Jovian (Jupiter like) Planets

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1 Jovian (Jupiter like) Planets Jupiter Internal structure Heat source Moons & rings Terrestrial vs. Jovian - Size & Density Density (g/cm 3 ) Density (g/cm^3) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Composition of Atmospheres By number of atoms/molecules Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Outer Solar System Total Sun H 2 90% 97% 83% 74% 93% 86% He CH

2 Jupiter Main constituents of gaseous atmosphere: Hydrogen: 90% Helium: 10% Methane (CH 4 ): 0.2% Ammonia (NH 3 ): 0.02% Clouds Frozen ammonia (white) Frozen ammonium hydrosulfide (brown & red) Rotating Jupiter What is inside the Jovian planets? Lots of space btwn molecules Structure of Jupiter Why is pressure higher nearer the center? Pressure supports the mass above. Why is the density higher nearer the center? Pressure Molecules touch Electrons move freely 2

3 Why is Jupiter hot in the center? Hot means the atoms are moving faster. Q1: I am a tennis ball pretending to be an atom. I am dropped from a height of 6ft. In what sense does the atom get hotter? a. The tennis ball is moving faster. b. The molecules in the tennis ball are moving faster. c. The tennis ball gets hot when it hits the ground. Q2: What is the source of the energy that heats the atom? a. Chemical b. Nuclear c. Gravity Collapse of the Protosolar Cloud I am a hydrogen molecule in the cloud that will become the sun. My energy is kinetic (due to motion) and potential (due to gravity). Energy = KE + PE = ½ m v 2 G M m/r 2 Speed v Distance r to center of cloud Q3: When I fall from r = 5 to r = 1, my KE (and temperature) increases by a factor a. About 2 b. About 3 c. About 5 d. More than 10 E PE KE Total r energy, unchanged as molecule falls. Why is the center of Jupiter hot? Material fell and changed gravitational energy into energy of motion. 3

4 Jupiter s heat sources 50% is from solar energy But other 50% comes from internal heating This is gravitational energy released when Jupiter formed. Currently stored in interior as heat energy. Slowly being radiated away. Plus maybe some continuing energy release from contraction. Similar effect in Saturn But additional effect of same magnitude from ongoing differentiation. Separation of H from He. Other Jovians [Fig. 8.4] Earth Cores are times more massive than Earth. 4

5 Atmospheric Structure Cloud layers, in the Hydrogen-Helium atmosphere. Ammonia (NH 3 ) Water (H 2 O) NH 4 HS Temperature [see Fig 8.6] Moons of Jupiter Age of Surface A BB BB AA AAAAA A B C D 4. Which moon has the youngest surface? [Do not look in your book. Examine the pictures & deduce the answer.] [Hint: Compare the appearance of surfaces of earth & moon.] 5

6 Tidal Heating of Jupiter s Galilean Moons [Fig. 8.15] Callisto Diameter Relative Density % Reflectivity (km) Mass (g/cm^3) Moon Callisto Ganymede Europa Io Orbital period: 17 days Tidal locking with Jupiter Surface temperature = -140 o C appears to be mostly ice. 1.8 x density of water Many impact craters. Not well differentiated Close Galileo flybys gravitational field no dense core. Geologically dead for 4 billion yrs. Callisto 6

7 Ganymede Callisto Ganymede Largest satellite in Solar System Fewer impact craters than Callisto Î geologically active. Differentiated Rock, metal core. Magnetic field present. Mantle, crust made of ice Volcanic flows, but water rather than lava. Ridges, valleys due to compression of crust. Europa Not made of ice. Density similar to Moon Tidal forces keep it geologically active. Covered by layer of water ice. Appears to be pack ice on top of an ocean. Water must be warmed by heat from Europa s interior. 7

8 Europa s surface Ice rafts Nebraska-sized area showing ice and channels. + the occasional impact crater Ice flow cutting across ridge Io Closest to Jupiter (of Galilean Satellites) Strongest tidal forces. Active volcanoes hot silicate lava, similar to Earth. 8

9 More Io Images of same region, 5 months apart. Haemus Mons - a volcanic cone Loki Patera Thought to be a liquid sulphur lake with a solid sulpher raft. 9

10 The Innermost Moons of Jupiter Metis Adrastea Amalthea Thebe Q5: What holds a yardstick together? a. Gravity b. Atomic bonds between the atoms Q6: What holds Io & Metis together? a. Gravity for both b. Bonds for both c. Gravity for Io; bonds for Metis d. Gravity for Metis; bonds for Io Amalthea & Io Roche limit For a moon in orbit around a planet, P 2 = a 3 different parts of extended body have different orbital periods. So body tends to be torn apart. (More important close in.) But self-gravity tends to hold it together. (More important far out.) Roche s limit is where these two opposing effects are balanced: R Roche = 2.5 (ρ planet /ρ moon ) 1/3 R planet where ρ = density (kg/m 3 ) and R planet = radius of planet. If density of planet & moon are the same, then R Roche = 2.5 R planet moon planet 10

11 The Innermost Moons of Jupiter Metis Adrastea Amalthea Thebe (Io) Size (km) x166x Mass (kg) x x x x10 22 Orbit radius (km) 128, , , , ,000 Inside Jupiter s Roche limit. Amalthea & Io Saturn s rings [12.6] top & bottom views 70,000 km wide, only 100m thick! Bottom view, showing the light that is not reflected by the rings. Color-enhanced top view, showing spokes, of unknown origin. The Spoke Show 11

12 All 4 Jovian planets have rings Jupiter s ring Imaged by Voyager & Galileo Uranus [see Fig 8.29] Neptune [Fig 8.29] 4. Why can t the material in the rings collect to form moons? a. There is not enough material b. The rings are too thin c. The rings are inside the Roche limit d. The rings are not made of sticky material 12

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