# Lecture 25: The Outer Planets

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Lecture 25: The Outer Planets Neptune Uranus Pluto/Charon Uranus and three moons Neptune and two moons 1

2 The Outer Planets Uranus Discovered by William Herschel in 1781, who realized that this extended object was not a star The first new planet discovered in 2000 years, and the first to lie beyond the classical planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn It is barely bright enough to be seen without a telescope 2

3 The orbit of Uranus has eccentricity e = The distance from the Sun varies by about 10% during an orbit D perihelion = 18.3 AU D aphelion = 20.1 AU Uranus Kepler s third law relates the semi-major axis a to the orbital period P a P = AU years Observations show that P = 84.1 Earth years for Uranus, and therefore we obtain a = 19.2 AU 2/3 Discovery of Neptune Surprisingly, the orbit of Uranus turns out not to be exactly elliptical in 50 years the discrepancy grew to about 15 arc seconds Does this suggest that there is something wrong with Kepler s laws? Or, is some other force at work, in addition to the Sun s gravity? Discovery of Neptune In , two mathematicians independently deduced that another body must be causing the anomaly This led to the prediction of the location of an eight planet It was discovered late in 1846, only one or two degrees from the predicted location! The mathematicians got credit for the discovery not the astronomer! The newly discovered planet was named Neptune 3

4 The orbit of Neptune has eccentricity e = 0.01 The distance from the Sun varies by about 2% during an orbit D perihelion = 29.8 AU D aphelion = 30.4 AU Neptune Kepler s third law relates the semi-major axis a to the orbital period P 3/ 2 P a = years AU Observations of the parallax of Neptune show that a = 30.1 AU, and therefore we obtain P = 164 Earth years Since its discovery in 1846, 157 years have passed and Neptune has almost completed one orbit around the Sun Discovery of Pluto Remaining problems with the orbits of Uranus and Neptune suggested that there may be a ninth planet perturbing their orbits Percival Lowell used theoretical calculations to predict the mass and location of a ninth planet in 1906 About 14 years after Lowell died, in 1930, Pluto was discovered by Clyde Tombaugh only 6 degrees from the predicted location! However, it turns out that there were no real problems with the orbits of Uranus and Neptune, and therefore the discovery of Pluto was just a coincidence! 1978 photo showing discovery of Charon Pluto s Orbit The orbit of Pluto has eccentricity e = 0.25, the largest for any planet in the solar system The distance from the Sun varies by about 50% during an orbit D perihelion = 29.7 AU D aphelion = 49.3 AU Kepler s third law relates the semi-major axis a to the orbital period P 3/ 2 P a = years AU Observations of the parallax of Pluto show that a = 39.5 AU, and therefore we obtain P = 248 Earth years Since its discovery in 1930, Pluto has completed only about 30% of one orbit around the Sun 4

5 Note that for Pluto, D perihelion = 29.7 AU D aphelion = 49.3 AU Note that for Neptune, D perihelion = 29.8 AU Pluto and Neptune D aphelion = 30.4 AU Hence during part of the time, Pluto is actually the 8 th planet from the Sun and Neptune is the 9 th planet! This means that Pluto and Neptune can get fairly close together, suggesting A possible orbital resonance between them Perhaps Pluto is an escaped moon of Neptune Pluto and Neptune Following up on the resonance possibility, we note that P pluto = 248 Earth years P neptune = 164 Earth years Hence we find that 2 P pluto = 3 Pneptune It therefore appears that the two planets are locked in a 2:3 orbital resonance! The resonance is enforced by the close approaches which happen every few hundred years 5

