BROCK UNIVERSITY. 1. About 2300 years ago, Aristotle argued that the Earth is spherical based on a number of observations, one of which was that

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1 BROCK UNIVERSITY Page 1 of 10 Test 2: November 2015 Number of pages: 10 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 2 Number of students: 861 Examination date: 7 November 2015 Time limit: 50 min Time of Examination: 13:00 13:50 Instructor: S. D Agostino Answer all questions on the scantron sheet provided. No aids permitted except for a non-programmable calculator. Each question is worth 1 mark. Total number of marks: About 2300 years ago, Aristotle argued that the Earth is spherical based on a number of observations, one of which was that (a) the head of Barry Bonds resembled the Earth s shape more and more as his career progressed. (b) sailors travelling in the same direction eventually always came back to the same place on Earth. (c) the same view of the heavens could be observed from any place on Earth. (d) the shadow of the Earth on the Moon during a lunar eclipse was always circular, no matter where in the sky the Moon was during the eclipse. 2. Eratosthenes determined the size of the Earth about 2200 years ago by (a) sending a team of surveyors on a round-the-world trip. (b) measuring the angle of a shadow on the summer solstice and using geometry. (c) measuring the size of the Earth s shadow on the Moon during a lunar eclipse and using geometry. (d) measuring time delays in GPS signals from two different locations on Earth. 3. As first argued by Aristarchus, the observation that the intervals of time between two successive quarter phases of the Moon are very nearly equal implies that (a) our distance from the Moon is much greater than our distance from the Sun. (b) Kepler s third law of planetary motion is valid. (c) our distance from the Sun is much greater than our distance from the Moon. (d) Newton s second law of motion is valid. 4. The speed of a planet moving along an elliptical orbit is greatest when it is (a) closest to the Sun. (b) farthest from the Sun. (c) at an equinox point. (d) at a Lagrange point.

2 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 2 of Aristarchus argued that the Sun is much larger than the Moon based on his observation that (a) it takes longer for the Sun to rotate once on its axis than the Moon. (b) the time between sunrise and sunset is longer than the time between moonrise and moonset. (c) the Sun is named after a more important mythological god. (d) the Sun and the Moon have the same angular size and the Sun is much farther away than the Moon. 6. Aristarchus argued that the Sun must be the centre of the solar system because (a) he reasoned that the Sun is much larger than the Earth, and so it made sense that the larger object should be at the centre. (b) careful observations showed that the Sun does not move, but the Earth does move. (c) when the orbits of the planets were plotted, it was found that the Sun is near the centre of the orbits, not the Earth. (d) the god Helios is more important than the god Gaia in Greek mythology. 7. Aristotle countered the Sun-centred solar system hypothesis of Aristarchus by arguing that the Earth does not move. If the Earth did move, argued Aristotle, then we should observe, and at that time it was not observed. (a) a slight wobble in the Sun s apparent motion. (b) neutrino oscillation. (c) stellar precession. (d) stellar parallax. 8. The first person to conclude from observations that the Milky Way consists of a vast number of very distant stars was (a) Aristarchus. (b) Aristotle. (c) Brahe. (d) Copernicus. (e) Galileo. 9. The apparent motions of the planets are close to the ecliptic because (a) planets are visible only when the ecliptic and the celestial equator coincide. (b) the planes of the orbits of the planets are close to the plane of Earth s orbit. (c) only motions close to the zodiac are visible from Earth. (d) a planet is visible only when the Sun, the Earth, and the planet are aligned.

3 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 3 of Kepler lived about (a) 2300 years ago. (b) 600 years ago. (c) 400 years ago. (d) 100 years ago. 11. Aristarchus lived about (a) 2300 years ago. (b) 1800 years ago. (c) 500 years ago. (d) 300 years ago. 12. A phenomenon that can be explained using the concept of inertia is (a) an object that speeds up as it falls due to the influence of gravity. (b) a passenger in a car continuing to move forward when the brakes are applied to suddenly slow the car down. (c) a ball moving in a circle at a constant speed. (d) a ball moving in a circle at a speed that is not constant. 13. The operation of a rocket in space is an example of Newton s third law of motion, because (a) the force that the exhaust gases exert on the rocket is equal and opposite to the force that the rocket exerts on the exhaust gases. (b) the force that the rocket exerts on the fabric of spacetime is equal and opposite to the force that the fabric of spacetime exerts on the rocket s exhauast gases. (c) the force of the rocket s motion is equal and opposite to the force of the motion of the exhaust gases. (d) the force of the rocket s velocity is equal and opposite to the force of the velocity of the exhaust gases. 14. The prevailing medieval view was that the planets were mounted on crystalline spheres. However, in 1577 Brahe observed, which helped to shatter the hypothesis of crystalline spheres, and helped humans to advance their understanding of the heavens. (a) retrograde motions of planets (b) features on the Moon (c) the rings of Saturn (d) a comet that crossed the orbits of the planets (e) stellar parallax

