# PLANETARY FORMATION THEORY EXPLORING EXOPLANETS

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1 PLANETARY FORMATION THEORY EXPLORING EXOPLANETS

2 This is what we call planets around OTHER stars! PLANETARY FORMATION THEORY EXPLORING EXOPLANETS

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6 This is only as of June We ve found at least double this since 2012: most much smaller

7 last time we looked at the RV and transit method of detecting planets, and planetary formation theory. We learned:

8 last time we looked at the RV and transit method of detecting planets, and planetary formation theory. We learned: The gravitational tug from massive/ close-in planets can result in a doppler shift of a star s spectrum over time (RV).

9 last time we looked at the RV and transit method of detecting planets, and planetary formation theory. We learned: The gravitational tug from massive/ close-in planets can result in a doppler shift of a star s spectrum over time (RV). Planets can cross in front of their stars and be detected as a tiny dip in the total light measured from that star.

10 last time we looked at the RV and transit method of detecting planets, and planetary formation theory. We learned: The gravitational tug from massive/ close-in planets can result in a doppler shift of a star s spectrum over time (RV). Planets can cross in front of their stars and be detected as a tiny dip in the total light measured from that star. We will COME BACK to transits on Tuesday

11 We measure the pattern of velocity shift in a star s spectrum from the plot below, and figure out it s a signal from two different planets: planet A which causes a maximum velocity shift of 55 m/s and has a period of 62 days and planet B which causes a maximum velocity shift of 20 m/s and has a period of 300 days. If the star is 1 solar mass, what are the masses of the planets? Radial Velocity (m/s) DAYS (hint: this is pretty close to a problem on the homework)

12 We measure the pattern of velocity shift in a star s spectrum from the plot below, and figure out it s a signal from two different planets: planet A which causes a maximum velocity shift of 55 m/s and has a period of 62 days and planet B which causes a maximum velocity shift of 20 m/s and has a period of 300 days. If the star is 1 solar mass, what are the masses of the planets? planet A > 2.03 * 10^27 kg planet B > 1.25 * 10^27 kg

13 We measure the pattern of velocity shift in a star s spectrum from the plot below, and figure out it s a signal from two different planets: planet A which causes a maximum velocity shift of 55 m/s and has a period of 62 days and planet B which causes a maximum velocity shift of 20 m/s and has a period of 300 days. If the star is 1 solar mass, what are the masses of the planets? planet A > 2.03 * 10^27 kg planet B > 1.25 * 10^27 kg Radial velocity method works really well for finding Jupiter like planets even better if they are close in to their stars!

14 STEP BACK 20 years to a time when we only knew of these planets

15 STEP BACK 20 years to a time when we only knew of these planets Why did people think 51 Peg b - a Jupiter much closer to its star - was unlikely?

16 BASIC COMPOSITION OF A PROTOPLANETARY DISK

17 BASIC COMPOSITION OF A PROTOPLANETARY DISK snow line

18 BASIC COMPOSITION OF A PROTOPLANETARY DISK Brainstorm and DISCUSS where you might expect planets to form. What type of planet? Why? snow line

19 Planetary Formation Theory 101 What we think: all planet formation stars in a protoplanetary disk where material collects into dust grains, pebbles, small rocks into planetesimals. These planetesimals are made up of rock (heavy elements, quite dense) and can form anywhere in the disk.

20 Planetary Formation Theory 101 At a certain distance from the star (beyond the snow line), the gas and dust in the disk is much cooler and is easily condenses down onto the core planetesimal. Gas giants form. So it is thought gas giants should be in the outer region of planetary systems only, and rocky planets on the interior.

21 snow snow

22 In other words snow line gas giants form far from sun rocky core rocky/icy core + gaseous outer layer So Jupiter-like Planets very close to their stars aren t normal. But it is thought that Jupiters could migrate inwards after forming in the outer planetary system if there is substantial friction or interaction, causing planet migration.

23 This formation-then-migration scenario could explain hot Jupiters, like 51 Peg b.

24 This formation-then-migration scenario could explain hot Jupiters, like 51 Peg b. How many hot Jupiters are there? HUNDREDS!