6 Bulk Properties of the Outer Planets The radii are given by R uranus = 24,750 km = 4.0 R earth R neptune = 25,550 km = 3.9 R earth R pluto = 1,150 km = 0.2 R earth The masses are given by M uranus = 8.7 x g = 14.6 M earth M neptune = 1.0 x g = 17.2 M earth M pluto = 1.5 x g = M earth The average densities are given by ρ uranus = 1.2 g cm -3 ρ neptune = 1.7 g cm -3 ρ pluto = 2.0 g cm -3 Bulk Properties of the Outer Planets The average densities of Uranus and Neptune are similar to Jupiter s (1.2 g cm -3 ) and higher than Saturn s (0.6 g cm -3 ) Neptune and Uranus probably have large rocky cores They also have a metallic hydrogen layer, as well as a deeper layer of ionized ammonia slush, where the magnetic field is formed Pluto is composed of rock and ice, with a surface temperature of 50 K Rotation Rates The rotation period of Uranus is 17.2 hours according to magnetic field measurements the spin axis is tilted by 98 o (it is almost perpendicular to the orbital axis)...is this due to a collision?? The rotation period of Neptune is 16.1 hours according to observations of the magnetic field, and the tilt of Neptune s spin axis is 29.6 o Pluto has a spin period of 6.4 Earth days, and a spin axis tilt of 120 o -- it is tidally locked to its moon, Charon Jovian planets animation 1 Jovian planets animation 2 6

7 Atmospheric Compositions Uranus s Atmosphere: Jupiter s Atmosphere: H % H % He -- 14% He % CH % CH 4 -- trace NH 3 -- freezes NH 3 -- trace The cloud-top temperatures on Uranus and Neptune are around K, which is below the freezing point of ammonia gas These temperatures are close to the predicted equilibrium value (no heat source required) The methane gas (CH 4 ) absorbs the red light, making the planets appear blue in color Neptune s atmosphere is similar in composition to Uranus s, except that there is 3% methane, giving it a more blue appearance Pluto has a very thin methane atmosphere with methane snow! Voyager 2, January 10,

8 Neptune 36 hours in Neptune s atmosphere 8

9 Clouds on Neptune Internal Structures Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune have strong magnetic fields, powered by the fast rotation The magnetic fields on Jupiter and Saturn are centered close to the core of each planet, and are probably produced in the metallic hydrogen layers The magnetic fields on Neptune and Uranus are quite offset from the core of each planet, and display very large tilt angles 9

10 Formation of Ring Systems Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune all have ring systems The rings exist inside the Roche limit, the tidal force of the planet overwhelms the self-gravity of a moon, ripping it apart The rings may exist due to the breakup of one or more small moons that passed inside the Roche limit It is not clear why Saturn s ring system is the most extensive it may only last a few million years before dissipating 10

11 Rings of Uranus The ring system of Uranus was discovered using stellar occultation, when the rings move in front of a background star 11

12 Voyager 2 image of Neptune s rings Voyager 2 image of Neptune s braided ring 12

13 Shepherd satellites Shepherd satellites Primary Moons in the Solar System 13

14 Moons of Uranus Uranus has at least 22 moons The primary satellites are: Name Distance Density Miranda g/cm 3 Ariel g/cm 3 Umbriel g/cm 3 Titania g/cm 3 Oberon g/cm 3 Here, the distances are in units of the planet s radius Most are relatively small and icy/rocky in composition They are heavily cratered These satellites are similar to the moons of Saturn Miranda has a unique surface with many different geological features Moons of Uranus Miranda The great variety of terrain suggests a very violent history 14

15 Uranus s moon Miranda 15

16 Neptune has at least 8 moons The primary satellites are: Moons of Neptune Name Distance Density Triton g/cm 3 Nereid g/cm 3 Here, the distances are in units of the planet s radius They are heavily cratered They are relatively small and icy/rocky in composition Triton is the largest, with a radius of 1,350 km The densities of 2 g/cm 3 suggests a rockier composition than most of the other outer moons quite similar to Pluto Triton orbits in a retrograde direction, perhaps indicating that it is a captured satellite Hubble image of Triton and Neptune 16

17 Triton s icy surface Triton s icy surface Triton and Neptune 17

18 Pluto and Charon Pluto s orbit has an eccentricity e = 0.25 and it is tilted by 17 o relative to the ecliptic plane Surprisingly, Pluto has its own small satellite, called Charon, discovered in 1978 Charon is 1/6 as massive as Pluto, which is the largest ratio for any moon and planet in the solar system 1978 photo showing discovery of Charon Hubble image of Pluto and Charon 18

19 Hubble images of Pluto 19

20 Pluto and Charon We are not sure how the Pluto-Charon system formed The orbit of Charon is tilted by 118 o relative to Pluto s orbit This causes the two objects to occult each other as viewed from Earth, every 124 years Pluto and Charon The duration of the occultations allows a precise measurement of the radii of both objects Combining this information with Newton s laws allows the determination of the size, mass, and density of both objects The densities of each are close to 2 g/cm 3, which is similar to Triton 20

