# Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D)

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1 1. The hottest climates on Earth are located near the Equator because this region A) is usually closest to the Sun B) reflects the greatest amount of insolation C) receives the most hours of daylight D) receives the most nearly perpendicular insolation 2. Which two 23.5 latitude locations are influenced by cool surface ocean currents? A) the east coast of North America and the west coast of Australia B) the east coast of Asia and the east coast of North America C) the west coast of Africa and the east coast of South America D) the west coast of North America and the west coast of South America 3. The diagram below shows the position of the Earth in relation to rays of light from the Sun. A, B, and C are three positions on the Earth's surface. 4. Equal areas of which surface will absorb the most insolation? A) partially melted snowfield B) blacktop parking lot C) white sand beach D) lake surface Which graph best shows the relationship between intensity of insolation and position on the Earth's surface? A) B) C) D)

2 5. Base your answer to the following question on " the diagram below, which represents Earth in its orbit around the Sun. The position of Earth on the first day of each season is labeled A, B, C, and D. " At which location are the Sun's noontime rays perpendicular to Earth's surface at the Tropic of Cancer? (23.5 N)? A) A B) B C) C D) D 6. A student in North Carolina observes the altitude of the Sun at solar noon each day from January 1 through June 1. The altitude of the Sun will A) decrease, only B) increase, only C) decrease, then increase D) increase, then decrease

3 7. Which graph best represents the relationship between the angle of insolation and the intensity of insolation? A) B) C) D)

4 8. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The diagram represents four apparent paths of the Sun, labeled A, B, C, and D, observed in Jamestown, New York. The June 21 and December 21 sunrise and sunset positions are indicated. Letter S identifies the Sun's position on path C at a specific time of day. Compass directions are indicated along the horizon. The greatest duration of insolation in Jamestown occurs when the Sun appears to travel along path A) A B) B C) C D) D 9. Which graph best shows the length of a shadow cast from sunrise to sunset by a flagpole in New York State? A) B) C) D)

5 10. The graph below shows air temperatures on a clear summer day from 7 a.m. to 12 noon at two locations, one in Florida and one in New York State. Air temperature rose slightly faster in Florida than in New York State because Florida A) has a lower angle of insolation B) has a higher angle of insolation C) is closer to the Prime Meridian D) is farther from the Prime Meridian 11. In Maine, which day has the shortest duration of insolation? A) March 21 B) June 21 C) June 21 D) December Locations in California are warmest in summer because sunlight in summer is A) least intense and of shortest duration B) least intense and of longest duration C) most intense and of shortest duration D) most intense and of longest duration 13. On June 21, some Earth locations have 24 hours of daylight. These locations are all between the latitudes of A) 0 and 23 N B) 23 N and 47 N C) 47 N and 66 N D) 66 N and 90 N

6 14. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows the tilt of Earth on its axis in relation to the Sun on one particular day. Points A through E are locations on Earth s surface. Point D is located in Virginia. The dashed line represents Earth s axis. On this day, which location has the greatest number of hours of daylight? A) E B) B C) C D) D 15. On which two dates could all locations on Earth have equal hours of day and night? A) September 23 and December 21 B) December 21 and March 21 C) March 21 and June 21 D) March 21 and September When do maximum surface temperatures usually occur in the Northern Hemisphere? A) early June to mid-june B) mid-july to early August C) late August to mid-september D) mid-september to early October 17. In the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere, the warmest month is usually A) February B) July C) April D) October

7 18. The table below shows the duration of insolation at different latitudes for three different days during the year. Which dates are represented most correctly by Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3, respectively? A) March 21, September 22, December 21 B) June 21, September 22, December 21 C) September 22, December 21, March 21 D) December 21, March 21, June 21

8 Base your answers to questions 19 and 20 on the graph below which represents the duration of insolation at four different latitudes on Earth on four different dates. 19. On September 23, the duration of insolation at all four locations is 12 hours. The Sun is directly overhead at which latitude? A) 0 B) 23 N C) 23 S D) 90 N 20. Buenos Aires, located at 41 S, receives the shortest duration of insolation on A) March 21 B) June 22 C) September 23 D) December Base your answer to the following question on the graph below which shows variations in Earth's monthly temperatures from normal Earth temperatures between January 1990 and January In late summer 1991, Mt. Pinatubo, a volcano in the Philippines, exploded and sent thousands of tons of volcanic dust into the atmosphere. Scientists have suggested that Earth's average monthly temperatures for many months after the explosion generally were A) cooler than normal due to the reflection of sunlight by volcanic dust B) cooler than normal due to the formation of a hole in the ozone layer by the explosion C) warmer than normal due to the heat released into the atmosphere by the volcanic explosion D) warmer than normal due to the heat spread by convection of the volcanic dust

9 22. The data table below compares the percentage of sunlight reflected from various types of Earth surfaces. Which statement is best supported by the table? A) Light-colored surfaces reflect more sunlight than dark-colored surfaces. B) Rough surfaces reflect more sunlight than smooth surfaces. C) Soil surfaces reflect more sunlight than cloud surfaces. D) Vegetative surfaces reflect more sunlight than ice surfaces. 23. For weeks after a series of major volcanic eruptions, Earth's surface air temperatures are often A) warmer because ash and dust decrease atmospheric transparency B) warmer because ash and dust increase atmospheric transparency C) cooler because ash and dust decrease atmospheric transparency D) cooler because ash and dust increase atmospheric transparency

10 24. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows two identical houses, A and B, in a city in North Carolina. One house was built on the east side of a factory, and the other house was built on the west side of the factory. Both houses originally had white roofs, but the roof on house B has been blackened by factory soot falling on it over the years. Compared to the amount of insolation reflected by the roof of house A, the amount of insolation reflected by the roof of house B is A) usually less B) usually greater C) always the same D) less in summer and greater in winter 25. How do clouds affect the temperature at the Earth's surface? A) Clouds block sunlight during the day and prevent heat from escaping at night. B) Clouds block sunlight during the day and allow heat to escape at night. C) Clouds allow sunlight to reach the Earth during the day and prevent heat from escaping at night. D) Clouds allow sunlight to reach the Earth during the day and allow heat to escape at night.

