# Evolution, Mass Loss and Variability of Low and Intermediate-Mass Stars

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1 Evolution, Mass Loss and Variability of Low and Intermediate-Mass Stars

2 Mass Loss from Low and Intermediate Mass Stars Significant mass loss occurs in two phases 1. In red giants before large amplitude (Mira) pulsation starts. These mass loss rates are slow (<10-8 Msun/year). This is the dominant form of mass loss in the lowest mass evolved stars globular cluster stars. It occurs mostly on the RGB,also on the early-agb. 2. In AGB stars with large amplitude pulsation. Rates can be as high as 10-4 Msun/year. These are known as Superwinds.

3 What causes mass to be lost on the Red Giant Branch? Dissipation (by acoustic or magnetic waves) of mechanical energy generated in the convection zone?? In the absence of reliable theoretical models, most modellers use Reimers' Law for RGB mass loss (Reimers 1975): Assume that the rate gravitational energy is carried away in the stellar wind is proportional to the stellar luminosity. Then the mass loss rate M is given by L M *GM/R => M = LR/M

4 An improved, semi-empirical, modified Reimers' law (Schröder & Cuntz 2005, 2007) Modelling of F M (convective turbulence => magnetic+acoustic waves) suggests F M T eff 7.5 Assume (R chr R * )/R * 1/g R chr is the radius of the chromosphere set to give the correct globular cluster mass loss (total, ~0.2 Msun)

5 How do we know any mass is lost on the RGB? Typical globular cluster turnoff mass is 0.85 Msun. Masses of RR Lyrae stars (on the Horizontal Branch, following He core ignition at the tip of the First Giant Branch) is 0.65 Msun (from pulsation theory). Hence, ~0.20 Msun is lost between the main-sequence and the Horizontal Branch. But where? Maybe on the main-sequence? Maybe as a result of the He core flash?

6 Red variables in 47 Tuc Use masses from pulsation theory to test if mass is lost along the FGB or just at the tip Known distance (m-m) V = Known reddening E(B-V) = Known metallicity [Fe/H] = Known turnoff mass 0.9 M sun Calculation were done with two assumptions: No mass loss models M = 0.9 M sun Models with mass loss Reimers' law M α LR/M M = 0.6 M sun at L = 4000L sun (terminates the AGB at the observed L)

7 Period-luminosity relations Models without mass loss give incorrect linear periods for small amplitude stars. Models with mass loss give correct linear periods for small amplitude stars. Total mass loss required is ~0.3Msun over a range in luminosity. Large amplitude Miras periods affected by nonlinear effects. Lebzelter and Wood (2005)

8 Mass loss during the AGB stage of low and intermediate-mass stars The AGB Surface enrichment Pulsation Mass loss RGB The RGB Surface enrichment Pulsation Mass loss About 10 8 years spent here Most time spent on the main-sequence burning H in the core (~10 10 years) Low mass stars: M < ~1.9 Msun Intermediate mass stars: ~1.9 < M/Msun < ~7

9 The transition to a superwind: Large amplitude pulsation - and dust + radiation pressure (large L) Pulsating AGB star at base of wind Pulsation enhances the density in the dust formation layer by a factor ~100. The mass loss rate is enhanced by a similar factor.. M = 4πr 2 ρv <v> is unchanged at given r. Non-pulsating star with wind Pulsating star with wind Wood 1979

10 More detailed models - carbon star dust shell models When grain growth and evaporation and radiative transfer in the dust is included, layered dust shells develop with a size and timescale longer than that of the driving pulsation (Winters et al. 1994, Höfner et al (1995). Pulsation region Dust-driven shells Velocity Temperature Degree of condensation Density Dust grains per H atom Grain nucleation rate Winters et al (1994)

11 Light curve prediction for carbon star mass loss models Pulsation period + dust shell formation period A triumph of models! This is commonly observed...