21 New Horizons mission (2006) Mysteries of the Outer Planets Why does Saturn have a spectacular ring? Could life exist on Saturn s moon Titan? How did Uranus end up so tilted? When were the moons of Uranus formed? What happened to Miranda to explain its complex surface? How could Pluto be an escaped moon of Neptune when it has its own satellite? 21

### Lecture 24: Saturn. The Solar System. Saturn s Rings. First we focus on solar distance, average density, and mass: (where we have used Earth units)

Lecture 24: Saturn The Solar System First we focus on solar distance, average density, and mass: Planet Distance Density Mass Mercury 0.4 1.0 0.06 Venus 0.7 0.9 0.8 Earth 1.0 1.0 1.0 Mars 1.5 0.7 0.1 (asteroid)

### The Outermost Planets. The 7 Wanderers known since Antiquity. Uranus and Neptune distinctly Blue-ish!

The Outermost Planets The 7 Wanderers known since Antiquity. Uranus and Neptune distinctly Blue-ish! Uranus Uranus and 3 of its moons, barely visible from Earth. Discovered by William Herschel 1781. (Accidentally!)

### Astronomy. Uranus Neptune & Remote Worlds

Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock adhancock@wm.edu Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am Uranus Neptune & Remote Worlds Uranus and Neptune Orbits and Atmospheres Internal Structure Magnetic Fields Rings Uranus's

### Earth, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto

14a. Uranus, Neptune & Pluto The discovery of Uranus & Neptune Uranus is oddly tilted & nearly featureless Neptune is cold & blue Uranus & Neptune are like yet dislike Jupiter The magnetic fields of Uranus

### Lecture Outlines. Chapter 13. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines Chapter 13 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 13 Uranus and Neptune Units of Chapter 13 13.1 The Discoveries of Uranus and Neptune 13.2 Orbital and Physical Properties

### Uranus & Neptune, The Ice Giants

Uranus & Neptune, The Ice Giants What We Will Learn Today How & When were Uranus & Neptune discovered? How are the interiors and weather on these planets? Why is Neptune as warm as Uranus? What are their

### Earth, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto. 14a. Uranus & Neptune. The Discovery of Uranus. Uranus Data: Numbers. Uranus Data (Table 14-1)

14a. Uranus & Neptune The discovery of Uranus & Neptune Uranus is oddly tilted & nearly featureless Neptune is cold & blue Uranus & Neptune are like yet dislike Jupiter The magnetic fields of Uranus &

### Uranus and Neptune. Uranus and Neptune Properties. Discovery of Uranus

Uranus and Neptune Uranus and Neptune are much smaller than Jupiter and Saturn, but still giants compared to Earth Both are worlds we know relatively little about Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to visit

### The Planet Pluto. & Kuiper Belt. The Search for PLANET X Pluto Discovered. Note how Pluto Moved in 6 days. Pluto (Hades): King of the Underworld

X The Planet Pluto & Kuiper Belt Updated May 9, 2016 The Search for PLANET X Recall Neptune was predicted from observed changes in orbit of Uranus Lowell & Pickering suggest small changes in Neptune s

### Lecture 23: Jupiter. Solar System. Jupiter s Orbit. The semi-major axis of Jupiter s orbit is a = 5.2 AU

Lecture 23: Jupiter Solar System Jupiter s Orbit The semi-major axis of Jupiter s orbit is a = 5.2 AU Jupiter Sun a Kepler s third law relates the semi-major axis to the orbital period 1 Jupiter s Orbit

### Our Planetary System. Chapter 7

Our Planetary System Chapter 7 Key Concepts for Chapter 7 and 8 Inventory of the Solar System Origin of the Solar System What does the Solar System consist of? The Sun: It has 99.85% of the mass of the

### Saturn. Slightly smaller 1/3 the mass density 700 kg/m 3. Interior - light elements, lack of rocky materials. Voyager 2, NASA

Saturn Slightly smaller 1/3 the mass density 700 kg/m 3 Interior - light elements, lack of rocky materials Voyager 2, NASA 1 Saturn - Atmosphere belts - driven by rapid rotation period - 10 hrs 14 min

### ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section X

ASTR-1010: Astronomy I Course Notes Section X Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser Department of Physics and Astronomy East Tennessee State University Edition 2.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of

### Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. Outer Worlds 4/19/07

The : Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto Reading Assignment Finish Chapter 17 Announcements 6 th homework due on Tuesday, April 24 Quiz on Tuesday, April 24 (will cover all lectures since the last exam and Chapters

### The Outer Planets (pages )

The Outer Planets (pages 720 727) Gas Giants and Pluto (page 721) Key Concept: The first four outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are much larger and more massive than Earth, and they do

### Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Anil Pradhan December 6, 2016 I The Outer Planets in General 1. How do the sizes, masses and densities of the outer planets compare with the inner planets? The outer planets

### Chapter 8 2/19/2014. Lecture Outline. 8.1 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter. Moons, Rings, and Plutoids. 8.1 The Galilean Moons of Jupiter

Lecture Outline Chapter 8 Moons, Rings, and Plutoids All four Jovian planets have extensive moon systems, and more are continually being discovered. The Galilean moons of Jupiter are those observed by

### Lecture 11 The Structure and Atmospheres of the Outer Planets October 9, 2017

Lecture 11 The Structure and Atmospheres of the Outer Planets October 9, 2017 1 2 Jovian Planets 3 Jovian Planets -- Basic Information Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Distance 5.2 AU 9.5 AU 19 AU 30 AU Spin

### Solar System Research Teacher Notes The Sun

The Sun G-type main sequence star (G2V), also known as a yellow dwarf Mass = 1.99 x 10 30 kg or 333,000 Earths. Volume = 1.41 x 10 18 km 3 or 1,300,000 Earths. Density (average) = 1.41 g/cm 3 or 0.255

### 1781: Uranus Discovered. The Outer Worlds. 1846: Neptune Discovered. Distance Comparison. Uranus Rotates Sideways. Exaggerated Seasons On Uranus

The Outer Worlds 1781: Discovered (accidentally!) by William Herschel using a 6 inch telescope [he thought it was a comet!] 2 Draft 12/03/2006 Updated May 05, 2011 1846: Discovered Le Verrier: proposed

### Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 4 Review Anil Pradhan November 16, 2017 I Jupiter 1. How do Jupiter s mass, size, day and year compare to Earth s? Mass: 318 Earth masses (or about 1/1000th the mass of the Sun). Radius:

### Moons of Sol Lecture 13 3/5/2018

Moons of Sol Lecture 13 3/5/2018 Tidal locking We always see the same face of the Moon. This means: period of orbit = period of spin Top view of Moon orbiting Earth Earth Why? The tidal bulge in the solid

### Lecture 38. The Jovian Planets; Kuiper Belt. Tides; Roche Limit; Rings Jupiter System Saturn, Uranus, Neptune rings Plutinos and KBO's

Lecture 38 The Jovian Planets; Kuiper Belt Tides; Roche Limit; Rings Jupiter System Saturn, Uranus, Neptune rings Plutinos and KBO's Apr 26, 2006 Astro 100 Lecture 38 1 Jovian System Jovian System Solar

### AST111, Lecture 1b. Measurements of bodies in the solar system (overview continued) Orbital elements

AST111, Lecture 1b Measurements of bodies in the solar system (overview continued) Orbital elements Planetary properties (continued): Measuring Mass The orbital period of a moon about a planet depends

### Uranus & Neptune: The Ice Giants. Discovery of Uranus. Bode s Law. Discovery of Neptune

Uranus & Neptune: The Ice Giants Discovery of Uranus Discovery of Uranus & Neptune Properties Density & Composition Internal Heat Source Magnetic fields Rings Uranus Rotational Axis by William Herschel

### The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS. Scientific Language. Name Test Date Hour

Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

### The Solar System. Name Test Date Hour

Name Test Date Hour Astronomy#3 - Notebook The Solar System LEARNING TARGETS I can describe the objects that make up our solar system. I can identify the inner and outer planets. I can explain the difference

### Pluto, the Kuiper Belt, and Trans- Neptunian Objects

Pluto, the Kuiper Belt, and Trans- Neptunian Objects 1 What about Pluto? Pluto used to be considered a planet Pluto is one of a large number of Trans-Neptunian Objects, not even the largest one! Discovery

### Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Comparing the Jovian Planets. Jovian Planet Composition 4/10/16. Spacecraft Missions

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems Jovian Planet Interiors and Atmospheres How are jovian planets alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets? Do jovian

### The Jovian Planets and Their Moons

The Jovian Planets and Their Moons Jupiter 1 Physical Properties of Earth and Jupiter Jupiter Earth Equatorial lradius 11.2 R Earth 6378 km Mass 318 M Earth 5.976 10 24 kg Average Density 1.34 g/cm 3 5.497

### Physical Science 1 Chapter 16 INTRODUCTION. Astronomy is the study of the universe, which includes all matter, energy, space and time.

