# Astro 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 2

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1 Astro 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 2 Chapter 4 1. The Universal Law of Gravitation says that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force that varies a) directly with the sum of their masses and inversely with the distance between them. b) directly with the product of their masses and inversely with the distance between them. c) directly with the sum of their masses and inversely with the square of the distance between them. d) directly with the product of their masses and inversely with the square of the distance between them. 2. By combining Newton s law of Universal Gravitation with Kepler s Third Law of Planetary Motion it is possible to a) calculate the speed of light. b) measure the average distance from the Earth to the sun. c) determine the mass of the sun by observing the orbital distance and orbital periods of the planets. d) determine the period of the sun around the center of the galaxy. 3. Which of the following is not a possible orbit of one body around another? a) A parabola b) An ellipse c) A hyperbola d) A straight line 4. Earth tides on the Moon are a) exactly the same strength as lunar tides acting on Earth according to Newton s 3 rd Law (Action-reaction law). b) weaker than lunar tides acting on Earth. c) stronger than lunar tides acting on Earth. d) None of the above, there are no Earth tides on the Moon. 5. High tides on Earth occur a) just before the Moon is directly overhead. b) just after the Moon is directly overhead. c) when the Moon is setting. d) when the Moon is rising.

2 6. The tidal forces due to the Moon are the result of a) the strength of the Moon s gravitational force acting on the center of Earth. b) the strength of the Moon s gravitational force acting on the surface of Earth. c) the strength of the Moon s gravitational force at a point in space between Earth and the Moon. d) the difference in the strength of the Moon s gravitational force acting on different parts of Earth. 7. The strength of the tides on Earth due to the Sun are a) stronger than tides on Earth due to the Moon. b) weaker than the tides on Earth due to the Moon. c) the same strength as the tides on Earth due to the Moon. 8. Due to tidal friction a) the rotational period of Earth is increasing. b) the rotational period of Earth is decreasing. c) the distance to the Moon is decreasing. d) the orbital period of the Moon is decreasing. e) None of the above, tides do not affect the orbital or rotational properties of either the Earth or the Moon. Short Answer Questions 1. State Newton s Universal Law of Gravitation and describe each of the terms in it and some of the consequences of the law. 2. Discuss how Newton s laws of motion and gravity can be used to derive Kepler s laws of planetary motion. 3. Describe how Newton s law of gravity and Kepler s 3 rd law can be used to find the mass of a planet, the Sun or a star. 4. Describe the cause of tides on Earth. Why are the tides due to the Moon stronger than the tides due to the Sun even though the strength of the gravitational force on Earth due to the Moon is much weaker than the strength of the gravitational force of the Sun on Earth? 5. Describe how and why the tides on Earth due to the Moon are affecting the orbit of the Moon and the rotation of the Earth. Chapter 5 1. Light is a) always a wave and never anything else. b) always a particle and never anything else. c) a disturbance that travels through the luminiferous aether. d) electromagnetic radiation.

3 2. Which of the following statement about light waves is false? a) The product of the wavelength and the frequency is equal to the speed of light. b) The wavelength is the distance between two adjacent crests of a wave. c) The frequency of a wave is the number of waves passing a point each second. d) The color of light does not depend on the wavelength. 3. Which of the following is not part of the electromagnetic spectrum? a) Beta rays. b) Gamma rays. c) X-rays. d) Radio waves. e) Visible light. 4. The electromagnetic spectrum is a) part of a refracting telescope. b) the entire range of light from gamma rays to very long radio waves. c) visible light. d) light that is not visible to the human eye. 5. The speed of light a) depends on the relative speed between the source and the observer. b) is different for different wavelengths. c) is dependent on the intensity of the light. d) is m /s for all observers regardless of their speed. 6. The Rutherford model of the atom had a) almost all of the mass is in the nucleus with most of the rest of the atom being empty space with electrons whizzing around. b) almost all of the mass is in the electrons with the nucleus being a tiny empty space. c) all the mass evenly distributed throughout the volume of the atom. d) the mass evenly divided between the tiny nucleus and the electrons whizzing around it. 7. The modern model of the atom is a) a solid mass with no internal structure. b) a small nucleus composed of neutrons and protons surrounded by a cloud of electrons. c) a small nucleus composed of electrons and protons surrounded by a cloud of neutrons. d) a small sphere composed of electrons, protons and neutrons.

4 8. Atoms emit light when a) an electron spontaneously falls from a high energy state to a lower energy state. b) an electron spontaneously jumps from a low energy state to a high energy state. c) an electron completes one orbit around the nucleus. d) an electron is thrown out of the nucleus. 9. An energy level diagram is a) a diagram of the energy production process in the Sun. b) a diagram of the energy released when an atom is split. c) a diagram of the possible energies that an electron can have in an atom. d) a diagram showing the physical position of the electron as it orbits around the nucleus. 10. Black body radiation is a) Glow-in-the-dark paint. b) The light produced by a black light. c) High-energy radiation from a black hole. d) A continuous spectrum of light emitted from a hot solid object. 11. Blackbody radiation is a) the individual wavelengths of light emitted from black holes. b) the individual wavelengths of light that are absorbed by objects that are painted black. c) the continuous spectrum of light that is emitted from objects due to their temperature. d) the individual wavelengths of light that are emitted from objects due to their mass. 12. Which of the following is not a property of blackbody radiation? a) The blackbody spectrum is a continuous spectrum of light. b) The wavelength of maximum intensity decreases with increasing temperature. c) The total energy emitted increases with increasing temperature. d) All wavelengths are emitted with equal intensity. 13. The Doppler effect is a) the change in observed wavelength of a wave when the source is moving with respect to the observer. b) the change in the observed intensity of a wave when the source is moving with respect to the observer. c) the change in the observed speed of light when the source is moving with respect to the observer. d) the change in the observed position of a star due to the relative motion of the earth around the sun.

5 14. If a light source is moving towards you the light will be a) redshifted. b) blueshifted. c) unchanged. d) converted into mass. Short Answer Questions 1. Describe the spectrum of a blackbody and how its shape and size depends on the temperature. Make a graph showing the spectrum of a number of blackbodies at different temperature 2. Describe the modern model of the atom. Include descriptions of how the mass is distributed, the composition of the nucleus and electron energy levels. 3. Describe the spectrum of the Sun. 4. Describe the Doppler Effect and give at least two ways that it can affect the spectrum of a star.

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