12 Observations of high mass loss rate AGB stars The dust-enshrouded AGB stars are all large amplitude pulsators. Suggests large amplitude pulsation is a vital part of the "superwind" mass loss process. M = 3.3x10-6 M סּ /yr M = 5.8x10-6 M סּ /yr Dust shell modulation IRAS detections Wood et al. (1998) M = 1.4x10-6 M סּ /yr M = 5.1x10-6 M סּ /yr M = 1.7x10-6 M סּ /yr M = 4.0x10-6 M סּ /yr M = 3.2x10-6 M סּ /yr Wood et al, 2007: ASP Conference Series, 378, 251 MSX detections Macho light curves

13 Some estimates of the superwind mass loss rate Vassiliadis & Wood (1993) [empirical, CO microwave estimates of Mdot, plotted against pulsation period] Bowen (1988) and Bowen & Wilson (1991) [computed mass loss rates with simplistic energy loss mechanisms and grain opacities: gives an unrealistic chromosphere] Blöcker (1995) [formula based on Bowen (1988)] Groenewegen (1998) [C star mass loss rates in solar vicinity] Wachter et al (2002) [C star pulsation/mass loss models] Groenewegen et al (2007) [C star mass loss rates in the LMC and SMC from Spitzer observations] Mattsson et al. (2010) [C star pulsation/mass loss models] O-rich models lacking [see Jeong et al. (2003)]

14 Empirical mass loss rate from Vassiliadis & Wood (1993) A very rapid rise in Mdot with P to superwind values. Then a very slow increase. No information on any mass dependence; large variation at a given P. The luminosity of termination of AGB evolution (complete envelope ejection) is determined by the period (luminosity) at which Mdot rises rapidly to "superwind" values. Based on observations of CO in the wind outflow.

15 Another way to estimate wind mass loss rates is via measurement of mid-infrared emission from dust in the stellar wind. The Spitzer Space Telescope has recently provided many examples in the Large Magellanic Cloud, where the distance is known. SEDs from Spitzer 5-35 micron spectra + simultaneous JHKL broadband photometry. SED gives accurate L. One O-rich star. All others are C stars. Higher mass loss rate moves the flux peak to longer wavelength. Features due to SiC Wood et al, 2007: ASP Conference Series, 378, 251

16 LMC AGB stars: Mass loss rates were derived by fitting dust envelope models to the combined Spitzer spectra and simultaneous JHLK photometry. Dust mass loss rate is derived directly. Assume M(gas)/M(dust)=200 in the wind to get total mass loss rate. If most C atoms not in CO end up in grains (mostly amorphous carbon), this corresponds to C/O ~ 2 in the LMC, and C/O ~ 3 in the SMC. Typical mass ratio (SiC/Amorphous Carbon) = 2 Groenewegen et al. (2007)

17 Spitzer mid-ir dust observations There is a very tight correlation of mass loss rate with P for P>500 days. Large range in L here (hence a range in mass). Large scatter at shorter P. Onset of the superwind why at different P? A very weak correlation of mass loss rate with luminosity. SMC stars have lower mass loss rates than LMC stars at the same luminosity (by a factor ~10). Wood et al, 2007: ASP Conference Series, 378, 251

18 Is the mass loss rate (at given P) determined by stellar mass? Deriving the stellar parameters L - from SED (instantaneous, not <L>, can be corrected) P - observed M - from pulsation theory (M current ): P = P(M,R) = P(M,L,T eff ) (using L = 4 R 2 T 4 eff ) T eff =T eff (L,M) (giant branch position) => P = P(M,L) => M = M(P,L) - abundances assumed X i

19 Pulsation masses (assuming Z=0.004 and C/O=1.4) A tight correlation of mass with M bol (only expected if mass loss speeds up rapidly) C stars with P > 500 days fall on a tight dm/dt-logp relation regardless of mass surprising? For P < 500 days, there is no tight correlation between dm/dt and logp Wood, 2007:ASP Conference Series, 374, 47 C-star models (e.g. Wachter et al. 2002, Mattsson et al. 2010) should be able to reproduce these results.