INTRODUCTION Astronomy is the study of the universe, which includes all matter, energy, space and time. Although the universe is vast and almost beyond imagination, much is known about its make-up and

### Physics 1305 Notes: The Outer Solar System

Physics 1305 Notes: The Outer Solar System Victor Andersen University of Houston vandersen@uh.edu April 5, 2004 Copyright c Victor Andersen 2004 1 The Gas Giant Planets The predominant feature of Jupiter,

### Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?

### Astronomy November, 2016 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System. Mid-term Exam 3. Practice Version. Name (written legibly):

Astronomy 101 16 November, 2016 Introduction to Astronomy: The Solar System Mid-term Exam 3 Practice Version Name (written legibly): Honor Pledge: On my honor, I have neither given nor received unauthorized

### Lecture 16 Dwarf Planets and Comets January 8a, 2014

1 Lecture 16 Dwarf Planets and Comets January 8a, 2014 2 Pluto -- Basic Information Discovered by Clyde Tombaugh in 1930 Period: P orb = 248 years Distance: a = 39.5 AU 3 moons (Charon, Nix, Hydra) Demoted

### Jovian Planet Properties

The Outer Planets Jovian Planet Properties Jovian Planet Properties Compared to the terrestrial planets, the Jovians: are much larger & more massive are composed mostly of Hydrogen, Helium, & Hydrogen

### Universe Now. 4. Solar System II: Jovian planets

Universe Now 4. Solar System II: Jovian planets An overview of the known Solar System The Sun 4 terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, The Earth, Mars 4 Jovian planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune 5

### Jupiter and Saturn. Guiding Questions. Long orbital periods of Jupiter and Saturn cause favorable viewing times to shift

Jupiter and Saturn 1 2 Guiding Questions 1. Why is the best month to see Jupiter different from one year to the next? 2. Why are there important differences between the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn?

### Gravity: Motivation An initial theory describing the nature of the gravitational force by Newton is a product of the resolution of the

Gravity: Motivation An initial theory describing the nature of the gravitational force by Newton is a product of the resolution of the Geocentric-Heliocentric debate (Brahe s data and Kepler s analysis)

### Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Jovian Planet Composition. Are jovian planets all alike? Density Differences. Density Differences

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?

### Chapter 11 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Jovian Planet Systems Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 11 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Jovian Planet Systems Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian

### After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions:

CHAPTER 16 4 Moons SECTION Our Solar System California Science Standards 8.2.g, 8.4.d, 8.4.e BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How did Earth s moon

### Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.

### Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on the inside? What is the weather like on jovian planets?

### Label next 2 pages in ISN Gas Giants. Make sure the following assignments are turned in:

Do Now: Label next 2 pages in ISN Gas Giants Make sure the following assignments are turned in: A3K Article Analysis Small Group Test Corrections Form (if applicable) Astronomical Bodies in The Solar System

### Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems. Jovian Planet Composition. Are jovian planets all alike? Density Differences. Density Differences

Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems 11.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning:! Are jovian planets all alike?! What are jovian planets like on the inside?! What is the weather like on jovian

### Edmonds Community College ASTRONOMY 100 Sample Test #2 Fall Quarter 2006

Edmonds Community College ASTRONOMY 100 Sample Test #2 Fall Quarter 2006 Instructor: L. M. Khandro 10/19/06 Please Note: the following test derives from a course and text that covers the entire topic of

### By Andrew Hartsel. and. Evelyne Ridinger

By Andrew Hartsel and Evelyne Ridinger Time Line of Uranus 1781- Discovered 1783- Orbit Predicted 1784- Prediction fails- discover Neptune 1787- First two moons discovered- Titania and Oberon 1821- Bouvard

