# Chapter 2. Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere

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1 Chapter 2 Heating Earth's Surface & Atmosphere

2 Topics Earth-Sun Relationships Energy, Heat and Temperature Mechanisms of Heat Transfer What happens to Incoming Solar Radiation? Radiation Emitted by the Earth Heat Budget

3 Two Questions We need to address two questions: 1.Why do different latitudes receive different amount of solar energy? 2.Why does the amount of solar energy change to produce the seasons?

4 Earth's Motions 1. The Earth rotates on its axis, once a day (24 hours) 2. The Earth revolves around the Sun, taking 365 1/4 days on average. 3. The Earth is about 150 million km from the Sun, and travels in an elliptical orbit, with the Sun at one focus.

5 Earth's Motions - 2 Closest approach of Earth to Sun (147 million km), called Perihelion, occurs in January. Furthest distance from the Sun (152 million km), called Aphelion, occurs in July.

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7 The Seasons 1. The seasons arise because the Earth's axis of rotation is tilted (23.5 degrees) away from the perpendicular to the plane of the Earth's rotation (plane of the ecliptic). 2. Other factors that are less important - (1) the days are longer in summer, so the Earth is heated for a longer time, (2) the sun's rays have to pass through more atmosphere in the winter. 3. The Earth's axis always points to the same point in space (currently the Pole Star).

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13 The Seasons Heat provided by the Sun is greatest when the Sun is overhead. (Greater insolation, less absorption by the atmosphere). 2. Energy is spread over smaller area.

14 The Seasons Solstice - Sun is vertically overhead at noon at a latitude of 23.5 degrees (Tropic of Cancer) or degrees (Tropic of Capricorn). Have Summer and Winter solstices degrees is the inclination (tilt) of the Earth's axis. 2. Equinoxes - Sun is vertically overhead at noon at the equator. March/September 3. Sun Angle is the angle from the horizon to the Sun (complement of zenith angle)

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20 The Seasons Noon sun angle depends on latitude and day of year 2. Length of day can be determined from the Circle of Illumination. Length of day for a particular latitude depends on what fraction of the circle of latitude is in daylight. 3. Days are shortest at mid-winter, longest at mid-summer, and equal to 12 hours in the Equinoxes (and nights are also 12 hours long)

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25 The Analemma Shows the latitude where the noon Sun is directly overhead for each day of the year. Used for estimating the angle of the Sun for any location and any day of the year. For example, what is the noon Sun angle for Boston (40N) on April 20? Sun is overhead at 11 degrees N. Noon Sun angle at Boston is 90 - (40-11) = = 61 degrees

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28 Energy, Heat & Temperature 1. Energy is the capacity to do work. 2. Many different types of Energy (mechanical, chemical, nuclear, heat, kinetic, electromagnetic radiation) 3. Total energy of a closed system is always conserved, but energy can change to another form.

29 Energy, Heat & Temp Kinetic energy is energy due to motion. If a gas is heated, its molecules move faster. For a mass m, KE = (1/2)mv Potential energy is energy possessed by a system of objects that act on each other. i.e. a ball at the top of a hill has gravitational potential energy.

30 Latent Heat Latent Heat - heat energy that is transferred to or from a body, thereby changing its state, but not its temperature. For example, solid to liquid, liquid to gas - ice to water, water to steam. Very important! when water vapor in clouds condenses into liquid form, and when water in clouds freezes, large amounts of heat are released. Heat is a form of energy.

31 Energy, Heat & Temp Heat energy of a system of particles is the total kinetic energy of all the particles 2. Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the constituents.

32 When two bodies are in contact, heat flows from the one with the higher temperature to the one with the lower temperature.

33 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer 1. Conduction - transfer of heat through matter by molecular motion 2. Convection - transfer of heat by mass motion or circulation 3. Radiation - transfer of electromagnetic energy by electromagnetic waves

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35 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Metals are good conductors. Poor conductors such as cork, wood, foam, and air are good insulators. The more air in a substance, the better the insulation. 2. Convection is very important in the atmosphere. Large "parcels" of air warmed by the Sun will rise in altitude, while cooler air rushes in to take its place. 3. The horizontal part of any convective flow (in a loop) is called advection, or wind.

36 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer For example, hot air rises in the tropical zones, flows polewards (as a wind), while cool air from the polar regions moves towards the tropics and closes the loop.

37 The sun s rays reach the earth through radiation. The energy received is re-circulated throughout the atmosphere by convection. The surface of the Earth not including the water is heated through conduction.

38 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Solar radiation is the ultimate source of energy that drives the weather machine. 2. The Sun emits EM radiation at all wavelengths, from very short gamma rays to very long radio waves. The intensity is greatest between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers, i.e., in the visible band of the spectrum.

39 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer EM radiation travels (at the speed of light) 3x10 8 m/s 2. Infrared radiation has a wavelength longer than visible red light. 3. Ultra-violet radiation has shorter wavelengths than the visible blue light.

