# At Home Phases Demo. Astronomy 210. Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building. Geocentric vs. Heliocentric system. The Motion of the Planets

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1 Astronomy 210 Section 1 MWF Astronomy Building This Class (Lecture 4): Early Cosmology HW #1 Due on Friday! Next Class: You missed the first planetarium show. Cosmic Revolution Music: Twilight Squirrel Nut Zippers Outline Lunar Eclipses Solar Eclipses The Motion of the Planets Geocentric vs. Heliocentric system At Home Phases Demo Hold a softball (or equivalent) toward the sun (or a light bulb) Spin around, and watch the ball experience phases like the Moon!

2 The Face of the Moon Dark Side of the Moon? Did you notice that we only see one face of the Moon? Does this mean the moon doesn t rotate? No, the Moon rotates so that the same face is always pointed at the Earth A lunar day equals a lunar orbit! Is there really a dark side of the Moon? NO! It is better called the Far Side of the Moon. There is a side we don t see, but during the New Moon phase, it is well lit. Basically the lunar day is nearly a month long. No rotation Rotation period= Orbit period A Moonth Moonset Visible side Far side (not visible) Moonrise The month is based on the time it takes the Moon to cycle through its phases 29.5 days called Moon makes one full orbit of the Earth in 27.3 days Called Because of the Earth s orbit about the Sun, the Moon travels more than a full orbit each synodic period 360 degrees/27.3 days = 13.2 degrees/day Earth rotates about 15 degrees/hour So Moon rises 13.2/15 hours = 53 minutes later each day

3 Synodic vs. Sidereal Period Basic of Eclipses Lunar Eclipse When the Moon passes into the Earth's shadow Sun Earth Moon Solar Eclipse When the Earth crosses the Moon's shadow Sun Moon Earth Why don t eclipses happen every full and new moon? Synodic vs. Sidereal Period 1 synodic month Lunar Eclipses Three types Total - The Moon goes completely through the Earth s umbra Partial The Moon only goes partly through the umbra Penumbral The Moon only passes into the penumbra Umbra? Penumbra? Latin for complete shadow and partial shadow

4 Total Lunar Eclipse Time Lapse Occurs when the Moon passes through Earth s umbra completely. Occur roughly twice a year, and last for about an hour or two. Can be seen by anyone experiencing night during the lunar eclipse. Total Lunar Eclipse Red Moon During a total lunar eclipse, the Moon turns a bloodred/burnt orange color. Red color caused by sunlight diffused through the Earth's atmosphere Atmosphere scatters blue light away, so Moon is dimly illuminated in red The next total eclipse visible in Champaign-Urbana will be in Eclipsed Color depends on Earth s Atmosphere

5 The Moon s Orbit is Tilted! The Moon s orbit is tilted to the ecliptic by 5 º Just like the Earth s rotation axis is tilted to the ecliptic The Moon must be near the ecliptic for an eclipse to occur Solar Eclipses Earth passes into the Moon s shadow Only occur at the new moon Three types Partial when the moon only partially blocks the sun Total when the moon completely blocks the sun Annular when the moon is too small to completely block the sun Eclipse Seasons Nodes are the two points in each orbit at which the Moon crosses the Earth's orbital plane. For lunar or solar eclipses to occur the nodes must be aligned with the Earth and the Sun. Hence, eclipses can occur only twice per year and these epochs are called eclipse seasons. Solar Eclipses Moon casts a shadow on the Earth. Only possible because the Moon and Sun are approximately the same size as seen from Earth, around ½ a degree. Erding, Germany 1999 Occur roughly twice a year, and last only a matter of minutes. The Moon s shadow can t completely cover the Earth. so Viewable only in a very small band of area across the Earth (about 270 km in width).