### Chapter 29. The Solar System. The Solar System. Section 29.1 Models of the Solar System notes Models of the Solar System

The Solar System Chapter 29 The Solar System Section 29.1 Models of the Solar System 29.1 notes Models of the Solar System Geocentric: : Earth-centered model of the solar system. (Everything revolves around

### Jupiter. Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by Spacecrafts

Jupiter Orbit, Rotation Physical Properties Atmosphere, surface Interior Magnetosphere Moons (Voyager 1) Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by

### Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian

Part A Which of the following statements best describes the general pattern of composition among the four jovian planets? Hint A.1 Major categories of ingredients in planetary composition The following

### Physics Homework 4 Fall 2015

1) How were the rings of Uranus discovered? 1) A) by Percival Lowell, who observed two "bumps" on either side of Uranus B) photometric observations of the occultation of a star made from Earth C) by Voyager

### Jovian Planet Systems

Jovian Planet Systems Reading: Chapter 14.1-14.5 Jovian Planet Systems Voyager 1 and 2 explored the outer planets in the 1970s and 1980s. The Galileo spacecraft circled Jupiter dozens of times in the late

### The Jovian Planets. Why do we expect planets like this in the outer reaches of the solar system?(lc)

The Jovian Planets Beyond Mars and the Asteroid belt are the Jovian or Gas Giant Planets that are totally different than the terrestrial planets: They are composed almost entirely of gas They do not have

### LEARNING ABOUT THE OUTER PLANETS. NASA's Cassini spacecraft. Io Above Jupiter s Clouds on New Year's Day, Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

LEARNING ABOUT THE OUTER PLANETS Can see basic features through Earth-based telescopes. Hubble Space Telescope especially useful because of sharp imaging. Distances from Kepler s 3 rd law, diameters from

### Chapter 8. Satellites (moons), Rings, and Plutoids. Reading assignment: Chapter 8

Chapter 8 Satellites (moons), Rings, and Plutoids Reading assignment: Chapter 8 Jovian planets satellites There are: Six large satellites, similar in size to our Moon 12 medium-sized - 400 to 1500km Many

### A Survey of the Planets Earth Mercury Moon Venus

A Survey of the Planets [Slides] Mercury Difficult to observe - never more than 28 degree angle from the Sun. Mariner 10 flyby (1974) Found cratered terrain. Messenger Orbiter (Launch 2004; Orbit 2009)

### The Solar System. Tour of the Solar System

The Solar System Tour of the Solar System The Sun more later 8 planets Mercury Venus Earth more later Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Various other objects Asteroids Comets Pluto The Terrestrial Planets

### Similarities & Differences to Inner Planets

Similarities & Differences to Inner Planets Jupiter Jupiter: Basic Characteristics Mass = 1.898 10 27 kg (318 x Earth) Radius = 71,492 km (11x Earth) Albedo (reflectivity) = 0.34 (Earth = 0.39) Average

### The Gas Giants Astronomy Lesson 13

The Gas Giants Astronomy Lesson 13 The four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are much larger and more massive than Earth, and they do not have solid surfaces. Because these planets

### Lecture #27: Saturn. The Main Point. The Jovian Planets. Basic Properties of Saturn. Saturn:

Lecture #27: Saturn Saturn: General properties. Atmosphere. Interior. Origin and evolution. Reading: Chapters 7.1 (Saturn) and 11.1. The Main Point Saturn is a large Jovian-class planet with a composition

### Chapter 7 Our Planetary System

Chapter 7 Our Planetary System What does the solar system look like? Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft Eight major planets with nearly circular orbits Pluto is smaller than the major planets and

### Overview of Solar System

Overview of Solar System The solar system is a disk Rotation of sun, orbits of planets all in same direction. Most planets rotate in this same sense. (Venus, Uranus, Pluto are exceptions). Angular momentum

### Lecture 13. Gravity in the Solar System

Lecture 13 Gravity in the Solar System Guiding Questions 1. How was the heliocentric model established? What are monumental steps in the history of the heliocentric model? 2. How do Kepler s three laws

### 11/11/08 Announce: Chapter 9. Jupiter. The Outer Worlds. Jupiter s Interior. Jupiter 11/11/2008. The Outer Planets

11/11/08 Announce: Can take AST 302 for Advanced Honors credit Will be late for office hours tomorrow Thursday: Meet in Library 229 computer lab Project Part II Due Thursday Email in plain text (no Microsoft