4 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 4 of One of Copernicus s great advances was to (a) measure the relative size of each planet. (b) precisely measure the relative brightness of each planet. (c) determine the composition of the atmosphere of each planet. (d) determine the relative distances of each planet from the Sun. 16. Kepler s first law of planetary motion states that (a) Donald Trump s brain is the size of a pea. (b) an object moves in a straight line at a constant speed unless the net force acting on it is not zero. (c) if Object A exerts a force on Object B, then Object B exerts a force on Object A, with the two forces having equal magnitudes and opposite directions. (d) planetary orbits are ellipses with the Sun at one focus of each ellipse. (e) the square of a planet s orbital period is proportional to the cube of its distance from the Sun. 17. A planet normally appears to move towards the east with respect to the stars because of (a) the rotation of the Earth on its axis. (b) the Earth s orbital motion around the Sun. (c) the rotation of the planet on its axis. (d) the planet s orbital motion around the Sun. 18. Occasionally a planet appears to move towards the west with respect to the stars (retrograde motion) because (a) the Earth and the other planets travel on different orbits at different speeds. (b) planets sometimes travel through dense clouds of gas and dust that cause them to reverse direction temporarily. (c) of precession of planetary orbits. (d) of instabilities in the interplanetary glutino flux. 19. Epicycles were introduced into the geocentric model of the solar system, and perfected by Ptolemy, to provide a better model of (a) planetary motion, including retrograde motion. (b) stellar motions, including retrograde motion. (c) precession of planetary orbits, including retrograde motion. (d) stellar parallax, including retrograde motion. (e) the drift of the equinoxes, including retrograde motion.

5 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 5 of Kepler s second law of planetary motion states that (a) the orbital speed of a planet varies so that an imaginary line joining the planet to the Sun sweeps over equal areas in equal times. (b) the force exerted by the Sun on a planet is inversely proportional to the distance between them. (c) the force exerted by the Sun on a planet is proportional to the mass of the planet and the acceleration of the planet. (d) each planet s average kinetic energy is equal to its average potential energy. 21. As described by Kepler s third law of planetary motion, (a) planets closer to the Sun have shorter periods. (b) planets closer to the Sun have longer periods. (c) the period of a planet does not depend on its distance from the Sun. (d) the period of a planet is related to its distance from the Sun, but not in a way described here. 22. Which of the following observations was the strongest evidence (in the 1600s) for a heliocentric model of the solar system? (a) The moons of Jupiter. (b) Stellar parallax. (c) Sunspots. (d) The phases of Venus. 23. Who determined that gravity is responsible for keeping the Moon in its orbit around the Earth? (a) Copernicus. (b) Galileo (c) Kepler. (d) Newton. 24. Observations by provided decisive evidence for the heliocentric model of the solar system. (a) Brahe of the motions of the planets (b) Galileo of the phases of Venus (c) Huygens of the rings of Saturn (d) Kepler of the orbit of Mars (e) Newton of falling apples

6 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 6 of Medieval thinkers believed that the Earth was quite different from the heavens, which they considered to be perfect, ethereal, and unchanging. Observations by provided evidence that the medieval view is wrong, and that the heavens are essentially like the Earth. (a) Aristarchus of LGMs on Mars (b) Galileo of mountains on the Moon and sunspots (c) Hipparchus of the rings of Saturn (d) Hubble of the expansion of the universe 26. Astrology is the subject of this course, the scientific study of the motions of stars, planets, and so on. (a) True. (b) False. 27. Among Newton s great advances are his discoveries of (a) laws of motion, law of gravity, and applications of them to explain many kinds of motion in the solar system. (b) quantum mechanics, and applications to explaining light and colour. (c) curved spacetime, and applications to explaining black holes. (d) quasars, and the subatomic particles emitted by them, quasalinos. 28. Observations during a total solar eclipse show that the angular sizes of the Sun and Moon are nearly equal. Therefore, if the Sun is about 400 times farther from us than the Moon, the diameter of the Sun must be about the diameter of the Moon. (a) 1/400th of (b) 1/20th of (c) the same as (d) 20 times (e) 400 times 29. The prevailing medieval view was that all objects in the solar system orbit the Earth. Observation of moons of Jupiter in the early 1600s by suggested that objects in the solar system could orbit other objects, not just Earth, and so helped humans to advance their simplistic views of the heavens. (a) Copernicus (b) Galileo (c) Kepler (d) Newton

