# Formation of the Universe

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1 A. The Universe How did the universe begin? Only one exists or are there more? Composed of space and 100 billion galaxies A galaxy is a grouping of millions or billions of stars kept together by gravity The current understanding of the how the universe began is described by the Big Bang Theory it wasn t big and there wasn t a bang! 1.htm 1 2 Formation of the Universe Big Bang Theory: Explains how universe developed from very tiny, dense singularity More on the Big Bang Theory The theory states: the universe began from an initial point (or singularity) which has expanded over billions of years to form the universe as we now know it today. More on the Big Bang Description of the big bang: s-ywmubnr4 Evidence for the big bang: tryf_hxxum 6

2 Formation of the Universe Formation of the Universe Big Bang Theory: According to BBT, UNIVERSE is 13.7 Billion years old Big Bang Theory: Does NOT explain what initiated creation of universe Only describes expansion of universe 4. Edwin Hubble (in 1929) proposed that the Universe is expanding a. This is supported by a phenomenon called the Doppler shift 1). Stars are moving away from Earth and their light becomes dimmer. This is called the red shift. This gives support of the expanding universe 2). If stars move toward Earth, we see a blue shift light becomes brighter 9 Putting it Together Inversely Proportional: Universe is EXPANDING Doppler Effect: Change in frequency of waves moving relative to its source Wavelength increases = Frequency decreases Stars moving AWAY = RED shift Stars moving TOWARD = BLUE shift Greater the shift = faster the speed 12

3 Universe is EXPANDING Evidences? Cosmic Background Radiation Low temp waves indicating explosion occurred Gravity Responsible for movement of dust clouds to form planets and stars B. Galaxies Galaxies, cont. Galaxies are classified according to their shape Spiral galaxies often appear bluish because they contain many young stars a. Young stars give off blue light when they burn 3. A large cluster of galaxies is called a supercluster Our solar system is inside the galaxy known as the Milky Way a. The Milky Way is classified as a spiral galaxy Elliptical galaxies often appear reddish because they contain many old stars 6. The Milky Way contains interstellar matter that may form new stars a. Old stars give off red light when they burn

4 Contents of Galaxies Galaxies are made of stars, planetary systems, gas clouds, and star clusters. Nebulas are giant clouds of gas and dust where Nebula are found stars may be in spiral galaxies but not elliptical forming. Spiral Main Types of Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Elliptical 21 galaxies. Properties of Spiral Galaxies Milky Way Galax y Shaped like flattened disks with one or more spiral arms. Our galaxy, Milky Way, is a spiral galaxy. Our solar system is located in one of the spiral arms. Elliptical Top View Side View 23 24

5 Properties of Elliptical Galaxies Properties of Irregular Galaxies About 1/3 of all galaxies. Simply massive blobs of stars. Round or elliptical in shape. Contain very little gas or dust. Because of little gas, no new stars are forming. The largest and smallest galaxies are elliptical galaxies. Do not fit into any other category. Chaotic mix of stars, gas and dust Usually found near large spiral galaxies who may be distorting their shape. Nebular Theory: SOLAR SYSTEM formed from huge, rotating cloud disk of dust and gases Copernicus ( ) first proposed that Earth and the other planets orbit the sun 2. The orbits of the planet were first said to be elliptical by Kepler ( ) 3. The brightest object in our sky (besides the sun and the moon) is Venus 27 Formation of Solar System Nickolas Copernicus C. The Solar System 5. The most widely accepted model of the formation of the solar system is the nebular model where the solar system condensed out of a nebula a huge cloud of interstellar gas and dust i. Planets may have formed out of material orbiting the early sun through the process of accretion where small particles collide and stick together to form larger masses ii. Gaseous clouds nebulae, which slowly rotate, gradually collapse and flatten due to gravity and eventually form stars and planets. Our solar system is approximately 4.6 billion years old. 30

6 Basically SIZE is the biggest distinction. We live on planet Earth which is part of our local Solar System. Our Solar System includes the Sun and everything that orbits the Sun. Our Sun, is just one Star in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Milky Way Galaxy is just one Galaxy in the Universe. Kepler s Second Law Planet moves fastest when closest to Sun and slowest when farthest from Sun Equal areas are swept out in equal amount of time KEPLER HELIOCENTRIC MODEL 3 LAWS OF PLANETARY MOTION Kepler s Third Law Compares distance of each planet from Sun and its orbital period around Sun Kepler s First Law Orbit of every planet is an ellipse with Sun at one foci (focus) The order of the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. What is the difference between the Solar System, Galaxy, and Universe? 36

7 What s the Difference? SIZE and COMPSITION Terrestrial Planets Inner 4 Planets: Mercury Venus Earth Mars Small, solid, rocky surfaces Jovian Planets Outer 4 Planets: Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Larger, gaseous, and lacks solid surfaces Earth Facts Distance to Sun: ~92,000,000 Million miles Age of Earth: ~4.6 Billion Years Size: 5th largest in solar system i.mercury is closest to the sun and has very hot temperatures ii.the inner planets and outer planets are separated by an asteroid belt iii. The great red spot on Jupiter is believed to be a giant storm 40 iv. All of the gaseous outer planets have rings 42

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