6 Total Solar Eclipses If you are within the Moon s umbra, you will see a total solar eclipse As the Moon covers the Sun, light shines through lunar valleys, creating a diamond ring effect At totality, we can see the corona, a halo of very hot gas around the Sun An Eclipse Movie Are they nuts? Digitally Added Picture Annular Eclipse When the Moon is farthest from the Earth, it is too small in the sky to completely cover the Sun This results in an ring of sunlight around the Moon

7 More on the Lunar Orbit The Moon's orbit around the Earth not a perfect circle Distance from the Earth to the Moon varies by 10% This makes a noticeable difference in the Moon s size in the sky perigee apogee Partial Eclipse Like the Earth s shadow, the Moon s shadow has an umbra and a penumbra If you are in the penumbra, you only see a partial eclipse Even if people a few miles away see a total eclipse! Total vs. Partial Solar Eclipses Path of the Eclipse Shadow of the Moon races across globe.

8 Solar Eclipse Seen from Space Group Activity: Which Solar Eclipse Would You Like to Witness? In ancient times, people noted five bright stars that moved through the constellations of the Zodiac over time These stars were called planets, from Greek for wanderers The Planets Saturn Venus Jupiter Mercury Inferior vs. Superior Planets Venus and Mercury are always found close to the Sun Venus is always within 46º of the Sun Mercury is always within 22º of the Sun Referred to as the inferior planets Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn are not tied to the Sun in the sky Can be opposite the Sun in the sky (opposition) Referred to as the superior planets Mars Saturn Mercury

9 Names of the Planets Planets were given the names of Roman/Greek gods Mercury (Hermes) Messenger God (fast!) Venus (Aphrodite) Goddess of Beauty (brilliant!) Mars (Ares) God of War (red!) Jupiter (Zeus) King of the Gods Saturn (Cronus) Father of Zeus In Latin languages, the planet names correspond to days of the week Tuesday Mars, Wednesday Mercury, Thursday Jupiter, Friday Venus, Saturday Saturn In English, Tuesday-Friday are Nordic in origin Mars Moves Planetary Motion On a single night, planets will rise with stars and move from east to west. This is due to the diurnal motion of the Earth s rotation. However, over time, how does planet motion map on the sky? Planetary Motion Over many nights, planets can be seen to move west to east with respect to the stars Also called prograde motion Each planet moves at a different speed with respect to the stars Mercury is the fastest, then, in order: Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn Planets remain within the constellations of the Zodiac, close to the ecliptic

10 E A S T Let s see that again What did the Greeks think of the Planetary Data? The Greeks were excellent astronomers Cataloged star positions, brightness systematic, quantitative observations They observed that the stars, Sun, and planets appeared to revolve around the Earth W E S T Retrograde Motion Occasionally, a planet's motion (not just Mars) with respect to the stars appears to stop and reverse direction Called retrograde motion (east to west) Lasts for several weeks to a few months Remember, this motion is much slower than the diurnal rise in the east set in the west motion Explaining Planetary Motion The Greek philosophers believed that we lived in a geocentric (Earth - centered) system The heavens move in perfect circles The celestial sphere is pure and unchanging A heliocentric (Sun - centered) model had been introduced around 280 BC by Aristrarchus, but was rejected The Earth must be too heavy to move The geocentric system held sway for over 2000 years

11 The Geocentric Model The basic geocentric model is quite simple But how do you explain retrograde motion and the inferior planets? Ptolemy Explains Retrograde Motion Planets move on epicycles, which move along a larger circular orbit Ptolemy s system could explain retrograde motion in an Earthcentered system! Ptolemy (140 AD) Created a geocentric model with uniform circular motion that explained retrograde motion and inferior planets The Ptolemaic system Ptolemy Explains Retrograde Motion

12 Ptolemy Explains the Inferior Planets Venus' and Mercury's orbits are locked to the Sun Ptolemy s model becomes very complex Remember Occam s Razor Is It A Theory? Yes! and a reasonably accurate for its time Data: Sun/moon/planet motions Tentative Model: circular orbits Prediction: uniform motion on sky New data: retrograde motion, inferior planets Refined model: epicycles, Venus & Mercury locked to the Sun Result: Ptolemaic system (theory) strength: reasonably accurate fit of data weakness: complex, predictions for new data?

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