# D. The Solar System and Beyond Name KEY Chapter 1 Earth, Moon, & Beyond STUDY GUIDE

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1 Page1 D. The Solar System and Beyond Name KEY Chapter 1 Earth, Moon, & Beyond Date Lesson 1: How Do Earth and the Moon Compare? STUDY GUIDE A. Vocabulary Write the definition to each word below. 1. revolve TO TRAVEL IN A CLOSED PATH AROUND AN OBJECT SUCH AS EARTH DOES AS IT MOVES AROUND THE SUN 2. orbit THE PATH ONE BODY IN SPACE TAKES AS IT REVOLVES AROUND ANOTHER BODY; THE EARTH REVOLVES AROUND THE SUN 3. rotate THE SPINNING OF EARTH ON ITS AXIS 4. axis AN IMAGINARY LINE THAT PASSES THROUGH EARTH S CENTER AND ITS NORTH AND SOUTH POLES 5. eclipse THE PASSING OF ONE OBJECT THROUGH THE SHADOW OF ANOTHER B. Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. What happens during a solar eclipse? EARTH PASSES THROUGH THE SHADOW OF THE MOON, AND THE SUN APPEARS HIDDEN BY THE MOON. 2. What happens during a lunar eclipse? THE FULL MOON PASSES THROUGH EARTH S SHADOW AND APPEARS ECLIPSED OR SHADED. 3. How were maria formed? MOLTEN ROCK CAME UP THROUGH THE SURFACE AND FILLED CRATERS, SOMETIMES SPILLING OVER THEM.

2 Page2 4. Why does the same side of the moon always face the Earth? THE SAME SIDE OF THE MOON ALWAYS FACES THE EARTH BECAUSE THE MOON ROTATES ON ITS AXIS AT THE SAME RATE THAT IT REVOLVES AROUND EARTH. Multiple Choice: 5. The path that the Earth takes around the sun is called its: A. axis B. orbit C. cycle D. rotation C. Put the phases of the moon in the correct order (start with the new moon): 1. NEW MOON --waxing gibbous 2. WAXING CRESCENT --waning gibbous 3. FIRST QUARTER --waxing crescent 4. WAXING GIBBOUS --waning crescent 5. FULL MOON --first quarter 6. WANING GIBBOUS --last quarter 7. LAST QUARTER --new moon 8. WANING CRESCENT --full moon D. Shade the correct phases of the moon (with your pencil) in the correct order. Dark areas represent the portion of the moon you don t see and the white the portion you do see.

3 Page3 E. Compare the Earth and Moon. Include 4 facts in each section. Earth Moon LIQUID WATER WEATHERING LIFE ATMOSPHERE REVOLVE ROTATE CRATERS ROCKY NO LIQUID WATER ALMOST NO WEATHERING NO KNOWN LIFE NO ATMOSPHERE

4 Page4 Lesson 1: How Have People Explored the Solar System? A. Vocabulary Write the definition to each word below. 1. telescope AN INSTRUMENT THAT MAGNIFIES DISTANT OBJECTS, OR MAKES THEM APPEAR LARGER 2. satellite A NATURAL BODY, LIKE THE MOON, OR AN ARTIFICIAL OBJECT THAT ORBITS ANOTHER OBJECT 3. space probe A ROBOT VEHICLE USED TO EXPLORE DEEP SPACE B. Answer the following questions in complete sentences. 1. What features of the moon were people able to see before the invention of the telescope? THEY WERE ONLY ABLE TO SEE THE PHASES OF THE MOON AND SOME OF ITS LARGER FEATURES. 2. In what ways was Newton s telescope different from Galileo s telescope? NEWTON S TELESCOPE USED TWO MIRRORS AND ONE LENS IN ORDER TO MAGNIFY THE IMAGE. 3. What event marked the start of the space age? THE EVENT WAS WHEN THE SOVIET UNION LAUNCH SPUTNIK IN What are space shuttles used for? SPACE SHUTTLES ARE USED FOR LIFTING HEAVY CARGOS INTO SPACE 5. A spacesuit provides a constant air supply for the astronaut. What does this tell you about the moon s atmosphere? THE MOON S ATMOSPHERE MUST NOT CONTAIN AIR. 6. How do the pieces of the spacesuit interact to form a system? THEY ALL WORK TOGETHER TO PRODUCE AN ENVIRONMENT IN WHICH AN ASTRONAUT CAN SURVIVE.

5 Page5 7. What problems have to be solved to build a permanent research station on the moon? THE NEED FOR OXYGEN, WATER, FOOD, ENERGY, AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL ARE THE PROBLEMS NEEDING TO BE SOLVED. Multiple Choice: 8. The Apollo missions landed humans on: A. Mercury B. Venus C. Mars D. the Moon Write the letter of an event next to the year it occurred. D 900 A The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite. F 1609 B Voyager I and Voyager II space probes are launched. They have sent back pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune and are traveling beyond the solar system. H 1668 C The Mercury program sends the first Americans into space. I 1936 D Mayan people build an observatory for viewing the stars and planets at Chichén Itzá, in Mexico, around this date. A 1957 E Beginning of the use of space shuttles to lift heavy cargoes into orbit; to provide labs for scientific research in space; and to launch, bring back, and repair satellites. C 1961 F Galileo uses a telescope to observe four moons orbiting Jupiter. G 1969 G American astronaut Neil Armstrong is the first person to walk on the Moon. B 1977 H Sir Isaac Newton designs a telescope that uses a mirror as well as lenses to produce sharper images than those produced by Galileo s telescope. E 1981 I The first radio telescope is built and detects radio waves coming from objects in space.

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