11 26. The diagram below indicates the amount of solar radiation that is reflected by equal areas of various materials on Earth's surface. Which material absorbs the most solar radiation? A) grassy field B) fresh snow C) sand D) forest 27. The diagram below represents what normally happens to insolation as it enters the Earth's atmosphere. 29. Compared to dull and rough rock surfaces, shiny and smooth rock surfaces are most likely to cause sunlight to be A) reflected B) refracted C) scattered D) absorbed An increase in cloud cover and water vapor within the Earth's atmosphere will cause an increase in A) A and B, only B) A and C, only C) C, only D) B and C, only 28. Which of the following Earth surfaces usually reflects the most incoming solar radiation? A) snow cover B) green grass C) dark soil D) lake water

12 30. The diagram below shows a cylinder filled with clean water. At the left of the cylinder is a light source, and at the right of the cylinder is a meter that measures the intensity (brightness) of light as it passes through the water. One minute after the light is turned on, a mixture of sand, silt, and clay is poured into the cylinder. Which graph shows the probable change in light intensity (brightness) recorded during the 6-minute period after the light is turned on? A) B) C) D) 31. Compared to a light-colored rock with a smooth surface, a dark-colored rock with a rough surface will A) both absorb and reflect less insolation B) both absorb and reflect more insolation C) absorb less insolation and reflect more insolation D) absorb more insolation and reflect less insolation 32. An increase in the transparency of Earth s atmosphere is often caused by A) a decrease in cloud cover B) a decrease in solar radiation C) an increase in airborne dust particles D) an increase in the duration of insolation 33. Most insolation striking a smooth, light-colored, solid surface is A) refracted B) transmitted C) reflected D) absorbed 34. If large amounts of dust are added to the atmosphere, the average air temperature will most likely A) decrease due to increased reflection of insolation B) decrease due to increased infrared absorption C) increase due to increased reflection of insolation D) increase due to increased infrared absorption

13 35. Under identical conditions, which surface will reflect the greatest amount of insolation? A) a basaltic sand beach B) a pine tree forest C) a glacial ice sheet D) a blacktop parking lot Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the diagrams and graphs below. The diagrams show the general effect of the Earth's atmosphere on insolation from the Sun at middle latitudes during both clear-sky and cloudy-sky conditions. The graph shows the percentage of insolation reflected by the Earth's surface at different latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere in winter. 36. Which factor keeps the greatest percentage of insolation from reaching the Earth's surface on cloudy days? A) absorption by cloud droplets B) reflection by cloud droplets C) absorption by clear-air gas molecules D) reflection by clear-air gas molecules 37. According to the graph, on a winter day at 70º North latitude, what approximate percentage of the insolation is reflected by the Earth's surface? A) 50% B) 65% C) 85% D) 100% 38. Which statement best explains why, at high latitudes, reflectivity of insolation is greater in winter than in summer? A) The North Pole is tilted toward the Sun in winter. B) Snow and ice reflect almost all insolation. C) The colder air holds much more moisture. D) Dust settles quickly in cold air.

14 39. Equal areas of which type of Earth surface will absorb more insolation and radiate more energy back toward space in the same amount of time? A) light colored and rough B) dark colored and rough C) light colored and smooth D) dark colored and smooth 40. As the concentration of pollution particles in the atmosphere increases, the amount of insolation that reaches the Earth's surface will most likely A) decrease B) increase C) remain the same 41. Base your answer to the following question on the table and map below. The table shows the duration of insolation, in hours, at Barrow, Alaska, on the twentieth day of each month during The map shows the location of Barrow at 71 N W. Explain why Barrow is in a different time zone than New York City.

15 Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below. The diagram represents daytime and nighttime on Earth. Point X is a location on Earth's surface. Earth's rotational surface velocity is shown in miles per hour (mi/h) at specific latitudes. 42. On the grid below, draw a line to show the general relationship between distance from the equator and Earth's rotational surface velocity. 43. Record, to the nearest hour, the duration of insolation at location X for one Earth rotation.

16 Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the experiment description and diagram below. A student was interested in how the angle of insolation affects absorption of radiation. The student took three black metal plates, each containing a built-in thermometer, and placed them at the same distance from three identical lamps. The plates were tilted so that the light from the lamps created three different angles of incidence with the center of the plates, as shown in the diagram. The starting temperatures of the plates were recorded. The lamps were turned on for 10 minutes. Then the final temperatures were recorded. 44. How would the final temperatures of the three metal plates be different if the experiment was repeated using white metal plates? Explain why the white plates would have these final temperatures. 45. The metal plate at a 90 angle of incidence represents a location on Earth at solar noon on March 21. What is the latitude of this location?

17 Answer Key Insolation Practice Test 1. D 2. D 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. D 10. B 11. D 12. D 13. D 14. A 15. D 16. B 17. A 18. B 19. A 20. B 21. A 22. A 23. C 24. A 25. A 26. D 27. B 28. A 29. A 30. B 31. D 32. A 33. C 34. A 35. C 36. B 37. C 38. B 39. B 40. A 41. Barrow is approximately 80 west of New York City. Barrow's longitude is different from New York City. Earth rotates from west to east, so the Sun rises later in Barrow h 44. Final temperatures: lower cooler Explanation: More light is reflected off the white surface. Less energy is absorbed by the white surface. Black absorbs energy better latitude or the equator.

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