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42 The Ultraviolet Index Determined from The sun angle Predicted cloud cover Reflectivity of surface Extent of ozone layer Ranges 0 to 12 Avoid exposure to Sun on high UV Index days

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45 Outgoing radiation from the Sun and Earth based upon their temperature

46 Fate of Incoming Solar Radiation as it interacts with Earth Radiation may be absorbed, transmitted, or redirected 1. 50% of sunlight reaches the Earth's surface 2. 20% absorbed by atmosphere and clouds 3. 20% reflected by clouds 4. 5% reflected from land-sea surface 5. 5% scattered back into space by the atmosphere

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48 Reflection and Scattering 1. Reflection is the process whereby light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters that surface, and with the same intensity. Law of Reflection, i = r. Surface is much larger than the wavelength of the light. 2. Scattering occurs when light encounters an object with a rough surface, or a collection of particles. Energy is scattered in all directions, but mainly in the forward direction. Surface is much smaller than the wavelength of the light.

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50 Reflection & Scattering Scattering by the atmosphere - depends on 1/λ 4. Blue light scattered more than red. 2. Blue sky is caused by scattering of the blue part of the Sun's white light by nitrogen molecules. 3. Red sunsets are caused by the scattering of the blue light out of the Sun-observer path. Light passes through a lot of atmosphere.

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53 Color of the Sky The color of the sky gives an indication of the numbers of small and large particles present. Numerous small particles produce red sunsets. Large particles produce white/gray skies. The bluer the sky, the cleaner the air.

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55 Reflection & Scattering Albedo of a surface is the fraction of incident radiation that is reflected by that surface. 2. Albedo of the Earth varies from place to place, and from time to time. On average, it is 30% (reflections - 20% by clouds; 5% by land/sea; 5% back-scatter) 3. Fresh snow has the highest albedo, water the lowest when the Sun is nearly overhead)

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57 Crepuscular rays haze scatters light

58 Radiation Emitted by Earth 1. Gases are selective absorbers - they absorb radiation at only particular wavelengths, and get hotter (move faster) 2. Most absorption is due to water vapor, oxygen and ozone (not nitrogen) 3. Atmosphere is almost transparent to visible light, which therefore does not heat the atmosphere 4. Oxygen & ozone absorb UV radiation 5. Water vapor absorbs infrared radiation

59 Radiation from Earth Infrared radiation at 8 to 11μm can escape from the Earth (the atmospheric window) - can also reach the Earth from space; used by "infrared astronomers" 2. Sunlight heats the Earth, then the Earth heats the atmosphere from below, hence the temperature decrease with altitude (normal lapse rate of 6.5 O C/km)

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61 The Greenhouse Effect 1. Most of the energy reradiated by the Earth's surface is in the infrared 2. This radiation is absorbed by water vapor, carbon dioxide, and a few trace gases 3. These gases get hot, so radiate heat back to the Earth (but some to space) 4. Earth gets hotter, emits more radiation (Stefan- Boltzmann), and cycle goes on

62 The Greenhouse Effect This effect is called the Greenhouse Effect, which keeps the Earth's average temperature 30 C warmer than it otherwise would be - a good thing 2. Not the same process as occurs in garden greenhouses

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66 Why is Venus so hot? 1. Venus has a runaway greenhouse effect 2. Surface temperature 480 C 3. Atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide, and has no water or life to change the carbon dioxide to oxygen 4. Will the burning of fossil fuel (carbon) on the Earth raise the Earth's temperature?

67 Role of Clouds in Heating the Earth 1. Daytime - High thin clouds (thin) trap the Earth's radiation, and make the Earth warmer 2. Daytime - Thick clouds (dark) reflect solar radiation, so Earth is cooler 3. Night - Thick cloud cover absorbs heat from Earth, re-radiates it back to Earth, so Earth keeps warm

68 Role of Clouds in Heating the Earth Night - Clear skies mean that the Earth's radiation can escape to space, cooling the Earth 2. Day and night temperatures can be very close during cloudy weather

69 Infrared Imaging We look at the world at different wavelengths Visible animals Infrared astronomers, meteorologists Ultra-violet astronomers X-rays astronomers (Hubble)

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71 Heat Budget The Earth is not getting hotter or cooler. Therefore, the incoming and outgoing radiation must balance

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73 Latitudinal Heat Balance 1. Average temperature of Earth remains "constant" because the Earth re-emits almost all incoming solar radiation 2. Earth's Heat Budget is balanced 3. Tropical regions actually lose less energy than they gain from the Sun, while polar regions lose more energy.

74 Latitudinal Heat Balance Difference between incoming and outgoing radiation is called the heat surplus 2. Latitude of heat surplus changes with the seasons - e.g., large in northern hemisphere in June (summer) 3. Tropics are not getting hotter and hotter, and the poles are not getting colder and colder, because heat is carried from the tropics towards the poles (and v.v.) by winds (general atmospheric circulation)

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78 Longitude Longitude is measured EAST from Greenwich, U.K., which is 0 o E. Americans sometimes use WEST longitude, which is measured west from Greenwich. Thus Boston is at 285 o E, or 75 o W. The figures in the textbook should be labeled W on the left, E on the right.

79 End Chapter 2 Homework for Chapter 2: GIST: (end of chapter questions labeled: Give it some thought ) 1, 4, 13 and problems: 1, 3, 5

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