### Directed Reading B. Section: The Outer Planets

Skills Worksheet Directed Reading B Section: The Outer Planets 1. What is one way that gas giants differ from the terrestrial planets? a. They are much smaller. b. They are rocky and icy. c. They are made

### Chapter 10 Mars Friday, March 12, 2010

Chapter 10 Mars 10.1 Orbital Properties Mars s orbit is fairly eccentric which affects amount of sunlight reaching it Mars can be either in the direction of the Sun (conjunction) or not (opposition) 10.2

### Welcome to the Solar System

Welcome to the Solar System How vast those Orbs must be, and how inconsiderable this Earth, the Theater upon which all our mighty Designs, all our Navigations, and all our Wars are transacted, is when

### Announcement Test 2. is coming up on Mar 19. Start preparing! This test will cover the classes from Feb 27 - Mar points, scantron, 1 hr.

Announcement Test 2 is coming up on Mar 19. Start preparing! This test will cover the classes from Feb 27 - Mar 14. 50 points, scantron, 1 hr. 1 AST103 Ch. 7 Our Planetary System Earth, as viewed by the

### Outline. Question of Scale. Planets Dance. Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now.

Outline Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now. Planetarium observing is over. Switch Gears Solar System Introduction The Planets, the Asteroid belt, the Kupier objects, and the Oort cloud

### Planetarium observing is over. Nighttime observing starts next week.

Homework #2 was due today at 11:50am! It s too late now. Planetarium observing is over. Solar observing is over. Nighttime observing starts next week. Outline Switch Gears Solar System Introduction The

### The scientific theory I like best is that the rings of. Saturn are composed entirely of lost airline luggage. Mark Russell

The scientific theory I like best is that the rings of Saturn are composed entirely of lost airline luggage. Mark Russell What We Will Learn Today Why does Saturn have such a low density and how does that

### Space Physics THE MOONS OF THE PLANETS 1

Space Physics THE MOONS OF THE PLANETS 1 Neeke Katharina Rothe 2010/10/18 1 Kjell Rönnmark, Umeå Universitet, fysik Contents 1 Planets 2 2 Natural Satellite 2 3 The moons 3 3.1 Earth-Moon............................

### Unit 8. The Outer Planets

Unit 8 The Outer Planets The Outer Worlds Beyond the orbit of Mars, the low temperatures of the solar nebula allowed condensing bodies there to capture hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases This, together with

### Lecture Outlines. Chapter 6. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines Chapter 6 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 6 The Solar System Units of Chapter 6 6.1 An Inventory of the Solar System 6.2 Measuring the Planets 6.3 The Overall Layout

### HNRS 227 Fall 2006 Chapter 13. What is Pluto? What is a Planet? There are two broad categories of planets: Terrestrial and Jovian

Key Points of Chapter 13 HNRS 227 Fall 2006 Chapter 13 The Solar System presented by Prof. Geller 24 October 2006 Planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Dwarf Planets Pluto,

### Chapters 7&8. ASTRONOMY 202 Spring 2007: Solar System Exploration. Class 21: Solar System [3/12/07] Announcements.

ASTRONOMY 202 Spring 2007: Solar System Exploration Instructor: Dr. David Alexander Web-site: www.ruf.rice.edu/~dalex/astr202_s07 Class 21: Solar System [3/12/07] Announcements The Solar System Comparative

### Did you know that ALL Jovian Planets have rings??

Outer Planets Did you know that ALL Jovian Planets have rings?? Jupiter: faint, dusty rings Saturn: bright, spectacular rings Uranus: dark, thin rings Neptune: dark, thin rings & ring arcs PLANET DATA

### Contents. Section 1: The Sun s Energy. Section 2: The Solar System. Section 3: The Moon

Contents Section 1: The Sun s Energy 1. Earth s Powerhouse.... 3 2. Our Nuclear Furnace.... 7 3. Quiz 1.... 10 Section 2: The Solar System 4. Mercury, Venus, and Earth... 12 5. Mars and the Asteroid Belt....