7 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 7 of Ancient people noticed the difference between planets and stars by observing that (a) planets reflect the Sun s light, whereas stars create their own light. (b) planets are much closer to us than stars. (c) planets orbit the Sun whereas stars do not orbit the Sun. (d) planets are not fixed relative to the other stars. 31. The word planet originates from (a) an ancient Roman word that means child of the Sun. (b) an ancient Chinese word that means having no fixed position. (c) an ancient Celtic word that means moving in a circle. (d) an ancient Greek word that means wanderer. 32. According to Newton s laws of motion, an object moving in a circle at a constant speed is subject to a force pointing (a) along its trajectory (that is, tangent to its path). (b) away from the centre of the circle. (c) toward the centre of the circle. (d) [There is no net force on the object because the speed is constant.] 33. It is possible to determine the mass of a planet from the orbital data (the period and the orbital radius) of one of its satellites. (a) True. (b) False. 34. According to Newton s laws of motion the acceleration of a body (a) is proportional to its mass and inversely proportional to the net force acting on it. (b) is independent of its mass. (c) is proportional to the net force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass. (d) is inversely proportional to the square of the net force acting on it. 35. Newton s laws of motion state that if a body is neither at rest nor moving in a straight line at a constant speed, then (a) the net force acting on the object is zero. (b) the net force acting on the object is not zero. (c) the net force acting on the object acts along the path of motion. (d) the net force acting on the object might or might not be zero, depending on the path of motion.

8 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 8 of Which of the following was a valid argument against the heliocentric model proposed by some ancient Greek astronomers? (a) The Earth would lose its Moon if it were revolving around the Sun. (b) The heliocentric model contradicted the ideas of Aristotle. (c) Things would fall off the Earth if it were moving. (d) Stellar parallax was not observed. 37. The Moon looks larger when it is near the horizon than when it is high in the sky (a) because of moisture in the Earth s atmosphere. (b) because of refraction of light in the Earth s atmosphere. (c) because this is an optical illusion. (d) because of a temperature inversion in the Earth s atmosphere. 38. If the net force acting on an object doubles in magnitude, but acts in the same direction, then (a) the speed of the object doubles. (b) the velocity of the object doubles. (c) the acceleration of the object doubles. (d) [None of the others.] 39. Your mass is (a) the same on Earth as it is on the Moon. (b) greater on Earth than it is on the Moon. (c) less on Earth than it is on the Moon. (d) [It depends on your state of motion in each location.] 40. If the distance between two bodies is decreased by a factor of 4, the force of gravity each exerts on the other is (a) decreased by a factor of 4. (b) increased by a factor of 4. (c) decreased by a factor of 16. (d) increased by a factor of If the distance between two bodies is increased by a factor of 3, the force of gravity each exerts on the other is (a) decreased by a factor of 3. (b) increased by a factor of 3. (c) decreased by a factor of 9. (d) increased by a factor of 9.

9 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 9 of The surface gravity (also known as acceleration due to gravity) of a planet (a) is proportional to the planet s mass and inversely proportional to its radius. (b) is proportional to the planet s radius and inversely proportional to its mass. (c) does not depend on the planet s mass or radius. 43. The square of the escape velocity of a planet (a) is proportional to the planet s mass and inversely proportional to its radius. (b) is proportional to the planet s radius and inversely proportional to its mass. (c) does not depend on the planet s mass or radius. 44. Newton s work added to Kepler s laws of planetary motion. (a) hipster branding (b) the concept of elliptical orbits (c) a physical reason (d) planetary data (e) experimental verification 45. The strength of the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on the Moon is the strength of the gravitational force exerted by the Moon on the Earth. (a) greater than (b) equal to (c) less than (d) [The Moon does not exert a gravitational force on the Earth.] 46. Which planet has the greatest orbital speed? (a) Mercury (b) Venus (c) Earth (d) Mars 47. Which planet has the greatest orbital period? (a) Jupiter (b) Saturn (c) Uranus (d) Neptune

10 ASTR 1P01 November 2015 Page 10 of One purpose of Stonehenge seems to have been (a) an arena for Druidic curling bonspiels. (b) a golf course for top astronomers. (c) a way of keeping track of the beginning of seasons and making other astronomical measurements. (d) a quarry for producing marble for ancient Druidic sculptures. 49. The greatest naked-eye astronomer in history was (a) Desmond the Naked. (b) Donald the Trump. (c) Tycho Brahe. (d) Galileo Galilei. (e) Johannes Kepler. 50. The founder of the modern practice of science is considered to be (a) Aristotle. (b) Dr. Nick. (c) Galileo. (d) Kepler. (e) Newton.

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