20 In summary: We still do not know what causes the sudden rise in mass loss rate at P ~ days. The pulsation amplitude? To model that would require nonlinear pulsation models with reliable driving. Convective uncertainties make this difficult and it has not been attempted.

21 The Vassiliadis & Wood empirical formula based on CO microwave observations is consistent with the dust-estimated mass loss rate on average. Hence, evolution calculations done with this formula should give a fair picture of AGB evolution with mass loss. Groenewegen et al. (2007) Vassiliadis and Wood (1993)

22 AGB evolution with mass loss Lose ~0.1 Msun over ~2x10 4 years, typical of Planetary Nebulae Mass loss runs away quickly near maximum quiescent luminosity: lower M => lower T eff => larger R Larger R and lower M => longer P (P ~ R 3/2 M -1/2 ) Vassiliadis & Wood (1993) M initial = Msu

23 Higher mass => more flashes, higher mass loss rates, longer periods, more mass lost VW1993 Mi = 2.5 Msun Vassiliadis and Wood, 1993; Astrophysical Journal, , 641

24 L depends on M the dependence solely on Mcore no longer holds in the presence of deep convection (Hot Bottom Burning) VW1993 Mi = 5 Msun Vassiliadis and Wood, 1993; Astrophysical Journal, , 641

25 Vassiliadis & Wood (1993) Marigo & Girardi (2007) [synthetic AGB] The relation between Initial Mass and Final Mass It depends mostly on the superwind mass loss rate (both the plots below use Vassiliadis & Wood mass loss rates). Agreement with observations is reasonable. Single white dwarfs in the solar vicinity

26 The Binary Path to Terminating Red Giant Evolution Single star - stellar wind Pulsation + radiation pressure on grains Binary star Common envelope ejection ~10% of post-agb births P. Woitke Post-AGB phase Post-AGB phase

27 We've heard that pulsation is a key component in driving "superwind" mass loss. Close binary red giants are variable. Other sorts of variable red giants lose mass. So we need to look at the totality of red giant variability.

28 The Variable Low and Intermediate Mass Red Giants W I is a reddening-free Weisenheit index

29 C stars M stars The near-ir K magnitude is a much better luminosity indicator for red giants than V or I or W I. K is near the peak of the flux distribution both C and M stars have similar bolometric corrections to K K is less affected by interstellar extinction K is less affected by atmospheric molecular band absorption

30 AGB AGB and RGB stars RGB RGB stars have slightly larger radii and smaller core masses => longer periods. RGB stars do pulsate at low amplitude, with short periods (does this cause mass loss?). Soszynski et al. (2007)

31 The Pulsating AGB and RGB stars Many of the period-luminosity sequences correspond to radial pulsation modes. Large amplitude pulsators (Miras) P5 P3 P1 P0 Soszynski et al. (2007) Wood and Arnett (2010)

32 Very high mass loss rate stars and the K-logP relation Optically visible Miras (low mass loss rate) Dusty Miras - mid-ir sources (very high mass loss rate) With very thick circumstellar shells, even K is reduced as the flux moves to the mid-ir. But L is nearly constant... Wood (2000)

33

34 Light curves of Sequence E stars There are very clearly eclipsing binaries in the group. Most (~90%) are ellipsoidal variables distorted red giants in binary systems with an invisible companion. Wood, 2007:ASP Conference Series, 374, 47 An ellipsoidal red giant

35 An ellipsoidal variable we see a single distorted star in a binary Velocity & light curves of a typical sequence-e binary. Orbital period = twice light period. Wood, 2007:ASP Conference Series, 374, 47

36 A red giant showing ellipsoidal variability must be close to filling its Roche Lobe. Further evolution up the RGB or AGB will lead to the red giant filling its Roche Lobe. The outcome will be a Common Envelope Event - the ejection of the entire red giant envelope giving a planetary nebula (probably bipolar, certainly asymmetric). The central remnant star will be a close binary. The observed fraction of red giants that show ellipsoidal variability, combined with models for ellipsoidal light curves can be used to estimate the fraction of planetary nebula central stars that come from termination of AGB evolution by a Common Envelope Event leaving a close binary central star. Nicholls and Wood (2010) estimated this fraction to be 8-13 %. This is an alternative form of mass loss for ending the AGB.

