIONS A. Comparing the Areas of equal time periods 1. Trace the ellipse from the book (fig. 2- pg 693) in the space below. Put this paper over the book and trace the exact shape and lines. 2. Label the SUN and color it orange 3. Put a BLUE dot in the middle of the ellipse and label it focus. 4. Color the short radius, FAT slice of pie on the left RED, and the skinny slice on the right BLUE. B. Conclusion Question: 1. These 2 pie slices are equal in AREA even though they are different shapes (FAT slice and skinny slice). This means that the closer the planet is to the sun (slower or faster) it will travel and it will cover (more or less) distance in the same amount of time. Part III. KEPLER S THIRD LAW (Fill in the following blanks using your book ) Kepler s third law is called the Law of. It describes the relationship between the distance of a planet from the sun and the. The orbit period is the required for the planet to make one full revolution about the sun. The equation for this relationship is where K is a constant, a = & p. Scientists can find out how far away the planets are from the sun by using this law, because they can measure the 6

7 Notes: Kepler s Laws 3 Laws of Planetary Motion Law of Planets travel around the sun in a path called an. : point when planet is closest to the sun : point when planet is farthest from the sun 2 focal points ( ) Ellipse is is at one of the foci Ellipses can be rounded to. The earth s elliptical orbit is rounded. Law of Equal Areas A line drawn from the center of a planet to the center of the sun sweeps over. Planets travel when they are closer to the sun and when they are farther away. Law of Periods The farther a planet is from the sun, : how long it takes a planet to orbit the sun (years) : a 3 = p 2 : a = (AU); p = (years) 1 AU = distance from sun to earth ( ) 7

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