# EXOPLANETS. Aurélien CRIDA

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1 EXOPLANETS Aurélien CRIDA

2 EXOPLANETS Giordano Bruno said that the many stars are like our Sun, with planets like our Earth, inhabited as well (in de l'infinito universo e mondi (1574) ). He was burnt alive for this claim. Modern sciences : We expect stars to form together with a protoplanetary disk, in which planets form, but we hadn't seen them, until : Mayor & Queloz (1995) detected «A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star» They exist! This is a revolution of our vision of the Universe.

3 EXOPLANETS I Detection methods Radial velocity (velocimetry) Transit (photometry) Micro-lensing (photometry) Astrometry Direct imaging II Properties and statistics Mass, semi major axis, period, eccentricity, radius, metallicity of the host star, density, spectrum...

6 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Example : HD189733

7 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Example : HD v

8 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Example : GJ876b : an eccentric orbit.

9 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity The semi major axis a is given by the period : T2 = (4 2/GM*)a3 The mass q=mp/m* is given by the amplitude v : The velocity of the planet is : vp = a = (GM*/a)1/2 Thus the velocity of the star around the centre of mass is, by conservation of the momentum : v* = - q vp Thus: q = v (a/gm*)1/2. Numerical application : (reminder: MSun= kg) For Jupiter, q=10-3, a=5,2 UA, v = 13 m.s-1. For the Earth, q=3.10-6, a=1ua, v = 0,09 m.s-1.

10 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity EXERCICE : HD189733b : One gives T=2,218 days, M*=1,6x1030 kg. Find q, Mp. v

11 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity EXERCICE : HD189733b : v One gives T=2,218 days, M*=1,6x1030 kg. Find q, Mp. SOLUTION : a = 4,64x109 m = AU. v=~200 m.s-1. Thus q=1,3x10-3, so Mp=1,1 MJup.

12 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Caution! The measured velocity is actually qap p sin(i), where i is the angle between the line of sight and the axis of the orbit. i=0 : seen face-on, planet undetectable. i=90 : seen edge-on, optimal case. The obtained mass is actually Mp sin(i), where i is unknown! On average, 1/sin(i) is /2.

13 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Nowadays (2012) differences in velocity of the order of a few 0.1 m/s can be measured! It corresponds to a difference in smaller than the width of a spectral line (remind = 0 v/c ). Detectability : It is much easier to detect a giant planet close to its star.

14 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Detections : The 484 planets detected the 5/1/2011.

15 EXOPLANETS Ia) Radial velocity Detections : The 484 planets detected the 5/1/2011.

16 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit

17 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Like Venus in front of the Sun in 2004 and 2012, sometimes, an exoplanet moves in front of its star, this is a transit. Then, on sees a decrease of the luminosity of the star :

18 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Limb darkening effect : the bottom of the transit isn't flat. A transit lasts a few hours.

19 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Ex: HD b, seen in radial velocity, also has a transit :

20 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit A planetary transit should be periodic. Ex: light curve of a star observed by Corot :

21 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Corot : COnvection ROtation, et Transits planétaires. satellite of the CNES (70%), launched on 26/12/06, which tracks luminosity variations of thousands of stars during many months in a row. Ex: The first exoplanet discovered by Corot:

22 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Other transit detection projects : Kepler (NASA), launched on 7/3/09. already 1200 planet candidates! But only candidates... A-STEP : Antartica Search for Transiting Extrasolar Planets, automatic telescope of 40cm at Dome C, at Concordia (University of Nice)

23 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Advantages of the transit method : The amplitude of the transit gives the radius of the planet : L/L = rp2 / r*2 = (rp/r*)2 The period of the transit gives the semi major axis (Képler's law). The radial velocity gives the real mass : i=90. One derives the density of the planet!

24 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Advantages of the transit : Possible surprises... Ex: HD209458b : huge absorbtion in Ly during the traansit, as if an atmosphere of H large as ~r*/3 surrounding the planet.

25 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Advantages of the transit method : If the atmosphere of the planet makes absorbtion lines, composition!

26 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Conditions for a transit : The planet must pass in front of the star. Condition on i?

27 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Conditions for a transit : The planet must pass in fron of the star, that is : /2 i < arcsin(r*/ap) ou: ap < r*/ i- /2 (pour i~ /2) transit visible Short period planets are favoured.

28 EXOPLANETS : Ib) Transit Detections : 112 planets at 1/1/11 detected by transit, and confirmed by velocimetry. Hundreds to come...

