# Midterm 1. - Covers Ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 (HW 1, 2, 3, & 4) ** bring long green SCANTRON 882 E short answer questions (show work)

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1 Midterm 1 - Covers Ch. 1, 2, 3, 4, & 5 (HW 1, 2, 3, & 4) - 20 multiple choice/fill-in the blank ** bring long green SCANTRON 882 E - 10 short answer questions (show work) - formula sheet will be included - bring pencil/pen; calculators are allowed

2 EXAM TIPS - Go through test and rank problems (do easier ones first, then harder ones) - Check time (have phone min) - Practice quizzes with Studyspace

3 Our Place in the Universe Material made by stars Mostly Hydrogen & Helium

4 Light Travel Times The Universe as a Time Machine

5

6 Orientation Celestial Poles = extension of Earth s axis onto the sky Zenith = point directly above observer s head Meridian = imaginary arc from North to South that passes through Zenith Ecliptic = Sun s path

7 Orientation How is the altitude of the North Celestial Pole related to your latitude?

8 The Celestial Sphere

9 Why Stars Rise & Set

10 Midnight Sun

11 Earth Orbits the Sun

12 Precession (What s that?) Spinning top takes <1 sec to precess... Earth takes 26,000 years!

13 Why the moon has different phases:

14 Solar Eclipses View from Moon View from Earth

15 The Seasons

16 Sunlit Earth (by Don Carona) Earth s tilt means that days lengthen/ shorten and the angle (intensity) of light changes.

17 Greek Model of the Universe The Earth at the Center Greek model could not fully explain retrograde motion.

18 Science is a Process

19 Hallmarks of Science 1. Understanding nature w/o relying on supernatural forces. 2. Using math to give precision to ideas. 3. Reasoning from observations

20 Copernican Revolution Occam s Razor (1340): Among competing theories, the best theory is the simplest, i.e. the one with the fewest assumptions Copernicus Tycho Kepler Galileo Newton

21 Tycho Brahe Danish astronomer who showed: Stars much farther away than the Moon Observed supernova (1572) and noted it did not have any parallactic shift, thus it was not part of the Earth-Moon system Observed a comet (1577) and showed it was far beyond the Moon These discoveries were essential for overturning pre-copernican theories!

22 Galileo Galilei Perfected the telescope (lens) in 1609 Discovered 4 of Jupiter s moons (1610) First to observe phases of Venus Ptolemaic model of Venus was wrong! One of the first to observe sunspots Discovered mountains on Moon Celestial bodies were not smooth, perfect spheres!

23 Kepler s First Law Each planet moves on an elliptical orbit with the Center of Mass (the Sun) at one focus: Perilously close Perihelion distance = (1-eccentricity) x (semimajor axis)

24 Kepler s Second Law Equal Areas = Equal Times Conservation of Angular Momentum

25 Kepler s Third Law Square of orbital periods (P) is proportional to cube of semi-major axis (a): P 2 a 3

26 Newton s First Law First Law = Law of Inertia An object in motion stays in motion; an object at rest stays at rest as long as no net force acts on it.

27 Newton s Second Law Second Law = How force changes an object s motion Force = mass x acceleration; F = ma different force on objects with the same mass same force on objects with different mass

28 Newton s Third Law Third Law = Equal and opposite reaction Elastic collision (momentum is conserved)

29 Acceleration Acceleration is a change in velocity, either speed, direction or both.

30 Law of Gravitation - Every mass attracts every other mass through gravity - Strength of the gravitational attraction is directly proportional to the product of their masses (more mass, more gravitational attraction) - Strength of the gravitational attraction decreases with the square of the distance between the centers of the objects (inverse square law)

31 Law of Gravitation How can we express these concepts? F g = gravitational force G = gravitational constant M 1 = mass of object 1 M 2 = mass of object 2 d = distance between the two objects F g = G M 1M 2 d 2

32 Potential & Kinetic Energy

33 Weightlessness There is gravity even in space! Astronauts float b/c they are in a constant state of free-fall (the ground is falling away as fast as you are falling towards it)

34 Escape Velocity Satellites with more orbital energy are on average farther away. If a satellite has enough energy, it will go into an unbound orbit (escape).

35 Gamma rays X-rays UV Visible IR Microwave Radio λ increasing f decreasing

36 Wavelength & Frequency Speed of light = constant means simple relation between wavelength (how long) and frequency (how often)

37 Wavelength, Frequency, & Energy = wavelength c = speed of light f = frequency c = m/s E = photon energy h = joule s f = c E = h f And don t forget units! Wavelength -> length Frequency -> 1/time (per second) Energy -> joules

38 How Light & Matter Interact Matter can: - Emit light (release energy) - Absorb light (absorb energy) - Transmit light (allow light to pass) - Reflect/scatter light (change light s direction) Interactions between light & matter determine the appearance of everything we see.

39 Types of Spectra

40 Energy Levels Emission & Absorption Lines: Signature of Electrons changing energy levels.

41 Spectral Fingerprints Each type of atom has its own unique spectral fingerprint because it has a unique set of energy levels.

42 Stefan-Boltzmann Law Hotter means much more luminous : Luminosity α T 4 Hotter objects emit more light at all wavelengths and photons with higher average energy.

43 Wien s Law The peak wavelength (in meters) is related to the temperature (in Kelvin) as: λ = (0.0029/T)

44 Doppler Effect Blueshift: spectral lines move towards shorter wavelength Redshift: lines move towards longer wavelength

45 Light & Motion longer wavelength

46 Measuring Distances Luminosity is how much light leaves a source (it does not depend on your location). Brightness is how much light arrives at a particular location (it depends on how far away you are). Knowing a star s luminosity and measuring it s brightness, you can measure distance

47 Key Properties for a Telescope Light-collecting area: being able to observe very faint objects Angular resolution: being able to separate very close objects

48 Refracting Telescope Uses lenses to collect light and bring it to a focus. Very long focal length. Thick glass is very heavy and hard to move.

49 Reflecting Telescope Uses mirrors to collect light and bring it to a focus. Shorter focal length. Easier to focus and move.

50 Optical & Atmospheric Limitations Resolution is the smallest details that can be separated, e.g. two very close stars; determined by focal length. Diffraction is the best possible resolution; determined by aperture and wavelength. Seeing due to the atmosphere changes the resolution from the diffraction-limit. No atmosphere means images are diffraction-limited (highest resolution possible).

51 ``Seeing refers to how the earth s atmosphere distorts incoming light :

52 Our Atmosphere

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### Most of the time during full and new phases, the Moon lies above or below the Sun in the sky.

6/16 Eclipses: We don t have eclipses every month because the plane of the Moon s orbit about the Earth is different from the plane the ecliptic, the Earth s orbital plane about the Sun. The planes of

### If there is a full moon visible from Paris one evening, twelve hours later in Australia there will be a full moon visible.

Astronomy: Semester Review Topics, Concepts and Ideas After a full moon, about how long is it until the next new moon? Two weeks If there is a full moon visible from Paris one evening, twelve hours later

### If there is a full moon visible from Paris one evening, twelve hours later in Australia there will be a full moon visible.

Astronomy: Semester Review Topics, Concepts and Ideas After a full moon, about how long is it until the next new moon? Two weeks If there is a full moon visible from Paris one evening, twelve hours later