### Page Uranus. Uranus's Structure

Page 270 10.3 Uranus Uranus, although small compared with Jupiter and Saturn, is much larger than the Earth. Its diameter is about 4 times that of the Earth, and its mass is about 15 Earth masses. Lying

### Satellites of giant planets. Satellites and rings of giant planets. Satellites of giant planets

Satellites of giant planets Satellites and rings of giant planets Regular and irregular satellites Regular satellites: The orbits around the planet have low eccentricity and are approximately coplanar

### Exam# 2 Review. Exam #2 is Wednesday November 8th at 10:40 AM in room FLG-280

Exam# 2 Review Exam #2 is Wednesday November 8th at 10:40 AM in room FLG-280 Bring Gator 1 ID card Bring pencil #2 with eraser No use of calculator or any electronic device during the exam We provide the

### What is it like? When did it form? How did it form. The Solar System. Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1

What is it like? When did it form? How did it form The Solar System Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1 Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 2 The planets all orbit the sun in the same direction. The Sun spins in the same

### SOLAR SYSTEM 2019 SAMPLE EXAM

SOLAR SYSTEM 2019 SAMPLE EXAM Team Name: Team #: No calculators are allowed. All questions are of equal weight unless otherwise noted. Turn in all materials when you have completed the test! Make sure

### known since prehistoric times almost 10 times larger than Jupiter

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune 40.329407-74.667345 Sun Mercury Length of rotation Temperature at surface 8 official planets large number of smaller objects including Pluto, asteroids,

### Mercury Named after: Mercury, the fast-footed Roman messenger of the gods. Mean Distance from the Sun: 57,909,175 km (35,983,093.1 miles) or 0.

Mercury Named after: Mercury, the fast-footed Roman messenger of the gods. Mean Distance from the Sun: 57,909,175 km (35,983,093.1 miles) or 0.387 astronomical units Diameter: 4,879.4 km (3,031.92 miles)

### Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18)

GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Patterns in the Solar System (Chapter 18) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric ruler, and meter stick.

### Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System. Chapter Seven

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Chapter Seven ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 07 Oct. 16, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17)

### Astronomy 111 Review Problems Solutions

Astronomy 111 Review Problems Solutions Problem 1: Venus has an equatorial radius of 6052 km. Its semi-major axis is 0.72 AU. The Sun has a radius of cm. a) During a Venus transit (such as occurred June

### The solar system pt 2 MR. BANKS 8 TH GRADE SCIENCE

The solar system pt 2 MR. BANKS 8 TH GRADE SCIENCE Dwarf planets Following the discovery of multiple objects similar to Pluto (and one that was even bigger than Pluto) a new classification for planets

### Motion of the planets

Our Solar system Motion of the planets Our solar system is made up of the sun and the 9 planets that revolve around the sun Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune & Pluto (maybe?)

### Phys 214. Planets and Life

Phys 214. Planets and Life Dr. Cristina Buzea Department of Physics Room 259 E-mail: cristi@physics.queensu.ca (Please use PHYS214 in e-mail subject) Lecture 28. Search for life on jovian moons. March

### NSCI SEARCHING FOR LIFE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM: MOONS OF THE OUTER PLANETS PLUS: WHY IS PLUTO NO LONGER CNSIDERED A PLANET?

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 11 - SEARCHING FOR LIFE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM: MOONS OF THE OUTER PLANETS PLUS: WHY IS PLUTO NO LONGER CNSIDERED A PLANET? Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen/

### Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit Complete the following table with information about the sun:

Earth Science 11 Learning Guide Unit 2 Name: 2-1 The sun 1. Complete the following table with information about the sun: a. Mass compare to the Earth: b. Temperature of the gases: c. The light and heat

### Astronomy 405 Solar System and ISM

Astronomy 405 Solar System and ISM Lecture 17 Planetary System Formation and Evolution February 22, 2013 grav collapse opposed by turbulence, B field, thermal Cartoon of Star Formation isolated, quasi-static,

### 1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids

The Solar System 1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids The distances to planets are known from Kepler s Laws (once calibrated with radar ranging to Venus) How are planet

### Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System. Chapter Seven

Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Chapter Seven ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 07 Oct. 16, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17)

### 7. Our Solar System. Planetary Orbits to Scale. The Eight Planetary Orbits

7. Our Solar System Terrestrial & Jovian planets Seven large satellites [moons] Chemical composition of the planets Asteroids & comets The Terrestrial & Jovian Planets Four small terrestrial planets Like