29 EXOPLANETS : Ib') Secondary transit When the planet goes behind its star, its light is masked By substraction, one can (almost) find the spectrum of the planet, thus its temperature...

30 EXOPLANETS : Ib') Secondary transit

31 EXOPLANETS : I c) Microlensing Gravitational lense : When a star passes exactly infront of an other star, it deviates the light rays, like a lense (Einstein). One sees a peak in the luminosity. A secondary peak betrays the presence of a planet. The luminosity of stars in the core of the Milky Way is followed carefully (dense region).

32 EXOPLANETS : I c) Microlensing

33 EXOPLANETS : I c) Microlensing

34 EXOPLANETS : I c) Microlensing Big planets far from their host stars are favoured. Drawbacks: We don't see the host star. Unique observation, not periodic, impossible to redo. Orbital parameters unknown (only the distance to the host star * sin(i) at one moment is known). Total : 16 detections at 02/06/2012

35 EXOPLANETS : I d) Astrometry The star is directly seen orbiting around the centre of mass, on the background of distant stars. Caution : parallax and proper movement of the star add up to the orbit around the centre of mass. Bright future for this technique, with GAIA : precision astrométry. Advantages : One gets directly i, ap, ep, Mp.

36 EXOPLANETS : I e) Direct imaging The planet is directly observed around the star, which can be shut down by a coronograph if needed. First ever image of an extra-solar planet : Chauvin et al. (2004) Or is it a double brown dwarf?

37 EXOPLANETS : I e) Direct imaging Fomalhaut b (Kalas et al., 2008, Science)

38 EXOPLANETS : I e) Direct imaging HR8799 : 3 giant planets at 24, 38, et 68 AU from the star. (Marois et al., 2008, Science) + 1 fourth one confirmed in november 2010

39 EXOPLANETS : I e) Direct imaging Total : 32 planets detected this way (at the end of 2012). This method favors giant planets, far from their stars, which are not accessible by velocimetry or transits. Needs for refined observations techniques (interferometry, coronography,...). Advantages: Direct proof of existence Possibility of spectroscopy...

40 EXOPLANETS : I Detections summary The number of detections per year seems to grow exponentially :

41 EXOPLANETS I Detection methods Radial velocity (velocimetry) Transit (photometry) Micro-lensing (photometry) Astrometry Direct imaging II Properties and statistics Mass, semi major axis, period, eccentricity, radius, metallicity of the host star, density, spectrum... 41

42 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics We don't have only 1 system at hand, but hunderds! The planetary formation models must take this diversity into account, and explain the observed properties. Caution : every method has its biases. Be aware of that when doing statistics.

43 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics Nowadays (2012) differences in velocity of the order of a few 0.1 m/s can be measured! It corresponds to a difference in smaller than the width of a spectral line (remind = 0 v/c ). Detectability : v = q (GM*/a)1/2. It is much easier to detect a giant planet close to its star. 43

44 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics

45 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics Hot Jupiters «normal» giants Hot Neptunes Bias for vr and transit method s Observational bias (sensitivity)

46 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics one sees 3 populations, separated by 2 deserts. Hot Jupiters Désert? In spite of observationnal biases, «normal» giants Desert? Hot Neptunes Bias for vr and transit method s Observational bias (sensitivity)

47 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics The desert between neptune mass planets and Jupiter mass planets is consistent with the core accretion model for the formation of giant planets : the growth from Neptune mass to Jupiter mass is extremely fast. Either the disk life-time is enough to form a Jupiter-like gas giant, or it isn't, and one only gets an icy core with smaller atmosphere, like Neptune

48 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics Statistics in semi-major axis suggest that migration plays a big role... but not always!

49 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics Strong influence of the metalicity of the host star! The likelyhood of the presence of planet(s) increases with Z. Why?

50 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics Excentricities : great variety!

51 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics Correlation a e? Tidal circularisation

52 EXOPLANETS : II) Planet Population Synthesis Planet Population Synthesis : Kitchen recipe including all the ingredients we have seen in the planet formation Chapter : accretion, disk evolution, migration, and so on. Programm the evolutoin of 1 embryo, starting from an initial mass and semi-major axis. Repeat this operatino for a whole distribution of initial conditions. Look at the final distribution. Compare with the statistics of the observations.

53 EXOPLANETS : II) Planet Population Synthesis Plant Populatino Synthesis (Mordasini, Alibert, Benz, Naef, 2009).

54 EXOPLANETS : II) Planet Population Synthesis?

55 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics

56 EXOPLANETS : II) Statistics

57 EXOPLANETS See : data, statistics, correlations,... Habitability?

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