37 Eccentric ellipsoidal binaries Soszynski et al. (2004) About 10% of red giant binaries have unusual shaped light curves. These are eccentric binaries.

38 Post-AGB stars (many are RV Tauri variables) have the periods and eccentricities similar to the eccentric sequence-e stars. From Hans Van Winckel

39 Do the eccentric sequence-e red giants have their envelopes stripped gradually by mass loss/transfer at periastron, without a CE event? The RV Tauri stars are known to have circumbinary disks, and similar luminosities to the eccentric binaries, and many (if not all) are eccentric binaries.? Yet another mode of mass loss to terminate the AGB? and other post-agb stars

40

41 STARS WITH LONG SECONDARY PERIODS (LSPs) The LSPs lie on sequence D. Primary period is sequence B (or A or C occasionally) Amplitudes up to 1 mag. Variation is not regular.

42 They have radial velocity amplitudes ~ 3.5 km/s. Wood, Olivier and Kawaler (2004) Nicholls et al. (2009)

43 Na D H Ca I Another property - chromospheres Spectra of S Lep H is chromospheric in these stars (T eff ~ 3200K). Central line depth ~50%. At least 50% of the stellar surface must be covered by a chromosphere periodically. Time Need T~8000K in gas absorbing H. H is produced by the n=2 to n=3 transition in hydrogen. Wood, Olivier & Kawaler (2004)

44 And they have a stronger mid-ir excess than non-lsp stars => Mass ejection is caused by the LSP No LSP Stars with LSPs have larger K-[24] colours => mass ejection and dust formation associated with the LSP The low J-K colour indicates that the dust is in a disk (or other non-spherical distribution) The first steps to a bipolar nebula? LSP C stars with spherical mass loss shells No LSP C stars LSP M stars? RV Tauri stars with disks More dust Wood & Nicholls (2009)

45 But we still have no firm idea what causes the sequence-d variations! It has been spectulated that resonance between orbiting planets and unstable nonradial modes is the cause...

46 THE END (Mass loss and pulsation)

47 References Schröder and Cuntz, 2007: A critical test of empirical mass loss formulas applied to individual giants and supergiants. A&A 465, 593 Schröder and Cuntz, 2005: A NEW VERSION OF REIMERS LAW OF MASS LOSS BASED ON A PHYSICAL APPROACH The Astrophysical Journal, 630, L73 Lebzelter and Wood, 2005: Long period variables in 47 Tuc: direct evidence for lost mass. A&A 441, 1117 Wood, 1979: Pulsation and mass loss in Mira variables Astrophysical Journal, 27, 220 Winters et al, 1994: Circumstellar dust shells around long-period variables. II. Theoretical lightcurves of C-stars A&A 290, 622 Wood et al, 2007: Quantitative Results on AGB Mass-Loss Rates. ASP Conference Series, 378, 251 Vassiliadis & Wood, 1993: Evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars to the end of the asymptotic giant branch with mass loss. Astrophysical Journal, 413, 641 Groenewegen et al,2007: Luminosities and mass-loss rates of carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 376, 313 Woood, 2007: Pulsation and Mass Loss in Red Giant Stars. 2007:ASP Conference Series, 374, 47 Marigo & Girardi, 2007: Evolution of asymptotic giant branch stars I. Updated synthetic TP-AGB models and their basic calibration. A&A 469, 239 Soszynski et ai, 2007: The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Period Luminosity Relations of Variable Red Giant Stars. Acta Astronomica, 57, 201 Wood, 2000: Variable Red Giants in the LMC: Pulsating Stars and Binaries? Publ. Astron. Soc. Aust., 17, 18 Soszynski et al, 2004: The Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment. Ellipsoidal Variability of Red Giants in the Large Magellanic Cloud. ACTA ASTRONOMICA, 54, 347

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