25 This formation-then-migration scenario could explain hot Jupiters, like 51 Peg b. How many hot Jupiters are there? HUNDREDS!

26 This formation-then-migration scenario could explain hot Jupiters, like 51 Peg b. How many hot Jupiters are there? HUNDREDS! Interesting fact: several live in retrograde orbits around their stars

27 This formation-then-migration scenario could explain hot Jupiters, like 51 Peg b. How many hot Jupiters are there? HUNDREDS! Interesting fact: several live in retrograde orbits around their stars

28 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets)

29 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form.

30 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form. - Cores formed from rock and metal and ICE in solid form.

31 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form. - Cores formed from rock and metal and ICE in solid form. - Formed beyond frost line

32 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form. - Formed within the Solar System s frost line - Cores formed from rock and metal and ICE in solid form. - Formed beyond frost line

33 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form. - Formed within the Solar System s frost line - Cores formed from rock and metal and ICE in solid form. - Formed beyond frost line - grew by accreting icy planetesimals beyond frost line, and lots of H gas.

34 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form. - Formed within the Solar System s frost line - Surfaces impacted significantly from the collision with rocks/ asteroids in the early Solar System (called late heavy bombardment ) - Cores formed from rock and metal and ICE in solid form. - Formed beyond frost line - grew by accreting icy planetesimals beyond frost line, and lots of H gas.

35 Key differences between Terrestrial Planets and Jovian Planets (Rocky Planets and Gas-Giant Planets) - Formed from rock and metal in solid form. - Formed within the Solar System s frost line - Surfaces impacted significantly from the collision with rocks/ asteroids in the early Solar System (called late heavy bombardment ) - Cores formed from rock and metal and ICE in solid form. - Formed beyond frost line - grew by accreting icy planetesimals beyond frost line, and lots of H gas. - once they gained sufficient mass, they can support their own mini-gravitationally bound systems (moons, disk of material, i.e. Saturn s rings)

36 A subtle distinction between gas giants and ice giants

37 planet forming disk what s in it? mostly hydrogen gas, some hydrogen compounds, and traces of rock & metal. HL Tau, ALMA + VLA image of gas + dust

38 planet forming disk what s in it? mostly hydrogen gas, some hydrogen compounds, and traces of rock & metal. HL Tau, ALMA + VLA image of gas + dust gas (which only becomes solid at very low temperatures) accumulates around solids to form gas giants.

39 planet forming disk what s in it? mostly hydrogen gas, some hydrogen compounds, and traces of rock & metal. HL Tau, ALMA + VLA image of gas + dust gas (which only becomes solid at very low temperatures) accumulates around solids to form gas giants.

40 Wyatt et al. (2008) (a) most stars don t have gas disks. (b) stars that do have gas disks last 10 Myr on average. (c) half of all newborn stars lose their gas disks after ~5 Myr. What does this plot tell us? (d) it tells us that roughly half of all stars have gas disks.

41 Wyatt et al. (2008) (a) most stars don t have gas disks. (b) stars that do have gas disks last 10 Myr on average. (c) half of all newborn stars lose their gas disks after ~5 Myr. What does this plot tell us? (d) it tells us that roughly half of all stars have gas disks.

42 How long does the gas disk last around a newly formed star? Wyatt et al. (2008)

43 PLANETARY FORMATION THEORY CORE ACCRETION VS. DISK INSTABILITY What we have learned about planetary formation is called the core accretion model, where planets are built from the ground up: pebbles to boulders to planetesimals. An alternate theory, called Disk Instability could lead to the formation of Jovian planets from gravitational instabilities in the gas disk. It can happen much quicker, on ~100,000 yr timescales.

44 PLANETARY FORMATION THEORY CORE ACCRETION VS. DISK INSTABILITY primary flaw in core accretion model is STICKING. How do you get pebbles to stick to one another and become small planetesimals? irregularities in disk cause friction and gravitational runaway forming planets core accretion = bottom-up disk instability = top-down

45 BREAKING NEWS 26 OCTOBER 2016 (YESTERDAY) ALMA image of the L1448 IRS3B system, with two young stars at the center and a third distant from them. Spiral structure in the dusty disk surrounding them indicates instability in the disk.

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